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List of wars involving Poland

 

List of wars involving Poland

This is a chronological list of military conflicts in which Polish armed forces participated or took place on Polish territory. From the reign of Mieszko I (960–992) to the ongoing military operations.

This list does not include peacekeeping operations (such as UNPROFOR, UNTAES or UNMOP), humanitarian missions or training missions supported by the Polish Armed Forces.

The list gives the name, the date, the Polish allies and enemies, and the result of these conflicts following this legend:

      Polish victory
      Polish defeat
      Another result (e.g., a treaty or peace without a clear result, status quo ante bellum, result unknown or indecisive)
      Ongoing conflict

Contents

  • Piast Poland 1
  • Jagiellon Poland 2
  • Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth 3
  • 19th century and World War I 4
  • Modern history 5
  • See also 6
  • Notes 7
  • Footnotes 8
  • References 9

Piast Poland

During the Middle Ages, Poland sought to incorporate other Slavic peoples under the rule of the Polan dukes, such as Mieszko I, Boleslaw I Chrobry and their descendants, and then defend the lands acquired in the west from the Holy Roman Empire. In the east and south it struggled with Ruthenia, Bohemia and Hungary, and Tatar raiders. In the north-east, it encountered intermittent Lithuanian and Prussian raids.

Date Conflict Allies Enemies Result
964–972
  • 967
  • 972
Fights of Mieszko I in Western Pomerania Duchy of Poland Veleti
Wolinians
Sorbian March
Polish victory
979 Otto II's raid on Poland Duchy of Poland Holy Roman Empire Polish victory
981 Polish raid on Pomerelia Duchy of Poland Pomerelia Polish victory
981 Rus raid on Cherven Cities Duchy of Poland Kievan Rus' Polish defeat
985 Polish-Saxon invasion of Veleti Duchy of Poland
Holy Roman Empire
Veleti Polish and Saxon victory
988–990 Polish-Bohemian War Duchy of Poland
Holy Roman Empire
Duchy of Bohemia Polish victory
992 Polish-German invasion of Veleti Duchy of Poland
Holy Roman Empire
Veleti Polish and German victory
995 Polish-German invasion of Obotrites Duchy of Poland
Holy Roman Empire
Obotrites Polish and German victory
1002–1018
  • 1002–1005
    • 1005
  • 1007–1015
    • 1012
  • 1015–1018
    • 1015
    • 1015
    • 1015
    • 1015/17
    • 1015
    • 1015
    • 1017
Wars against Holy Roman Empire Duchy of Poland
Moravians
Holy Roman Empire
Duchy of Bohemia
Kievan Rus'
Veleti
Peace of Bautzen
1015–1016 Cnut the Great's Conquest of England[1] Kingdom of Denmark
Duchy of Poland
Kingdom of England Danish victory
1015–1019
  • 1018
Boleslaw I's intervention in the Kievan succession crisis Duchy of Poland
Holy Roman Empire
Kingdom of Hungary
Kievan Rus' Polish victory
1022 Yaroslav the Wise's attack on Brest Duchy of Poland Kievan Rus' Polish victory
1028–1031
  • 1029
Polish-German War Mieszko II Lambert
Kingdom of Hungary
Holy Roman Empire
Bezprym
Duchy of Bohemia
Kievan Rus'
Victory for Bezprym
1031–1032 Pagan reaction in Poland Bezprym Pagans and magnates Defeat of Bezprym
1038–1047
  • 1047
Pagan reaction and popular uprising Casimir I the Restorer
Holy Roman Empire
Kievan Rus'
Miecław
Pagans and magnats
Casimir I the Restorer's victory
1038–1039 Bretislaus I's raid on Poland Kingdom of Poland Duchy of Bohemia Polish victory
1042 Casimir I the Restorer's raid on Lesser Poland Kingdom of Poland Duchy of Bohemia Polish victory
1047 Casimir I the Restorer's raid on Silesia Kingdom of Poland Duchy of Bohemia Polish victory
1050 Casimir I the Restorer's raid on Silesia Kingdom of Poland Duchy of Bohemia Polish victory
1051 Polish-German invasion of Hungary Kingdom of Poland
Holy Roman Empire
Kingdom of Hungary Polish-German victory
1060 Bolesław II the Generous's raid on Bohemia Kingdom of Poland Duchy of Bohemia Polish defeat
1060 Fights for the Hungarian throne Béla I
Kingdom of Poland
Andrew I Béla I's victory
1063 Bolesław II the Generous's raid on Pomerelia Kingdom of Poland Pomerelia Polish victory
1064 Pomeranians raid on Poland Kingdom of Poland Pomeranians Polish victory
1069 Bolesław II the Generous's raid on Rus' Kingdom of Poland Kievan Rus' Polish victory
1072 Bolesław II the Generous's raid on Bohemia Kingdom of Poland Duchy of Bohemia Polish victory
1074 Bolesław II the Generous's raid on Rus' Kingdom of Poland Kievan Rus' Polish victory
1074 Civil war between Solomon king and his cousins Géza and Ladislaus Géza's army
Kingdom of Poland
Solomon's army
 Holy Roman Empire
Duchy of Bohemia
Victory
1076 Bolesław II the Generous's raid on Bohemia Kingdom of Poland
Kievan Rus'
Duchy of Bohemia Polish victory
1077 Bolesław II the Generous's raid on Hungary Kingdom of Poland Kingdom of Hungary Polish victory
1077 Bolesław II the Generous's raid on Rus' Kingdom of Poland Kievan Rus' Polish victory
1077–1079 Internal conflicts Bolesław II the Generous Rebels and magnats Bolesław II the Generous's defeat
1086 Hungarian raid on Kraków Kingdom of Poland Kingdom of Hungary Polish defeat
1090–1092
  • 1090
  • 1091
  • 1091
1092 Ruthenian and Cuman raid on Poland Kingdom of Poland Kievan Rus' Polish defeat
1093–1100
  • 1096
Władysław Herman and Sieciech's fight against Zbigniew and Bolesław Władysław I Herman
Sieciech
Duchy of Bohemia
Zbigniew of Poland
Bolesław III Wrymouth
Władysław and Sieciech's defeat
1099 Władysław I Herman'a raid on Halych Kingdom of Poland Principality of Halych Indecisive
1100 Pomeranians raid on Poland Kingdom of Poland Western Pomerania Polish victory
1101 Cuman raid on Poland Kingdom of Poland Kievan Rus' Polish defeat
1103–1123
  • 1121
Fourteen Bolesław Wrymouth's raids on Pomerania Kingdom of Poland
Kingdom of Denmark
Pomeranians Polish victory
1103–1108 Internal conflicts Bolesław III Wrymouth
Kingdom of Hungary
Kievan Rus'
Zbigniew of Poland
Duchy of Bohemia
Bolesław III Wrymouth's victory
1108 Bolesław III Wrymouth's raid on Old Prussians Kingdom of Poland Old Prussians Polish victory
1108–1109 Three Pomeranians raids on Poland Kingdom of Poland Western Pomerania Polish victory
1108 Moravians raid on Silesia Kingdom of Poland Duchy of Bohemia Polish victory
1108 Bolesław III Wrymouth's raid on Bohemia Kingdom of Poland Duchy of Bohemia Polish victory
1109 Polish-German War Kingdom of Poland Holy Roman Empire
Duchy of Bohemia
Polish victory
1109–1114
  • 1110
Three Bolesław III Wrymouth's raids on Bohemia Kingdom of Poland Duchy of Bohemia Polish victory
1110 Zbigniew's and Bohemians raid on Silesia Kingdom of Poland Duchy of Bohemia Polish defeat
1110–1111 Bolesław III Wrymouth's raid on Old Prussians Kingdom of Poland Old Prussians Polish victory
1117 Skarbimir's rebellion Kingdom of Poland Skarbimir Polish victory
1121–1124
  • 1124
Fights in Rus' Kingdom of Poland
Kievan Rus'
Duchy of Bohemia
Kingdom of Hungary
Principality of Halych Polish victory
1120 Ruthenian and Cuman raid on Poland Kingdom of Poland Kievan Rus' Polish defeat
1126 Hungarian raid on Poland Kingdom of Poland Kingdom of Hungary Polish defeat
1127 Polish raid on Hungary Kingdom of Poland Kingdom of Hungary Polish victory
1131–1134 Six Bohemian raids on Silesia Kingdom of Poland Duchy of Bohemia Polish defeat
1132 Bolesław III Wrymouth' raid on Hungary Kingdom of Poland Kingdom of Hungary Polish defeat
1135 Fights in Rus' Kingdom of Poland Principality of Halych Polish victory
1144–1320
  • 1144
  • 1146
  • 1195
  • 1228
  • 1228
  • 1228
  • 1243
  • 1243
  • 1246
  • 1259
  • 1273
  • 1277
  • 1285
  • 1288
  • 1289
  • 1292
  • 1313
Battles during feudal fragmentation Local dukes Local dukes The weakening and internal breakdown of the country
1139–1142 Fights between Duchy of Masovia and Rus' Bolesław IV the Curly Kievan Rus' Bolesław IV the Curly's defeat
1144–1146 Two Polish-Ruthenian raids on Halych Władysław II the Exile
Kievan Rus'
Principality of Halych Ruthenian and Polish victory
1146 Polish-German War Mieszko III the Old Holy Roman Empire
Duchy of Bohemia
Mieszko III the Old's victory
1147 Albert the Bear and Mieszko III the Old's crusade for Polabian Slavs Mieszko III the Old
Northern March
Polabian Slavs
Veleti
The victory crusade
1147 Bolesław IV the Curly's raid on Old Prussians Bolesław IV the Curly
Kievan Rus'
Old Prussians Bolesław IV the Curly's victory
1154–1155 Henry of Sandomir's crusade to Palestine Polish knights Saracen Henry of Sandomir's victory
1157 Polish-German War Bolesław IV the Curly Holy Roman Empire Peace of Krzyszkowo
1166 Bolesław IV the Curly's raid on Old Prussians Bolesław IV the Curly Old Prussians Bolesław IV the Curly's defeat
1180 Duke Wasylek's fight for Brześć Principality of Drohiczyn
Casimir II the Just
Kievan Rus' Casimir II the Just's victory
1182–1183
  • 1182
Casimir II the Just's fight for Brześć Casimir II the Just Kievan Rus' Casimir II the Just's victory
1184 Frederick I Barbarossa's raid on Poland Casimir II the Just Holy Roman Empire Indecisive
1187 Ruthenian raid on Lesser Poland Casimir II the Just Principality of Halych Casimir II the Just's defeat
1189 Casimir II the Just's raid on Halych Casimir II the Just Kingdom of Hungary
Principality of Halych
Casimir II the Just's victory
1194 Casimir II the Just's raid on Yotvingians Casimir II the Just Yotvingians Casimir II the Just's victory
1199 Leszek I the White's raid on Halych Leszek I the White Principality of Halych Leszek I the White's victory
1205 Roman the Great's raid on Poland Leszek I the White Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia Leszek I the White's victory
1207 Leszek I the White's raid on Rus' Leszek I the White
Konrad I of Masovia
Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia Leszek I the White's victory
1209–1211
  • 1209
First War For Lebus Henry I the Bearded
Władysław III Spindleshanks
Sorbian March Henry I the Bearded and Władysław III Spindleshanks's victory
1212 Polish raid into Pomerania Kingdom of Poland  Denmark Polish victory
  • Danish retreat from Pomerania, allowing Poland its coastline back.
1214 Leszek I the White's raid on Volodymyr-Volynskyi Leszek I the White
Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia Leszek I the White's victory
1215 Hungarian raid on Poland Casimir II the Just Kingdom of Hungary Casimir II the Just's defeat
1218–1221 Polish-Hungarian-Ruthenian War Leszek I the White
Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia Leszek I the White's defeat
1219–1222
  • 1220
Three Old Prussians raids on Lesser Poland Konrad I of Masovia Old Prussians Konrad I of Masovia's defeat
1222–1223 Two polish raids on Old Prussians Lokal dukes Old Prussians Polish defeat
1225 Prussian raid on Lesser Poland Konrad I of Masovia Old Prussians Konrad I of Masovia's defeat
1225–1230 Second War For Lebus Henry I the Bearded Landgraviate of Thuringia Henry I the Bearded's victory
1234 Polish-Teutonic crusade on Old Prussians Lokal dukes
Teutonic Knights
Old Prussians Polish-Teutonic victory
1236–1237
  • 1236
Wars between Konrad I of Masovia and Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia Konrad I of Masovia Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia Konrad I of Masovia's defeat
1238–1240
  • 1239
Third War For Lebus Henry I the Bearded Margraviate of Brandenburg Henry I the Bearded's victory
1241 First Mongol invasion of Poland Lokal dukes
Military orders
Mongol Empire Polish defeat
1247–1252 Przemysł I's fight against Brandenburg Przemysł I Margraviate of Brandenburg Przemysł I's victory
1248–1455 Three raids on Yotvingians Bolesław V the Chaste
Siemowit I of Masovia
Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia
Yotvingians Bolesław V the Chaste's victory
1259 Second Mongol invasion of Poland Bolesław V the Chaste Mongol Empire Polish defeat
1260 Bohemian-Hungarian War Kingdom of Bohemia
Duchy of Silesia
Duchy of Austria
Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Poland
Bohemian victory
1262 Lithuanian raid on Lesser Poland Siemowit I of Masovia Grand Duchy of Lithuania Siemowit I of Masovia's defeat
1264 Fights against Yotvingians Bolesław V the Chaste Yotvingians Bolesław V the Chaste's victory
1265–1278
  • 1278
Fights against Brandenburg Bolesław V the Chaste
Przemysł II
Margraviate of Brandenburg Bolesław V the Chaste's victory
1278 Fights for Bohemian throne Ottokar II of Bohemia
Bolesław V the Chaste
Przemysł II
Henryk IV Probus
Rudolph I of Germany Przemysł II's defeat
1280 War between Leszek II the Black and Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia Leszek II the Black Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia Leszek II the Black's victory
1282–1283
  • 1282
  • 1282
Three Lithuanian-Yotvingian raids on Poland Leszek II the Black Yotvingians
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Leszek II the Black's victory
1287–1288
  • 1287
  • 1287
  • 1288
Third Mongol invasion of Poland Leszek II the Black Mongol Empire Polish victory
  • Mongol invasion repulsed[2]
1291–1306
  • 1294
Six Vytenis's raids on Lesser Poland Lokal dukes Grand Duchy of Lithuania Polish defeat
1296 Brandenburgian raid on Rogoźno Przemysł II Margraviate of Brandenburg Przemysł II's defeat
1308 Brandenburgian raid on Gdańsk Władysław I the Elbow-high Margraviate of Brandenburg Władysław I the Elbow-high's defeat
1308 Capture of Gdańsk by the Teutonic Knights Władysław I the Elbow-high Teutonic Knights Władysław I the Elbow-high's defeat
1309 Capture of Świecie by the Teutonic Knights Władysław I the Elbow-high Teutonic Knights Władysław I the Elbow-high's defeat
1311–1312 Rebellion of mayor Albert Władysław I the Elbow-high Albert
Burghers of Kraków
Władysław I the Elbow-high's victory
1316 Polish-Brandenburgian fights in Greater Poland Władysław I the Elbow-high Margraviate of Brandenburg Władysław I the Elbow-high's victory
1323 Polish-Hungarian raid on Ruthenia Kingdom of Poland
Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia Polish-Hungarian victory
1323 Władysław I the Elbow-high raid on Płock Kingdom of Poland Duchy of Płock Polish victory
1326–1329 Polish-Brandenburgian fights Kingdom of Poland
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Margraviate of Brandenburg Polish victory
1326–1332
  • 1327
  • 1327
  • 1331
  • 1331
  • 1331
  • 1331
  • 1332
Polish–Teutonic War Kingdom of Poland
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Kingdom of Hungary
Teutonic Knights
Kingdom of Bohemia
Duchy of Masovia
Indecisive
1332 Casimir III the Great's raid on Głogów Kingdom of Poland Duchy of Głogów Polish victory
1340–1392
  • 1340
  • 1340
  • 1341
  • 1350
  • 1368
  • 1376
Galicia–Volhynia Wars Kingdom of Poland
Duchy of Masovia
Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Crimean Khanate
Polish victory
1343 Fights for Wschowa Kingdom of Poland Duchy of Głogów Polish victory
1345–1348
  • 1345
  • 1345
  • 1345
Polish-Czech War Kingdom of Poland
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Bohemia Treaty of Namslau
1352–1358 Maćko Borkowic's confederation Kingdom of Poland Maćko Borkowic
Nobles of Greater Poland
Margraviate of Brandenburg
Polish victory
1355 Teutonic raid on Masovia Kingdom of Poland
Duchy of Masovia
Teutonic Knights Polish defeat
1359 Casimir III the Great's raid on Moldavia Kingdom of Poland Principality of Moldavia Polish defeat
1368 Casimir III the Great's raid on Moldavia Kingdom of Poland Principality of Moldavia Polish defeat
1370 Branderburgian raid on Santok and Drezdenko Kingdom of Poland Margraviate of Brandenburg Polish defeat
1370 Fights for Płock Kingdom of Poland Duchy of Masovia Polish defeat
1375–1376
  • 1375
  • 1376
Fights against Władysław the White Kingdom of Poland Władysław the White Polish victory
1382–1385 Greater Poland Civil War Grzymała Nałęcz Victory of the Nałęcz clan
1381–1385 Siemowit IV's fight for Polish throne Kingdom of Poland
Kingdom of Hungary
Duchy of Masovia Polish victory

Jagiellon Poland

For much of its early history as a Christian state, Poland had to contend with Pomeranians, Prussians, Lithuanians and other Baltic peoples in continuous border wars without clear results or end in sight. After the Teutonic Order conquered and assimilated the Prussians, it began incursions into both Polish and Lithuanian territories. This represented a far greater threat to both Poland and Lithuania, and the two countries united in a defensive alliance by the crowning of the Lithuanian Duke Jogaila as King of Poland (as Władysław II) which led to a major confrontation at the Battle of Grunwald in 1410 and subsequent wars until 1525, when the Order became a vassal to the Polish Crown.

Date Conflict Allies Enemies Result
1387 Jadwiga of Poland's raid on Red Ruthenia Kingdom of Poland Kingdom of Hungary Polish victory
1390–1392 Lithuanian Civil War Jogaila
Kingdom of Poland
Vytautas
Teutonic Knights
Jogaila's victory
1391 Fights against Konrad II the Gray for Wschowa Kingdom of Poland Duchy of Oels Polish victory
1391–1401 War against Władysław Opolczyk Kingdom of Poland Duchy of Opole Polish victory
1399 Fights against Golden Horde Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Kingdom of Poland
Teutonic Knights
Principality of Moldavia
Golden Horde Polish and Lithuanian defeat
1409–1411
  • 1410
  • 1410
Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War[3] Kingdom of Poland
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Teutonic Knights
Kingdom of Hungary
First Peace of Thorn
1414 Hunger War Kingdom of Poland
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Teutonic Knights Council of Constance
1422 Gollub War Kingdom of Poland
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Principality of Moldavia
Teutonic Knights Treaty of Melno
1431 Moldavian raid on Podolia Kingdom of Poland Principality of Moldavia Polish victory
1431-1435 Lithuanian Civil War (1431–35) Grand Duchy of Lithuania (pro-Roman Catholic)

Kingdom of Poland
Hussites

Grand Duchy of Lithuania (pro-Eastern Orthodox)

Teutonic Knights
Livonian Order
Golden Horde
Principality of Moldavia

Polish victory
1431–1435/39
  • 1431
  • 1432
  • 1435
Polish–Teutonic War Hussites
Kingdom of Poland
Sigismund Kęstutaitis
Teutonic Knights
Švitrigaila
Peace of Brześć Kujawski
1438 Polish-Bohemian fights for Silesia Kingdom of Poland
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Kingdom of Bohemia
Kingdom of Hungary
Polish and Lithuanian defeat
1438 Tatar raid on Podolia Kingdom of Poland Crimean Khanate Polish defeat
1439 Spytek of Melsztyn's confederation Kingdom of Poland Spytek of Melsztyn Crushing of the confederation
1440–1444 Lithuanian-Masovian War for Podlasie Duchy of Masovia Grand Duchy of Lithuania Indecisive
1440–1442 Civil War in Hungary Władysław III of Poland
Kingdom of Poland
Elizabeth of Luxembourg Władysław III's victory
1443 Battle of Nish (1443) Kingdom of Poland
Kingdom of Hungary
Serbian Despotate
 Ottoman Empire Victory for the Christian contingent
1443–1444
  • 1443–1444
  • 1444
Crusade of Varna Kingdom of Poland
Kingdom of Hungary
others
 Ottoman Empire Polish-Hungarian defeat
1444 Battle of Kunovica Kingdom of Poland
Kingdom of Hungary
Serbian Despotate
 Ottoman Empire Victory
1449–1450 Fights for Moldavian throne Kingdom of Poland
Aleksander II of Moldavia
Bogdan II of Moldavia Aleksander II's defeat
1450–1454 Fights of Land of Oświęcim Kingdom of Poland Duchy of Toszek Polish victory
1453 Tatar raid on Podolia Kingdom of Poland Crimean Khanate Polish victory
1454–1466
  • 1454
Thirteen Years' War[4] Kingdom of Poland
Prussian Confederation
Teutonic Knights
Livonian Brothers of the Sword
Kingdom of Denmark
Second Peace of Thorn
1457–1458 Rebellion of unpaid mercenaries Kingdom of Poland Duchy of Oświęcim
Mercenaries
Payment of salaries
1469 Tatar raid on Podolia Kingdom of Poland Crimean Khanate Polish defeat
1471 Tatar raid on Podolia Kingdom of Poland Crimean Khanate Polish defeat
1471–1474 Polish-Hungarian War Kingdom of Poland Kingdom of Hungary Indecisive
1474 Polish-Bohemian raid on Silesia Kingdom of Poland
Kingdom of Bohemia
Kingdom of Hungary Polish and Bohemian defeat
1475 Battle of Vaslui  Moldavia
Kingdom of Poland
Kingdom of Hungary
 Ottoman Empire Victory
1476 Polish raid on Prussia Kingdom of Poland Teutonic Knights Polish victory
1476–1482 War of Succession of Głogów Kingdom of Poland Margraviate of Brandenburg Polish victory
1478–1479 War of the Priests Kingdom of Poland Nicolaus von Tüngen
Teutonic Knights
Polish victory
1485–1503
  • 1487
  • 1491
  • 1497
Polish-Ottoman War Kingdom of Poland
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
 Ottoman Empire
Principality of Moldavia
Crimean Khanate
Polish defeat
1490–1492
  • 1490–1491
  • 1492
Fights for Hungarian throne John I Albert Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary Vladislaus II's victory
1495 Polish raid on Płock Kingdom of Poland Duchy of Masovia Polish victory
1500–1503
  • 1500
Second Muscovite–Lithuanian War Kingdom of Poland
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Grand Duchy of Moscow Lithuanian defeat
1501 Polish raid on Prussia Kingdom of Poland Teutonic Knights Interruption of the expedition because of king's death
1502–1510
  • 1506
  • 1509
Polish-Moldavian War Kingdom of Poland Principality of Moldavia Polish victory
1506 Tatar raid on Poland and Lithuania[5] Kingdom of Poland
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Crimean Khanate Polish-Lithuanian victory
1507–1508
  • 1508
Third Muscovite-Lithuanian War Kingdom of Poland
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Grand Duchy of Moscow Lithuanian victory
1512 Tatar raid on Poland Kingdom of Poland
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Crimean Khanate Polish victory
1512–1522
  • 1514
  • 1518
Fourth Muscovite-Lithuanian War Kingdom of Poland
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Grand Duchy of Moscow Lithuanian defeat
1516 Tatar raid on Podolia and Ruthenia Kingdom of Poland Crimean Khanate Polish defeat
1519 Tatar raid on Podolia and Ruthenia Kingdom of Poland
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Crimean Khanate Polish defeat
1519–1521
  • 1520
Polish–Teutonic War Kingdom of Poland Teutonic Knights Prussian Homage
1524 Ottoman-Tatar raid on Podolia Kingdom of Poland  Ottoman Empire
Crimean Khanate
Polish defeat
1526 Tatar raid on Poland and Lithuania Kingdom of Poland
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Crimean Khanate Polish defeat
1528 Habsburgian raid on Spisz Kingdom of Poland Kingdom of Hungary Polish defeat
1528 Tatar raid on Podolia Kingdom of Poland Crimean Khanate Polish victory
1530–1531
  • 1530
  • 1531
  • 1531
Polish-Moldavian War Kingdom of Poland Principality of Moldavia Indecisive
1534–1537
  • 1534
  • 1535
Fifth Muscovite-Lithuanian War Kingdom of Poland
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Grand Duchy of Moscow Indecisive
1535 Moldavian raid on Podolia and Pokuttya Kingdom of Poland Principality of Moldavia Polish defeat
1537 Chicken War Kingdom of Poland Nobility End of rebellion
1538
  • 1538
  • 1538
Polish-Moldavian War Kingdom of Poland Principality of Moldavia Indecisive
1549 Tatar raid on Volhynia and Red Ruthenia Kingdom of Poland
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Crimean Khanate Polish defeat
1557 Zygmunt II August's raid on Livonia Kingdom of Poland
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Livonian Brothers of the Sword Polish victory
1557 Tatar raid on Podolia Kingdom of Poland Crimean Khanate Polish defeat
1558-1583 Livonian War Livonian Confederation
Kingdom of Poland
Denmark–Norway

Swedish Empire

Tsardom of Russia
Kingdom of Livonia
Polish victory
1561–1570
  • 1558–1570
  • 1564
Northern Seven Years' War Kingdom of Poland
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Denmark–Norway
Free City of Lübeck
Grand Duchy of Moscow
Kingdom of Sweden
Treaty of Stettin

Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth

The 17th century saw fierce rivalry between the then major Eastern European powers – Sweden, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Ottoman Empire. At its heyday, the Commonwealth comprised the territories of present-day Poland, and large parts of Ukraine, Belarus, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, and Russia, and represented a major European power. However, by the end of the 18th century a series of internal conflicts and wars with foreign enemies led to the dissolution of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the partitioning of most of its dependent territories among other European powers.

During the 18th century, European powers (most frequently consisting of Russia, Sweden, Prussia and Saxony) fought several wars for the control of the territories of the former Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. At the end of the 18th century, some Poles attempted to defend Poland from growing foreign influence in the country's internal affairs. These late attempts to preserve independence eventually failed, ultimately ending in Poland's partition and the final dissolution of the remains of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

Date Conflict Allies Enemies Result
1571 Danish attack on Poland Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Kingdom of Denmark Polish–Lithuanian defeat
1572 Mikołaj Mielecki's raid on Moldavia Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth  Ottoman Empire
Principality of Moldavia
Polish–Lithuanian defeat
1575 Tatar raid on Red Ruthenia and Podolia Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth  Ottoman Empire
Crimean Khanate
Polish–Lithuanian defeat
1575 Russian invasion of Livonia Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Tsardom of Russia Polish–Lithuanian defeat
1576–77
  • 1577
  • 1577
Danzig rebellion Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth City of Danzig Polish–Lithuanian victory
1577 Tatar raid on Podolia, Red Ruthenia and Volhynia Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth  Ottoman Empire
Crimean Khanate
Polish–Lithuanian defeat
1577–82
  • 1577–78
  • 1579–82
  • 1579
  • 1580
  • 1580
  • 1581–82
Livonian campaign of Stephen Báthory[6] Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Principality of Transylvania
Tsardom of Russia Truce of Jam Zapolski
1578 Tatar raid on Podolia, Red Ruthenia and Volhynia Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Crimean Khanate Polish–Lithuanian defeat
1587–88
  • 1587
  • 1588
War of the Polish Succession[7] Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Archduchy of Austria Maximilian III's defeat
1589 Tatar raid on Poland Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Crimean Khanate Polish–Lithuanian defeat
1591–93
  • 1593
Kosiński Uprising Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Cossacks Crushing of the rebellion
1594–96
  • 1596
  • 1596
  • 1596
Nalyvaiko Uprising Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Cossacks Crushing of the rebellion
1595 Jan Zamoyski's raid on Moldavia Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth  Ottoman Empire
Crimean Khanate
Principality of Moldavia
Polish–Lithuanian victory
1598–99
  • 1598
  • 1598
  • 1599
War against Sigismund Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Swedish Empire Sigismund III Vasa's defeat
1599–1600
  • 1599
  • 1600
  • 1600
Fights against Michael the Brave Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Ieremia Movilă
Principality of Wallachia
Principality of Transylvania
Polish–Lithuanian victory
1600–11
  • 1605
Polish–Swedish War Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Swedish Empire Indecisive
1605–18
  • 1605
  • 1608–10
  • 1609-11
  • 1610
Polish–Muscovite War (Dymitriads) Szlachta Tsardom of Russia Truce of Deulino
1606 Tatar raid on Poland Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Crimean Khanate Polish–Lithuanian victory
1606–09
  • 1607
Zebrzydowski Rebellion Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Nobility Crushing of the rebellion
1607 Stefan Potocki's raid on Moldavia Stefan Potocki Principality of Moldavia Stefan Potocki's victory
1612 Stefan Potocki's raid on Moldavia Stefan Potocki  Ottoman Empire
Crimean Khanate
Principality of Moldavia
Stefan Potocki's defeat
1612 Four Tatar raids on Poland Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Zaporozhian Cossacks
Crimean Khanate Polish–Lithuanian victory
1615–16
  • 1615
  • 1616
  • 1616
Samuel Korecki's raid on Moldavia Samuel Korecki  Ottoman Empire
Crimean Khanate
Principality of Moldavia
Polish defeat
1617–18 Polish–Swedish War Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Swedish Empire Indecisive
1618 Tatar raid on Poland Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Crimean Khanate Polish–Lithuanian defeat
1619 Battle of Humenné Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Principality of Transylvania Polish–Lithuanian victory
1620–21
  • 1620
  • 1621
Polish–Ottoman War Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Principality of Moldavia
 Ottoman Empire
Crimean Khanate
Principality of Wallachia
Treaty of Khotyn
1621–26
  • 1622
  • 1626
Polish–Swedish War Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Swedish Empire Polish–Lithuanian defeat
1624 Tatar raid on Poland Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Crimean Khanate Polish–Lithuanian victory
1625 Żmajło uprspring Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Cossacks Indecisive
1626–29
  • 1626
  • 1627
Polish–Swedish War Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Swedish Empire Truce of Altmark
1626 Three Tatar raids on Poland Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Crimean Khanate Polish–Lithuanian victory
1628 Five Tatar raids on Poland Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Crimean Khanate Polish–Lithuanian victory
1629 Five Tatar raids on Poland Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Crimean Khanate Polish–Lithuanian victory
1630 Fedorovych Uprising Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Cossacks Treaty of Pereyaslav
1632–34
  • 1632
Smolensk War Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Tsardom of Russia Treaty of Polyanovka
1633–34
  • 1633
  • 1633
Polish–Ottoman War Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth  Ottoman Empire
Crimean Khanate
Principality of Wallachia
Principality of Moldavia
Indecisive
1635 Sulima Uprising Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Cossacks Crushing of the rebellion
1637 Pawluk Uprising Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Cossacks Crushing of the rebellion
1638 Ostrzanin Uprising Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Cossacks Crushing of the rebellion
1640 Tatar raid on Poland Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Crimean Khanate Polish–Lithuanian defeat
1643 Tatar raid on Poland Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Crimean Khanate Polish–Lithuanian victory
1644 Tatar raid on Poland Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Crimean Khanate Polish–Lithuanian victory
1645–1646 Polish raid on Crimean Khanate Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Crimean Khanate Polish–Lithuanian victory
1648–55
  • 1648
  • 1649
  • 1651
Khmelnytsky Uprising Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Crimean Khanate (1654–1656)
Zaporozhian Cossacks
Crimean Khanate (1649–1654, 1656–1657)
Indecisive
1651 Kostka-Napierski Uprising Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Aleksander Kostka Napierski Crushing of the rebellion
1651 Peasants' Revolt on Cistercian Ląd's Land Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Peasants Crushing of the rebellion
1654–67
  • 1655
  • 1660
Russo-Polish War Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Crimean Khanate
Tsardom of Russia
Cossack Hetmanate
Truce of Andrusovo
1655–60
  • 1655–17
  • 1655
  • 1655
  • 1656
  • 1656
  • 1657
  • 1657
Second Northern War
  • Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
    Archduchy of Austria
    Denmark–Norway
    Tsardom of Russia (1656–58)
     Dutch Republic
    others
    Swedish Empire
    Brandenburg-Prussia
    Cossack Hetmanate (1657)
    Principality of Transylvania
    Tsardom of Russia
    others
    Treaty of Oliva
    1663-1664 Austro-Turkish War (1663–64) League of the Rhine:

     Kingdom of France
     Holy Roman Empire

     Piedmont-Savoy
     Kingdom of Hungary
     Kingdom of Croatia
    Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth

     Ottoman Empire

    Crimean Khanate
     Moldavia
     Wallachia

    Peace of Vasvár
    1665–66
    • 1665
    • 1666
    Lubomirski's Rokosz Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Nobility Indecisive
    1666–71
    • 1666
    • 1667
    • 1671
    • 1671
    Polish–Cossack–Tatar War Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Crimean Khanate
    Cossack Hetmanate
     Ottoman Empire
    Indecisive
    1669–1670
    • 1670
    Podhale uprising Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Peasants Crushing of the rebellion
    1672–76
    • 1672
    • 1673
    Polish–Ottoman War Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
    Principality of Wallachia (1673)
     Ottoman Empire
    Crimean Khanate
    Principality of Moldavia
    Treaty of Żurawno
    1683–99
    • 1683
    • 1698
    Polish–Ottoman War (in the Holy League, part of Great Turkish War) Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
    Archduchy of Austria
     Ottoman Empire
    Crimean Khanate
    Treaty of Karlowitz
    1686–1700 Russo-Turkish War (1686–1700) Tsardom of Russia
    Habsburg Empire
    Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
    Cossack Hetmanate
     Ottoman Empire
    Crimean Khanate
    Victory
    1697 François Louis's raid for Polish crown Augustus II the Strong François of Conti Augustus II's victory
    1700 Lithuanian Civil War Nobility Sapieha family Defeat of Sapieha
    1700–21
    • 1702
    • 1704–06
    • 1705
    • 1706
    Great Northern War Tsardom of Russia
    Denmark–Norway (1700, 1709–)
     Electorate of Saxony (1700–06, 1709–)
    Augustus II the Strong (1700–04, 1709–)
    Cossack Hetmanate (1700–08, 1709–1721)
    Kingdom of Prussia (1715–)
    Electorate of Hanover (1715-)
    others
    Swedish Empire
    Stanisław Leszczyński (1704–09)
     Ottoman Empire (1710–14)
    Cossack Hetmanate (1708–09)
    others
    Treaty of Nystad
    1702–04 Palej Uprising Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Cossack Hetmanate Crushing of the rebellion
    1715–16
    • 1715
    • 1716
    • 1716
    • 1716
    • 1716
    Tarnogród Confederation Nobility Tsardom of Russia
     Electorate of Saxony
    Silent Sejm
    1733–35
    • 1734
    • 1734
    • 1734
    War of the Polish Succession Stanisław Leszczyński
    Kingdom of France
    Kingdom of Spain
    Duchy of Savoy
    Augustus III of Poland
     Habsburg Monarchy
     Russian Empire
     Electorate of Saxony
    Kingdom of Prussia
    Treaty of Vienna
    1734 Haidamak Uprising, 1734 Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Haidamakas Uprising suppressed.
    1750 Haidamak Uprising, 1750 Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
    Russian Empire
    Haidamakas Uprising suppressed.
    1764 Civil War in Poland Hetmans' Party Familia
     Russian Empire
    Defeat of Hetmans' Party
    1768-69 Koliyivshchyna Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
    Russian Empire
    Haidamakas Victory
    1768–72
    • 1768
    • 1768
    • 1771
    Bar Confederation Stanisław August Poniatowski
     Russian Empire
    Nobility
    Haidamaka
    First Partition of Poland
    1769 Šiauliai revolt Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Peasants Crushing of the rebellion
    1792-1797 War of the First Coalition
    Part of the French Revolutionary Wars
    *  Kingdom of the French (until 1792) * Austria French victory;
    1792 Polish–Russian War of 1792 Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth  Russian Empire Second Partition of Poland
    1794 Kościuszko Uprising[16] Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth  Habsburg Monarchy
    Kingdom of Prussia
     Russian Empire
    Third Partition of Poland

    19th century and World War I

    Poles unsuccessfully struggled to win back their independence throughout the 19th century. At first, they put their hopes in Napoleon. Later, they tried to ignite national uprisings every now and then – most of them bloodily repressed.

    Date Conflict Allies Enemies Result
    1797 Denisko Uprising Joachim Denisko Austrian Empire Crushing of the rebellion
    1798–1802 War of the Second Coalition
    Part of the French Revolutionary Wars
     France
     Spain
    Polish Legions
    Denmark–Norway[17]
    French client republics:
    Second Coalition:

     Holy Roman Empire[20]

     Great Britain (until 1801)
     United Kingdom (from 1801)
     Russia (until 1799)
     Portugal
     Kingdom of Naples
    Grand Duchy of Tuscany
    Order of Saint John (1798)
    Malta (1798-1800)
     Ottoman Empire French Royalists

    French victory
    1803–1806 War of the Third Coalition
    Part of the Napoleonic Wars
    French Empire Third Coalition:

     Holy Roman Empire
     Russian Empire
     United Kingdom
     Kingdom of Naples
    Kingdom of Sicily
     Sweden
    French royalists

    French victory
    1806-1807 War of the Fourth Coalition
    Part of the Napoleonic Wars
    French Empire
    French satellites:
    Fourth Coalition:

     Prussia
     Russia
     United Kingdom
    Saxony[22]
     Sweden
    Sicily

    French victory
    1809 War of the Fifth Coalition
    Part of the Napoleonic Wars
    French Empire
    French satellites:
    Fifth Coalition:

    Austrian Empire

     United Kingdom
     Spain
    Sicily
     Sardinia
    Black Brunswickers

    French victory
    1812 French invasion of Russia
    Part of the Napoleonic Wars
    French Empire

    Allies:
     Austria
     Prussia
    Denmark–Norway

     Russian Empire Russian victory
    1812–1814 War of the Sixth Coalition
    Part of the Napoleonic Wars
     First French Empire

    Until January 1814

    Original Coalition
     Russian Empire
     Prussia
     Austrian Empire
    United Kingdom
     Sweden
     Spain
     Portugal
     Two Sicilies
     Kingdom of Sardinia

    After Battle of Leipzig

    Coalition victory
    1830–1831
    • 1831
    • 1831
    • 1831
    • 1831
    November Uprising[23][N 2] Kingdom of Poland  Russian Empire Crushing of the rebellion
    1846 Kraków Uprising Poles Austrian Empire Crushing of the rebellion
    1846 Greater Poland Uprising Poles Kingdom of Prussia Crushing of the rebellion
    1848 Revolutions of 1848 in Poland Poles Austrian Empire
    Kingdom of Prussia
    Crushing of the rebellion
    1863–1864
    • 1863
    • 1863
    • 1863
    January Uprising Poles  Russian Empire Crushing of the rebellion
    1866 Siberian Uprising Poles  Russian Empire Crushing of the rebellion
    1905–1907
    • 1905
    Revolution in the Kingdom of Poland Poles  Russian Empire Crushing of the rebellion
    1914–1918
    • 1914
    • 1914
    • 1915
    • 1916
    • 1917
    • 1918
    • 1918
    World War I  Russian Empire
     British Empire
    French Third Republic
    Polish Armed Forces
    Allies
     German Empire
     Austria-Hungary
    Polish Legions
    Central Powers
    Treaty of Versailles

    Modern history

    In the turmoil of the First World War, Poles managed to regain independence and then to expand their territory in a series of local wars and uprisings; only to be occupied again during the next world war. The second half of the 20th century was more peaceful, but still tense, as Poland was involved in the Cold War on the Soviet side. Later, at the beginning of the 21st century Poland is involved in the War against Islamic terrorism on the NATO side.

    Date Conflict Allies Enemies Result
    1918 Finnish Civil War White Finland
     Germany
     Sweden
     Estonia
    Poland
    Red Finland
     Russia
    Victory
    • Victory of the White Senate of Finland
    • Russian military presence ceased
    • German hegemony until November 11, 1918
    1918–1919
    • 1918–1919
    • 1918
    • 1919
    Polish–Ukrainian War Second Polish Republic
    Kingdom of Romania
    West Ukrainian People's Republic
     Ukrainian People's Republic
    Polish victory
    1918–1919
    • 1918
    Greater Poland Uprising Poles Germans Polish victory
    1918–1919 Polish-German skirmishes Second Polish Republic Germans Indecisive
    1919 Polish coup attempt Legal government National Democracy Failure of coup
    1919 Polish–Czechoslovak War Second Polish Republic Czechoslovakia Stalemate
    • Czechoslovakian offensive halted by Polish troops (1919)
    • Czechoslovakia annexes Zaolzie
    • Division of Cieszyn Silesia (1920)
    1919–1920/21
    • 1919
    • 1920
    • 1920
    • 1920
    Polish–Soviet War Second Polish Republic
     Ukrainian People's Republic
    Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
    Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic
    Polish victory
    Peace of Riga[N 3]
    1919–1921
    • 1919
    • 1919
      • 1919
    • 1920
    • 1921
      • 1921
    Silesian Uprisings Poles  Weimar Republic Polish defeat (I)
    Indecisive (II)
    Polish victory (III)
    1919–1920[N 4]
    • 1919
    • 1920
    Polish–Lithuanian War Second Polish Republic Lithuania Polish victory
    1923 Kraków riot Second Polish Republic Workers Crushing of the rebellion
    1926 May Coup Government
    Stanisław Wojciechowski
    Sanation
    Józef Piłsudski
    Józef Piłsudski's victory
    1932 Lesko uprising Sanation Peasants Crushing of the rebellion
    1938 Capture of Zaolzie Second Polish Republic  Czechoslovakia Polish victory
    1939 World War IIInvasion of Poland Second Polish Republic  Nazi Germany
     Soviet Union
    Slovakia
    Polish defeat
    1939–1945
    • 1939–1940
    • 1940
    • 1942–1943
    • 1943–1944
    • 1944
    World War IIPolish resistance movement Polish Underground State  Nazi Germany
     Soviet Union
    Partial liberation of Poland
    1939–1945
    • 1939–1945
    • 1940
      • 1940
    • 1940
    • 1940
    • 1941–1945
      • 1941
      • 1942
      • 1944
    • 1944–1945
      • 1944
      • 1944
    World War IIPolish Armed Forces Polish government-in-exile
     United Kingdom
    France
     United States
    Allies
     Nazi Germany
     Kingdom of Italy
    Axis
    Potsdam Conference
    1943–1945
    • 1943
    • 1944
    • 1945
    • 1945
    • 1945
    World War IIEastern Front  Soviet Union
    Polish Committee of National Liberation
    State National Council
    The Republic of Poland
     Nazi Germany Potsdam Conference
    • Borders of Poland adjusted.
    1944–1956
    • 1945
    Fights against Cursed soldiers The Republic of Poland
     Soviet Union
    Polish Underground State: Freedom and Independence
    NIE
    National Military Union
    others
    Crushing of the rebellion
    1944–1949
    • 1944
    Fights against Ukrainian Insurgent Army  Soviet Union
    The Republic of Poland
     Czechoslovakia
    Ukrainian Insurgent Army Crushing of the rebellion
    1944–1949 Fights against Werwolf The Republic of Poland
     Soviet Union
    Werwolf
    others
    Crushing of the rebellion
    1945 Polish–Czechoslovak border conflict of Kłodzko The Republic of Poland  Czechoslovakia Indecisive
    1946-1954 First Indochina War Viet Minh
    Pathet Lao
    Khmer Issarak
     Soviet Union[24]
     China (1949–1954)[24]
     Poland[25]
     East Germany[26]
    France (1945–1954)

    Cambodia
    (1953–1954)
     Laos
    (1953–1954)
    State of Vietnam

    Viet Minh victory
    1950–1953 Korean War  Soviet Union
    People's Republic of Poland
    People's Republic of Hungary
    People's Republic of China
    Democratic People's Republic of Korea
    United States of America
    South Korea
    Indecisive / Stalemate (Since 2011 Poland is on South Korean side)
    1956 Poznań protests People's Republic of Poland Anti-communist civilian protesters State military victory
    1968 Invasion of Czechoslovakia Warsaw Pact:
     Soviet Union
    People's Republic of Poland
    People's Republic of Hungary
    People's Republic of Bulgaria
     East Germany
     Czechoslovakia Warsaw Pact victory
    1975-1989 Angolan Civil War MPLA
    SWAPO
    MK
     Cuba (1975-91)
     East Germany (1975-89)
     Soviet Union (1975-89)[27]
    Executive Outcomes (1992-95)
    People's Republic of Poland
    UNITA
    FNLA
    FLEC
     South Africa (1975-89)
     Zaire (1975)
    MPLA victory
    • Withdrawal of all foreign forces in 1989
    • Transition towards a multiparty political system in 1991/92
    • Dissolution of the armed forces of FNLA
    • Participation of UNITA and FNLA, as political parties, in the new political system, from 1991/92 onwards, but civil war continues
    • Jonas Savimbi killed in 2002
    • Immediate peace agreement and dissolution of the armed forces of UNITA in 2002
    • Resistance of FLEC continued beyond 2002
    1990–1991 Gulf War Coalition of the Gulf War:
    Poland
    United States of America
    France
    Iraq Coalition victory
    1994-1995 Operation Uphold Democracy United States of America
    Poland
    Argentina
    Haiti Coalition victory
    2001–present
    • 2001–present
      • 2007
      • 2009
    • 2003–2011
      • 2004
      • 2007
    War on Terror  USA
     United Kingdom
     Poland
    others
     al-Qaeda
    Taliban
    others
    Ongoing

    See also

    Notes

    1. ^ Duchy of Warsaw as a state was in effect fully occupied by Russian and Prussian forces by May 1813, though most Poles remained loyal to Napoleon
    2. ^ also called Polish–Russian War of 1830–31
    3. ^ Russian and Polish historians tend to assign victory to their respective countries. Outside assessments vary, mostly between calling the result a Polish victory or inconclusive. Lenin, in his secret report to the 9th Conference of the Bolshevik Party on 20 September 1920, called the outcome of the war, "In a word, a gigantic, unheard-of defeat."
    4. ^ Lithuanian historiography: Spring 1919 – November 29, 1920 Polish historiography: September 1 – October 7, 1920

    Footnotes

    1. ^ Lawson (2004), p. 49.
    2. ^ Nicolle, p. 8
    3. ^ Sikorski (1972), pp. 203–214.
    4. ^ Sikorski (1972), pp. 283–291.
    5. ^ Sikorski (1972), pp. 291–292.
    6. ^ Sikorski (1972), pp. 299–301.
    7. ^ Sikorski (1972), pp. 301–311.
    8. ^ Re-entered the war as an ally of France after signing the Second Treaty of San Ildefonso.
    9. ^ The French Revolutionary Army overthrew the Dutch Republic and established the Batavian Republic as a puppet state in its place.
    10. ^ Formed in French-allied Italy in 1797, following the abolition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth after the Third Partition in 1795.
    11. ^ Left the war after signing the Peace of Basel with France.
    12. ^ Left the war after signing the Peace of Basel with France.
    13. ^ Left the war after signing the Treaty of Paris with France.
    14. ^ Virtually all of the Italian states, including the neutral Papal States and the Republic of Venice, were conquered following Napoleon's invasion in 1796 and became French satellite states.
    15. ^ The French Revolutionary Army overthrew the Dutch Republic and established the Batavian Republic as a puppet state in its place.
    16. ^ Sikorski (1972), pp. 435–451.
    17. ^ Officially neutral but Danish fleet was attacked by Britain at the Battle of Copenhagen.
    18. ^ Abolished following the restoration of the neutral Papal States in 1799.
    19. ^ Short lived state that replaced the Kingdom of Naples in 1799.
    20. ^ Nominally the Holy Roman Empire, of which the Austrian Netherlands and the Duchy of Milan were under direct Austrian rule. Also encompassed many other Italian states, as well as other Habsburg states such as the Grand Duchy of Tuscany.
    21. ^ Joined the Confederation of the Rhine on 11 December 1806.
    22. ^ Joined the Confederation of the Rhine on 11 December 1806.
    23. ^ Sikorski (1972), pp. 469–490.
    24. ^ a b "Viện trợ của Trung Quốc đối với cuộc kháng chiến chống Pháp của Việt Nam". Retrieved August 19, 2015. 
    25. ^ http://www.historycy.org/index.php?showtopic=36539&st=15 (in Polish)
    26. ^ http://geb.uni-giessen.de/geb/volltexte/2013/9311/pdf/DaoDucThuan_2013_02_05.pdf
    27. ^ "AfricanCrisis". AfricanCrisis. Retrieved 2013-08-18. 

    References

    • Gąsowski, Tomasz (1999). Bitwy polskie: leksykon. Kraków: Społeczny Instytut Wydawniczy Znak.  
    • Kozłowski, Eligiusz; Wrzosek, Mieczysław (1984). Historia oręża polskiego 1795–1939. Warszawa: Wiedza Powszechna.  
    • Lawson, M. K. (2004). Cnut – England's Viking King (2nd ed.). Stroud: Tempus.  
    • Nowak, Tadeusz M.; Wimmer, Jan (1981). Historia oręża polskiego 963–1795. Warszawa: Wiedza Powszechna.  
    • Sikorski, Janusz (1972). Zarys historii wojskowości powszechnej do końca wieku XIX. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Ministerstwa Obrony Narodowej.  

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