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Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 82, Pp. 9-17, 1989 : The E...

By: Rogene F. Henderson

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: In the absence of dose-response data in humans, long- term rotlent studies involving hundretls of animals to predict the carcinogenicity of compounds for peo- However, the responses of rodents to compoullds may vary witlcly between species, both in the type of re- and in the amount of compound eliciting a re- Also, for convenience or for economic reasons, 1-0- icology Research Institute in collaboration with the Nadent studies may not use the same route of espos...

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Effects of Acidification on Metal Availability to Aquatic Biota, W...

By: Pamela M. Stokes

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: The acidification of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, whether by natural processes, acid deposition, or experimental manipulation, has a number of potentially profound effects on the biota of the affected systems. Mechanisms of these effects are undoubtedly complex, involving not only the direct effect of the hydrogen ion but also the effects of other elements and compounds in solution which change qualitatively and quantitatively with changes in pH. Furtherm...

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A Current Genotoxicity Database for Heterocyclic Thermic Food Muta...

By: Frederick T. Hatch

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: The research effort on the heterocyclic thermic mutagens arose in a few laboratories in Japan from studies on the origin of mutagens in cigarette smoke condensate (4). The studies then turned to amino acids, proteins, and finally to protein-rich foods. In rapid succession twelve mutagens of this type were characterized chemically. Owing to the complexity of their proper chemical nomenclature, common names and abbreviations were assigned that have now permeated t...

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The Role of Metals in Carcinogenesis : Biochemistry and Metabolism

By: K. Wetterhahn Jennette

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: The biochemistry and metabolism of inorganic species involved in carcinogenesis encompasses transport of inorganic species across the cell membrane, enzymatic and chemical transformation of redox active inorganic species within the cell, coordination of inorganic species to cellular small molecules and macromolecules, and inhibition, activation or change of specificity of cellular enzymes by inorganic species. Inorganic species may mimic forms of essential eleme...

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Toxicity of Metabolites Produced by the Alternaria

By: R. W. Pero

Government Reference Publication

Introduction: The presence of toxin-producing fungi in foodstuffs and other agricultural commodities is well established (3) The Alternaria, Aspergilli, Fusaria and Penicillia have been repeatedly implicated as the pr&FiPal coinhabitants of products in which toxicity has been demonstrated (4;5). Numerous compounds have been isolated that can explain the toxicity of the Aspergilli, Fusaria, and Penicillia. Among the more important of these are the aflatoxins, patulin, pen...

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Modeling of Dose-Response Relations Hips

By: Bernard Altshuler

Government Reference Publication

Introduction: The focus of this paper is on chronic toxicity with irreversible components and in particular on cancer. It presents the more important doseresponse functions, which are of two kinds: dichotomous response and timed response. In dichotomous response, the outcome of a single animal trial is either yes, with cancer or no, without cancer; the animal is either a responder or a nonresponder. Response of an experimental group of animals is the fraction of responders.

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Association of Blood Arsenic Levels with Increased Reactive Oxidan...

By: Te Chang Lee

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Arsenic, a ubiquitous element present in the environment, is the main constituent of more than 200 mineral species on earth (1). In addition to its natural occurrence in mineral deposits, arsenical compounds are used in many human activities such as manufacturing, agriculture, and medicine (2). Arsenical compounds are transported into the environment mainly by water from wells drilled into arsenic-rich geologic strata or by ambient air during the smelting and bu...

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The Development and Use of an Innovative Laboratory Method for Mea...

By: Seth H. Frisbie

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: All of Bangladeshs approximately 10 million drinking-water tube wells must be periodically tested for arsenic. The magnitude of this task and the limited resources of Bangladesh have led to the use of low-cost, semiquantitative field kits that measure As to a relatively high 50 micrograms/L national drinking water standard. However, there is an urgent need to supplement and ultimately replace these field kits with an inexpensive laboratory method that can measur...

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In Vivo Metabolism of 3, 2 '-Dimethyl-4- Aminobiphenyl (Dmab) Bear...

By: Miriam Nussbaum

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: During comparative carcinogenicity studies with various derivatives of 4-aminobiphenyl. Walpole et al. (1-3) observed that the Introduction: of a methyl group ortho to the amine function (Bmethyl-bamino biphenyl) resulted in increased carcinogenicity to wards the intestinal tract of rats. On the other hand, methyl substitution meta to the amine (2- methyl-4-aminobiphenyl) decreased the carcinogenicity and changed the organotropism, with the appearance of liver r...

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Human Disease Consequences of Fiber Exposures : A Review of Human ...

By: Victor L. Roggli

Government Reference Publication

Introduction: The development of techniques for assaying the mineral fiber content of tissues has provided researchers with the opportunity to correlate the occurrence of various fiber-related diseases with the cumulative fiber burdens in the target organ. Exposure to asbestos generally occurs through the inhalation of airborne fibers, and thus the respiratory tract is the site of most asbestosrelated diseases. Consequently, most studies of tissue fiber burdens have conc...

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Assessing Potential Health Risks from Microcystin Toxins in Bluegr...

By: Duncan J. Gilroy

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: The presence of toxic cyanobacteria (blue?green algae) in surface waters used for drinking water sources and recreation is receiving increasing attention worldwide as a potential health concern (1?5). Human illness resulting from exposure to blue?green algal toxins, though less common than poisonings of wild and domestic animals (6?9), has been reported (1,2,10?12). In 1996, 55 hemodialysis patients died in Brazil when the dialysis water became contaminated with...

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The Toxicology of Benzene

By: Robert Snyder

Government Reference Publication

Introduction: The biological impacts of benzene have been studied in hutrans and in animal models for most of this century. This review concentrates on several aspects of the biology of benzene. We discuss its metabolic fate, our current understanding of the mechanism by which it produces its effects, attempts to develop pharmacokinetic models for its disposition, and, finally, we discuss the impact ofbenzene on humans. Our aim is not only to present a synopsis of the li...

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Bioassaying for Ozone with Pollen Systems

By: William A. Feder

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: In a previous paper (1) this author alluded to the fact that pollen populations differed in ozone sensitivity and that these differences were closely related to the ozone sensitivity of the pollen parent (source) (2, 3). SO2 (4, 5) and Auorides (6-9) also cause a reduction in germination and tube elongation indicating that pollen behavior T Lv itm can be modified or influenced by several gases generally considered to he environmental pollutants.

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Opportunities for Improving Techniques for Lnterspecies Extrapolat...

By: James E. Gibson

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: At present, regulatory agencies rely primarily on linearized, multistage model analyses of the tumor responses observed in chronic laboratory animal bioassays to generate quantitative estimates of human cancer risk from any chemical exposure. This generic approach to carcinogenic risk assessment rests on numerous ad hoe assumptions (1) that are made in the absence of detailed biological and toxicological data regarding the actual mechanisms of action of chemical...

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Carcinogenesis : A Late Effect of Irreversible Toxic Damage during...

By: Jerry M. Rice

Government Reference Publication

Introduction: That the newborn mouse is more susceptible than adult mice to oncogenic veruses was firmly established in the early 1950s by Gross (1). In contrast, subsequent demonstrations of a similarly heightened neonatal susceptibility to chemical carcinogens were greeted with some reserve (21, chiefly because the effect was not always great and appeared not to be general.

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In Vivo Assessment of Lmmunotoxicity

By: Albert E. Munson

Government Reference Publication

Introduction: targets for chemicals which cause adverse effects. The immune system, like all other systems in the The organs, tissues and cells of the lymphoreticular body, is complex, with several types of cells system have received considerable attention as working independently and in concert to carry out a role in homeostasis.

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Firemaster Bp-6 : Fractionation, Metabolic and Enzyme Induction St...

By: Stephen H. Safe

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: The accidental contamination of animal feeds with a polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) flame retardant, FireMaster BP-6, has resulted in the widespread contamination of animals and humans in the state of Michigan. Since the ultimate identification of the toxic agent a number of papers have appeared in which the analysis, chemistry, photochemistry, metabolism and toxicology of brominated biphenyls has been described and much of this information has recently been summa...

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Treating Exposure to Chemical Warfare Agents : Implications for He...

By: Nancy B. Munro

Government Reference Publication

Introduction: The U.S. stockpile of aging lethal unitary chemical weapons and agents is currently scheduled for destruction by April 30, 1997, under the Department of Defense Authorization Acts (PL 99-145 and PL 100-456). Unitary weapons contain lethal agents at the time of assembly, in contrast to binary weapons containing agent precursors that mix upon 6nng and react to form lethal agents. Thus, the deteriorating unitary weapons stockpile poses a threat in storage as w...

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Bisphenol a and Risk Assessment

By: Joseph A. Politch

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: In a recent article, vom Saal and Hughes (2005) proposed that a new risk assessment on bisphenol A (BPA) is needed because of the availability of extensive new literature, including ?recent epidemiologic evidence that BPA is related to disease in women.? Specifically, the only research that vom Saal and Hughes cited as evidence relating BPA to disease is a study by Takeuchi et al. (2004), which they describe as a case?control study that reports that ovarian dise...

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The Expert System for Toxicity Prediction of Chemicals Based on St...

By: Masahiro Nakadate

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: The prediction systems of chemical toxicity has been dwelopd by meam dstruehvEaclivity relationship based an thecomputerkd fact database (BLDB). Numbers and mtioofelemeatq side e b a i b,o nding, position, and microenvimnment ofsidr chains were used gr stmcmd 6xtors dthechmiesl for the predidon. Such infarmstion wss obtnbd fmm the BLDB d s t a k by Whsser tincformuln ehuniePl notation. In the p n t siudy, the SPlmonella/miemsomc sssvw aschosennrindicatiwdtbe- ett odeitvdebemiwls.

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