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Tiger Force

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Title: Tiger Force  
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Tiger Force

Tiger Force
Country USA
Branch United States Army
Type Special operations forces
Role Special reconnaissance, counter-insurgency, direct action, raiding
Size 45
Part of U.S. XVIII Airborne Corps
Garrison/HQ Fort Campbell (1st Battalion, 327th Infantry Regiment, 1st Brigade)
Engagements Vietnam War
Decorations
United States Presidential Unit Citation
Commanders
Notable
commanders
Gerald Morse

Tiger Force was a task force of the United States Army, 1st Battalion (Airborne), 327th Infantry Regiment, 1st Brigade (Separate), 101st Airborne Division, which fought in the Vietnam War.[1]

The platoon-sized unit, approximately 45 paratroopers, was founded by Colonel David Hackworth in November 1965 to "outguerrilla the guerrillas".[2] Tiger Force (Recon) 1/327th was a highly decorated small unit in Vietnam, and paid for its reputation with heavy casualties.[3] In October 1968, Tiger Force's parent battalion was awarded the Presidential Unit Citation by President Lyndon B. Johnson, which included a mention of Tiger Force's service at Đắk Tô in June 1966.[4]

Investigations of war crimes

On October 19, 2003, Michael D. Sallah, a reporter at The Blade (Toledo) newspaper, obtained unreleased, confidential records of U.S. Army commander Henry Tufts. One file in these records referred to a previously unpublished war crimes investigation known as the Coy Allegation. To investigate this further, Sallah gained access to a large collection of documents produced by the investigation held at the National Archives in College Park, MD.[5]

Sallah found that between 1971 and 1975 the Army's Criminal Investigation Command had investigated the Tiger Force unit for alleged war crimes committed between May and November 1967.[6] The documents included sworn statements from many Tiger Force veterans, which detailed war crimes allegedly committed by Tiger Force members during the Song Ve Valley and Operation Wheeler military campaigns. The statements, from both individuals who allegedly participated in the war crimes and those that did not, described war crimes such as the following:

  • the routine torture and execution of prisoners[7]
  • the routine practice of intentionally killing unarmed Vietnamese villagers including men, women, children, and elderly people[8]
  • the routine practice of cutting off and collecting the ears of victims[9]
  • the practice of wearing necklaces composed of human ears[10]
  • the practice of cutting off and collecting the scalps of victims[11]
  • incidents where soldiers would plant weapons on murdered Vietnamese villagers[12]
  • an incident where a young mother was drugged, raped, and then executed[13]
  • an incident where a soldier killed a baby and cut off his or her head after the baby's mother was killed[14]

The investigators concluded that many of the war crimes indeed took place.[15] Despite this, the Army decided not to pursue any prosecutions.[16]

For instance, when Capt. Harold McGaha first landed in the operations area where the Tigers were waiting, he was taken aback. He noticed that several were wearing what he recognized as human ears. It was not a secret at the base that some soldiers were mutilating bodies.[17] This was not isolated to Tiger Force, but according to some reports, occurred to varying degrees in other Army infantry and Marine units.[18][19]

Their high bodycounts were recognized and encouraged by military officials. Col. Morse ordered troops to rack up a body count of 327 casualties in order to match the battalion's infantry designation, 327th; however by the end of the campaign soldiers were congratulated for their 1000th kill.[20]

After studying the documents, Sallah and fellow reporter Mitch Weiss located and interviewed dozens of veterans who served in Tiger Force during the period in question as well as the CID investigators who later carried out the Army's inquiry. The reporters also traveled to Vietnam and tracked down numerous residents of Song Ve Valley who identified themselves as witnesses. Sallah and Weiss reported that the war crimes were corroborated by both veterans[21] and Song Ve Valley residents.[22] The reporters also managed to track down dozens of additional investigative records not included in the National Archives.

In October 2003, the reporters published their findings in a series of articles in The Toledo Blade.[23] Subsequently, The New York Times performed their own investigation, contacting a few Tiger Force veterans and corroborating The Toledo Blade '​s findings.[24]

Since The Blade's story, the United States Army has opened a review of the former Tiger Force investigation, but has not yet provided much additional information. On May 11, 2004, Lt. Col. Pamela Hart informed The Blade reporters that she had been too busy responding to prisoner abuse by U.S. soldiers in Iraq to check on the status of the Tiger Force case.[25] The Blade has not reported on any more recent updates from the U.S. Army.

Reporters Michael D. Sallah, Mitch Weiss, and Joe Mahr received multiple awards for their series:

In 2006, Sallah, now an investigative reporter with The Washington Post, and Weiss, an investigative reporter with the Associated Press, co-authored a book chronicling their findings: Tiger Force: A True Story of Men and War (2006).[30]

Partial list of members 1965–1969

In popular culture

  • The 1992 film Universal Soldier features a soldier collecting the ears of Vietnamese villagers in 1969.
  • In the 2013 episode of Mad Men season 6, "The Doorway", Peggy Olson (Elisabeth Moss) receives a late-night call from Cutler Gleason and Chaogh account man Bert Peterson, who advises: a comic appearing on The Tonight Show has made jokes about American soldiers in Vietnam cutting off Viet Cong soldiers' ears and wearing them around their necks like trophies, rendering CGC's planned Super Bowl commercial for Koss headphones (featuring the slogan "Lend Me Your Ears") potentially too controversial. Peterson wants Peggy to develop a new ad.

See also

Vietnam War
Broader, related topics
World War II

Notes

  1. ^ Sallah and Weiss, Tiger Force, 22–23.
  2. ^ Sallah and Weiss, Tiger Force, 13–14, 23, 224.
  3. ^ Mahr, "Unit's founder".
  4. ^ U.S. Army, "101st Airborne Division".
  5. ^ Sallah and Weiss, Tiger Force, 309–311.
  6. ^ Sallah and Weiss, Tiger Force, 264–306.
  7. ^ Sallah and Weiss, Tiger Force, 337, 344–345, 349, 353, 370–372.
  8. ^ Sallah and Weiss, Tiger Force, 335, 339–346, 350–352, 354–355, 359, 361–362, 367–369, 374–375, 376.
  9. ^ Sallah and Weiss, Tiger Force, 335–336, 371.
  10. ^ Sallah and Weiss, Tiger Force, 371.
  11. ^ Sallah and Weiss, Tiger Force, 346, 374.
  12. ^ http://hnn.us/articles/1802.html
  13. ^ Sallah and Weiss, Tiger Force, 361–362, 377–378.
  14. ^ Sallah and Weiss, Tiger Force, 360, 363–364, 372–373.
  15. ^ Sallah and Weiss, Tiger Force, 383.
  16. ^ Sallah and Weiss, Tiger Force, 306.
  17. ^ Sallah and Weiss, Tiger Force, 205, 206, 207
  18. ^ Mark Baker, NAM, 154
  19. ^ Terry, Wallace (1984). Bloods: An Oral History of the Vietnam War by Black Veterans.   (ISBN 978-0-394-53028-4)
  20. ^ http://socialistworker.org/2003-2/476/476_05_WarCrimes.shtml
  21. ^ a b c Sallah and Weiss, "DAY 1."
  22. ^ Sallah and Weiss, "DAY 3."
  23. ^ Sallah, Michael D.; Weiss, Mitch; & Mahr, Joe (2003). columns in order of appearance in the original entry"Tiger Force". Toledo Blade. Retrieved December 2013. 
  24. ^ Kifner (December 28, 2003). "Report on Brutal Vietnam Campaign Stirs Memories". The New York Times. 
  25. ^ Mahr, Joe. "Tiger Force answers". Toledo Blade. 
  26. ^ http://www.ire.org/contest/past/03winners.html
  27. ^ http://www.spj.org/news.asp?ref=364
  28. ^ http://www.nieman.harvard.edu/pageone/taylor2004.html
  29. ^ http://www.pulitzer.org/citation/2004,Investigative+Reporting
  30. ^ Sallah, Michael & Weiss, Mitch (May 15, 2006). Tiger Force: A True Story of Men and War. Little, Brown and Company.  
  31. ^ Sallah and Weiss, Tiger Force, 13.
  32. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au Sallah and Weiss, Tiger Force, vii-xi.
  33. ^ Sallah and Weiss, Tiger Force, 330, 331, 333.

References

  • Kifner, John. "Report on Brutal Vietnam Campaign Stirs Memories." New York Times, 28 December 2003.
  • Mahr, Joe. "Tiger Force answers still elusive." Toledo Blade, 12 May 2004.
  • Mahr, Joe. "Unit's founder says he didn't know of atrocities." Toledo Blade, 28 March 2004.
  • Sallah, Michael and Mitch Weiss. "Investigators will question ex-GIs about killing spree." Toledo Blade, 15 February 2004.
  • Sallah, Michael and Mitch Weiss. "DAY 1: Rogue GIs unleashed wave of terror in Central Highlands." Toledo Blade, 22 October 2003.
  • Sallah, Michael and Mitch Weiss. "DAY 3: Pain lingers 36 years after deadly rampage." Toledo Blade, 22 October 2003.
  • Sallah, Michael and Mitch Weiss. . New York: Little, Brown and Company, 2006.
  • U.S. Army. 101st Airborne Division, Unit Decorations. War Department General Orders 59, 21 October 1968.
  • Greiner, Bernd. . Hamburg: Hamburger Edition, 2007. [1]

External links

  • Sallah, Michael D.; Weiss, Mitch; & Mahr, Joe (2003). columns in order of appearance"Tiger Force". Toledo Blade. Retrieved December 2013. 
  • Tiger Force veterans' website
  • Democracy Now!Michael Sallah interviewed on
  • Talk of the NationMichael Sallah and Mitch Weiss interviewed on NPR's
  • On The MediaMichael Sallah interviewed on NPR's
  • Interview with Sallah and Weiss at the Pritzker Military Library
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