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The principles of science : a treatise on logic and scientific method

By: Jevons, William Stanley, 1835-1882

Supplemental catalog subcollection information: American Libraries Collection; American University Library Collection

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73 Magazine (March 1968)

Description: 73 Magazine March 1968 (#90) Narrowband Frequency Modulation - Using voltage variable capacitors ...... WB2CPG 6 Transmitter Keying with Transistors - Solid-state project for the CW hound ...... W6HEK 14 The Mini-Mitter - The smallest transmitter? ...... W7OE 18 Receiver Front-End Protection - Protection for the transistor receiver ...... W6AJF 20 A Regulated DC Voltage Divider - Reducing voltage while maintaining regulation ......W5NPD 24 QSL Manager - How to alienate your postman ...... W4NJF 26 160 Meter Flat-Top Antenna - Long antenna on a short lot ...... W3WPV 30 Go Ahead - Run Away to Sea - Make a vacation pay ...... K4UDP 32 Operation Deep Freeze - 10 years in the Antarctic ...... W6GKX 38 Crystal Shopping - Double duty for X'tals ...... WA4UZM 44 Witching for Better Grounds - One for the skeptics ...... W7CJB 46 The Ham - A view from the XYL ...... Day 50 Getting the Most Out of Link Coupling - From the VHF point-of-view ...... K1GBF 54 More on More Contacts From Within - Antenna hints for apartment dwellers ...... K3RXK 54 S-9-Manship - How to put a man down ...... W6DFT 56 The RF Patch - Patch panel solution...

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Scientific Method in Education

By: Young, Ella Flagg, 1845-1918

Printed from First series, v. 3 (p. 143-155) of the Decennial publications of the University of Chicago

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Environmental Science

By: Environmental Protection Agency

Excerpt: The Environmental Science Education (ESE) program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s National Exposure Research Laboratory-Ecosystems Research Division provides schools and the general public with results of the Agency?s basic and applied environmental research in a format that is easily understood. Examples include conceptual models, curriculum materials, handson lessons/ interactive exercises, journal record-keeping for scientific method data collection and environmental awareness training. The services offered through the program include teacher training, workshop presentations, lecture-demo participation, field trips and lab tours ? all of these can be customized to the needs of the requester....

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The principles of science : a treatise on logic and scientific method

By: Jevons, William Stanley, 1835-1882

Supplemental catalog subcollection information: American Libraries Collection; American University Library Collection

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Lord Kelvin's Atmospheric Electricity Measurements : Volume 4, Issue 2 (03/09/2013)

By: K. L. Aplin; R. G. Harrison

Description: Physics Department, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH, UK. Lord Kelvin (William Thomson) made important contributions to the study of atmospheric electricity during a brief but productive period from 1859–1861. By 1859 Kelvin had recognised the need for incessant recording of atmospheric electrical parameters, and responded by inventing both the water dropper equaliser for measuring the atmospheric potential gradient (PG), and photographic data logging. The water dropper equaliser was widely adopted internationally and is still in use today. Following theoretical considerations of electric field distortion by local topography, Kelvin developed a portable electrometer, using it to investigate the PG on the Scottish island of Arran. During these environmental measurements, Kelvin may have unwittingly detected atmospheric PG changes during solar activity in August/September 1859 associated with the Carrington event, which is interesting in the context of his later statements that solar magnetic influence on the Earth was impossible. Kelvin's atmospheric electricity work...

Aplin, K. L.: Smoke emissions from industrial western Scotland in 1859 inferred from Lord Kelvin's atmospheric electricity measurements, Atmos. Environ., 50, 373–376 doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.12.053, 2012.; Aplin, K. L., Harrison, R. G., and Rycroft, M. J.: Investigating Earth's atmospheric electricity: a role model for planetary studies, Space Sci. Rev. 137, 11–27 doi:10.1007/s11214-008-9372-x, 2008.; Bennett, A. J. and Harrison, R. G.: Atmospheric electricity in different weather conditions, Weather, 62, 277–283, 2007.; Chalmers, J. A.: Atmospheric electricity, 2nd edition, Pergamon Press, Oxford, UK, 1967.; Chauveau, A.-B.: Sur la variation diurne de le électricité atmosphérique, observeé au voisinage du sommet de la tour Eiffel, Comptes Rendus 67, 1069–1072, 1893.; Chree, C.: Atmospheric electricity potential gradient at Kew Observatory, 1898 to 1912, Philos. T. Roy. Soc. Lond., 215, 133–159, 1915.; Clark, S. G.: The Sun Kings, 2nd edition, Princeton University Press, USA, 2009.; Cliver, E. W.: The 1859 space we...

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The teaching of scientific method and other papers on education

By: Armstrong, Henry Edward, 1848-1937

Supplemental catalog subcollection information: American Libraries Collection; American University Library Collection

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A Structure Generator for Modelling the Initial Sediment Distribution of an Artificial Hydrologic Catchment : Volume 8, Issue 3 (09/05/2011)

By: H. H. Gerke; A. Schneider; T. Maurer

Description: Research Centre Landscape Development and Mining Landscapes, Brandenburg University of Technology, Cottbus, Germany. Artificially-created hydrological catchments are characterized by sediment structures from technological construction processes that can potentially be important for modelling of flow and transport and for understanding initial soil and ecosystem development. The subsurface spatial structures of such catchments have not yet been sufficiently explored and described. Our objective was to develop a structure generator programme for modelling the 3-D spatial sediment distribution patterns depending on the technical earth-moving and deposition processes. For the development, the artificially-constructed hydrological catchment Chicken Creek located in Lower Lusatia, Germany, served as an example. The structure generator describes 3-D technological sediment distributions at two scales: (i) for a 2-D-vertical cross-section, texture and bulk density distributions are generated within individual spoil cones that result from mass dumping, particle segregation, and compaction and (ii) for the whole catch...

Brutsaert, W.: Hydrology: An Introduction. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2005.; Barbour, S. L., Chapman, D., Qualizza, C., Kessler, S., Boese, C., Shurniak, R., Meiers, G., O'Khane, M., Hendry, J., and Wall, S.: Tracking the evolution of reclaimed landscapes through the use of instrumented watersheds – a brief history of the Syncrude Southwest 30 Overburden Reclamation Research Program. Proceedings of the Instrumented Watershed Symposium, Edmonton, Canada, 2004.; Benischke, R., Harum, T., Reszler, C., Saccon, P., Ortner, G., and Ruch, C.: Karst water drainage in the Kaisergebirge (Tyrol, Austria) – Catchment delineation combining hydrogeological investigations and isotope methods with hydrological modelling, Grundwasser, 15(1), 43–57, 2010.; Bosch, F. P. and Muller, I.: Improved karst exploration by VLF-EM-gradient survey: comparison with other geophysical methods, Near Surface Geophysics 3(4), 299–310, 2005.; Buczko, U. and Gerke, H. H.: Estimating spatial distributions of hydraulic parameters for a two-scale structured heterogeneous lignitic mine soil, J. Hydrol., 312(1–4), 109–124, 2005a.; Buczko, U. and Gerke, H. H....

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Scientific Method Its Philosophy and its Practice

By: F. W. Westaway
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Inseparability of Science History and Discovery : Volume 1, Issue 1 (12/04/2010)

By: J. M. Herndon

Description: Transdyne Corporation, 11044 Red Rock Drive, San Diego, CA 92131, USA. Science is very much a logical progression through time. Progressing along a logical path of discovery is rather like following a path through the wilderness. Occasionally the path splits, presenting a choice; the correct logical interpretation leads to further progress, the wrong choice leads to confusion. By considering deeply the relevant science history, one might begin to recognize past faltering in the logical progression of observations and ideas and, perhaps then, to discover new, more precise understanding. The following specific examples of science faltering are described from a historical perspective: (1) Composition of the Earth's inner core; (2) Giant planet internal energy production; (3) Physical impossibility of Earth-core convection and Earth-mantle convection, and; (4) Thermonuclear ignition of stars. For each example, a revised logical progression is described, leading, respectively, to: (1) Understanding the endo-Earth's composition; (2) The concept of nuclear georeactor origin of geo- and planetary magnetic fields; ...

Aller, L. H.: The Abundances of the Elements, Interscience Publishers, New York, 283 pp., 1961.; Anders, E. and Grevesse, N.: Abundances of the elements: Meteoritic and solar, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 53, 197–214, 1989.; Beer, M. E., King, A. R., Livio, M., and Pringle, J. E.: How special is the Solar System?, arXiv:astro-ph/0407476, 22 July 2004, 2004.; Bethe, H. A.: Energy production in stars, Phys. Rev., 55, 434–456, 1939.; Birch, F.: The alpha-gamma transformation of iron at high pressures, and the problem of the earth's magnetism, Am. J. Sci., 238, 192–211, 1940.; Birch, F.: Elasticity and constitution of the Earth's interior, J. Geophys. Res., 57, 227–286, 1952.; Birch, F.: Density and composition of mantle and core, J. Geophys. Res., 69, 4377–4388, 1964.; Birch, F.: Energetics of core formation, J. Geophys. Res., 70, 6217–6221, 1965.; Birch, F.: Thermal expansion at high pressures, J. Geophys. Res., 73, 817–819, 1968.; Birch, F.: The melting relations of iron, and temperatures in the earth's core, Geophys. J. R. Astron. Soc., 29, 373–387, 1972.; Bodenheimer, P., Lin, D. N. C., and Mardling, R. A.: On the tidal inflation of s...

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Scientific method in education

By: Young, Ella Flagg, 1845-1918

Supplemental catalog subcollection information: American Libraries Collection; American University Library Collection

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Using Official Map Data on Topography, Wetlands and Vegetation Cover for Prediction of Stream Water Chemistry in Boreal Headwater Catchments : Volume 13, Issue 4 (27/04/2009)

By: J.-o. Andersson; L. Nyberg

Description: Department of Biology, Karlstad University, Universitetsgatan 2, 65188 Karlstad, Sweden. A large part of the spatial variation of stream water chemistry can be related to inputs from headwater streams. In order to understand and analyse the dominant processes taking place in small and heterogeneous catchments, accurate data with high spatial and temporal resolution is necessary. In most cases, the quality and resolution of available map data are considered too poor to be used in environmental assessments and modelling of headwater stream chemistry. In this study 18 forested catchments (1–4 km2) were selected within a 120×50 km region in the county of Värmland in western Sweden. The aim was to test if topographic and vegetation variables derived from official datasets were correlated to stream water chemistry, primarily the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), but also Al, Fe and Si content. GIS was used to analyse the elevation characteristics, generate topographic indices, and calculate the percentage of wetlands and a number of vegetation classes. The results clearly show that topo...

Andersson, J. O. and Nyberg, L.: Spatial variation of wetlands and flux of dissolved organic carbon in boreal headwater streams, Hydrol. Proc., 22, 1965–1975, 2008.; Beven, K. J. and Kirkby, M. J.: A physically based, variable contributing area model of basin hydrology, Hydrol. Sci. Bull., 24, 43–69, 1979.; Beven, K. J.: Hillslope runoff processes and flood frequency characteristics. In Abrahams AD (ed.). Hillslope Processes, Allen and Unwin, Boston, USA, 187–202, 1986.; Beven, K. J.: Topmodel: a critique, Hydrol. Proc., 11, 1069–1085, 1997.; Bishop, K. H., Petterson, C., Allard, B., and Lee, Y. H.: Identification of the riparian sources of aquatic dissolved organic carbon, Environ. Int., 20(1), 11–19, 1994.; Blöschl, G.: Scaling in hydrology, Hydrol. Proc., 15, 709–711, 2001.; Blöschl, G. and Sivapalan, M.: Scale issues in hydrological modelling: A review, Hydrol. Proc., 9 (3-4), 251–290, 1995.; Clair, T. A., Pollock, T. L., and Ehrman, J. M.: Exports of carbon and nitrogen from river basins in Canada's Atlantic provinces, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 8, 441–450, 1994.; Creed, I. F., Sanford, S. E., Beall., F. D., Molot, L. A., and Dill...

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Scientific method in education

By: Young, Ella Flagg, 1845-1918

Printed from First series, v. 3 (p. 143-155) of the Decennial publications of the University of Chicago

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Teaching Hydrogeology: a Review of Current Practice : Volume 16, Issue 7 (18/07/2012)

By: D. M. Allen; G. Ferguson; T. Gleeson

Description: Department of Civil Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Hydrogeology is now taught in a broad spectrum of departments and institutions to students with diverse backgrounds. Successful instruction in hydrogeology thus requires a variety of pedagogical approaches depending on desired learning outcomes and the background of students. We review the pedagogical literature in hydrogeology to highlight recent advances and analyze a 2005 survey among 68 hydrogeology instructors. The literature and survey results suggest there are only ~ 15 topics that are considered crucial by most hydrogeologists and > 100 other topics that are considered crucial by some hydrogeologists. The crucial topics focus on properties of aquifers and fundamentals of groundwater flow, and should likely be part of all undergraduate hydrogeology courses. Other topics can supplement and support these crucial topics, depending on desired learning outcomes. Classroom settings continue to provide a venue for emphasizing fundamental knowledge. However, recent pedagogical advances are biased towards field and laboratory instr...

Coontz, R.: Hydrogeologists tap into demand for an irreplaceable resource, Science, doi:10.1126/science.caredit.a0800120, 2008.; Davis, S. N. and DeWiest, R. J. M.: Hydrogeology, Wiley, New York, 1966.; Hiscock, K. M.: Hydrogeology: principles and practice, Blackwell, 2005.; Alley, W. M., Healy, R. W., LaBaugh, J. W., and Reilly, T. E.: Flow and storage in groundwater systems, Science, 296, 1985–1990, doi:10.1126/science.1067123, 2002.; Bahr, J: O brave new world: geoscientists in an emerging green economy, GSA Today, 20, 12–14, 2009.; Banks, D., Younger, P. L., Arnesen, R.-T., Iversen, E. R., and Banks, S. B.: Mine-water chemistry: the good, the bad and the ugly, Environ. Geol., 32, 157–174, doi:10.1007/s002540050204, 1997.; Blanchard, F. N.: An electric analog model demonstrates ground-water flow, J. Geol. Educ., 12, 104–105, 1964.; Brice, J. C. and Levin, H. L.: Porosity and permeability experiments for general geology labratory, J. Geol. Educ., 10, 81–90, 1962.; ...

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Scientific method in education

By: Young, Ella Flagg, 1845-1918

Printed from First series, v. 3 (p. 143-155) of the Decennial publications of the University of Chicago

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Kulturlandschaft Gemeinsam Verstehen – Praktische Beispiele Der Landschaftssozialisation Aus Dem Schweizer Alpenraum : Volume 68, Issue 2 (10/07/2013)

By: R. Stotten

Description: Universität Innsbruck, Institut für Soziologie, Innsbruck, Austria. Within the research field of landscape perception new approaches have been developed and applied on different scales in Switzerland. Agriculture still has a huge impact on the appearance of cultural landscape. The project Kulturlandschaft gemeinsam verstehen investigates the perception among farmers and is focusing on regional differences. Therefore problem-centred interviews have been conducted in two case study areas during an on-site walk with farmers. Regarding the theory of landscape socialisation participative and mediation processes in the realm of landscape values have been considered. The results point out a differentiated perception of cultural landscape within the two case study areas and show that an active inclusion of farmers has a positive impact on the landscape perception....

Backhaus, N.: Macht und Kraft der Bilder: ein (preisgekröntes) Beispiel transdisziplinärer Forschung, in: Le défi de l'inter- et transdisciplinarité, Herausgeber: Darbellay, F. und Paulsen, T., Presses polytechniques et universitaires romandes, Lausanne, 239–260, 2008.; Backhaus, N.: Landschaften wahrnehmen und nachhaltig entwickeln : ein transdisziplinäres Modell für Forschung und Praxis, Geogr. Helv., 65, 48–58, doi:10.5194/gh-65-48-2010, 2010.; Backhaus, N., Reichler, C., und Stremlow, M.: Alpenlandschaften: Von der Vorstellung zur Handlung thematische Synthese zum Forschungsschwerpunkt I Prozesse der Wahrnehmung und Darstellung von Landschaften und Lebensräumen der Alpen; Nationales Forschungsprogramm 48 Landschaften und Lebensräume der Alpen des Schweizerischen Nationalfonds; [Synthesebericht NFP 48], vdf, Hochsch.-Verl. an der ETH, Zürich, 2007.; Backhaus, N., Reichler, C., und Stremlow, M.: Conceptualizing Landscape: An Evidence-based Model with Political Implications, Mt. Res. Dev., 28, 132–139, 2008.; Backhaus, N. und Stremlow, M.: Handlungsraum Landschaft: Wege zur Förder...

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Scientific method in schools; a suggestion

By: Jones, W. H. S. (William Henry Samuel), 1876-1963

Supplemental catalog subcollection information: American Libraries Collection; American University Library Collection

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MacC Regional Multi-model Ensemble Simulations of Birch Pollen Dispersion in Europe : Volume 15, Issue 6 (18/03/2015)

By: M. Prank; J. Belmonte; J. Vira; R. Kranenburg; A. Segers; R. Gehrig; U. Kumar; C. Galan; V. Marécal; F. Meleux; K.-c. Bergmann; D. Khvorostyanov; M. Thibaudon; J. Arteta; F. Chéroux; I. Sauliene; A. Saarto; V. Rodinkova; B. M. Steensen; E. Severova; A.-m. Pessi; L. Robertson; E. Teinemaa; O. Ritenberga; H. Elbern; M. Sofiev; E. Friese; V.-h. Peuch; U. Berger; P. Siljamo; L. Menut

Description: Finnish Meteorological Institute, Erik Palmenin Aukio 1, Helsinki, Finland. The paper presents the first-ever ensemble modelling experiment for the birch pollen in Europe. The 7-models strong European ensemble of MACC-ENS, tested in trial simulations over the season of 2010, has been run through the season of 2013. The simulations have been compared with observations in 11 countries, members of European Aeroallergen Network, for both individual models and the ensemble mean and median. It is shown that the models successfully reproduced the timing of the very late season of 2013, generally being within a couple of days from the observed season start. End of the season was generally predicted later than observed, for 5 days or more, which is a known feature of the source term used in the study. Absolute pollen concentrations during the season were somewhat under-estimated in the southern part of the birch habitation area. In the northern part of Europe, a record-low pollen season was strongly over-estimated by all models. Median of the multi-model ensemble demonstrated robust performance, suc...

Atkinson, M. D.: Betula pendula Roth (B. verrucosa Ehrh.) and B. pubescens Ehrh., J. Ecol., 80, 837–870, 1992.; Baklanov, A. and Sorensen, J. H.: Parameterisation of radionuclide deposition in atmospheric long-range transport modelling, Phys. Chem. Earth Pt. B, 26, 787–799, 2001.; Bechtold, P., Bazile, E., Guichard, F., Mascart, P., and Richard, E.: A mass-flux convection scheme for regional and global models, Q. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., 127, 869–886, 2001.; Bott, A.: A positive definite advection scheme obtained by nonlinear renormalization of the advective fluxes, Mon. Weather Rev., 117, 1006–1016, 1989.; Belmonte, J., Vendrell, M., Roure, J., Vidal, J., Botey, J., and Cadahía, A.: Levels of Ambrosia pollen in the atmospheric spectra of Catalan aerobiological stations, Aerobiologia, 16, 93–99, 2000.; Bousquet, P.-J., Chinn, S., Janson, C., Kogevinas, M., Burney, P., and Jarvis, D.: Geographical variation in the prevalence of positive skin tests to environmental aeroallergens in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey I, Allergy, 62, 301–309, doi:10.1111/j.1398-9995...

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Scientific Method in Schools; A Suggestion

By: Jones, W. H. S. (William Henry Samuel), 1876-1963

Contributor: Digitized from the holdings of the MSN Live Books ; University of California, California Digital Library Collection ; University of California Libraries ; The Northern Regional Library Facility, University of California, Berkeley...

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Relations Between Topography, Wetlands, Vegetation Cover and Stream Water Chemistry in Boreal Headwater Catchments in Sweden : Volume 5, Issue 3 (29/05/2008)

By: L. Nyberg; J.-o. Andersson

Description: Department of Biology, Karlstad University, Universitetsgatan 2, 65188 Karlstad, Sweden. A large part of the spatial variation of stream water chemistry is found in headwater streams and small catchments. To understand the dominant processes, taking place in small and heterogeneous catchments, spatial and temporal data with high resolution is needed. In most cases available map data has too low quality and resolution to successfully be used in environmental assessments and modelling. In this study 18 forested catchments (1–4 km2) were selected within a 120×50 km area in the county of Värmland in western Sweden. The aim was to test if topographic and vegetation variables derived from official datasets were correlated to stream water chemistry, represented by DOC, Al, Fe and Si content. A GIS was used to analyse the elevation characteristics, generate topographic indices and calculate the percentage of wetlands and a number of vegetation classes. The results clearly show that the topography has a major influence on the occurrence of wetlands, which has a major influence on stream water chemistry. ...

Andersson, J. O. and Nyberg, L.: Spatial variation of wetlands and flux of dissolved organic carbon in boreal headwater streams, Hydrol. Processes, 22, 1965–1975, 2008.; Beven, K. J. and Kirkby, M. J.: A physically based, variable contributing area model of basin hydrology, Hydrol. Sci. B., 24, 43–69, 1979.; Beven, K. J.: Hillslope runoff processes and flood frequency characteristics, in: Hillslope Processes, edited by: Abrahams A. D., 187–202, Allen and Unwin, Boston, 1986.; Beven, K. J.: Topmodel: a critique, Hydrol. Processes, 11, 1069–1085, 1997.; Bishop, K. H., Petterson, C., Allard, B., and Lee, Y. H.: Identification of the riparian sources of aquatic dissolved organic carbon, Environ. Int., 20(1), 11–19, 1994.; Blöschl, G.: Scaling in hydrology, Hydrol. Processes, 15, 709–711, 2001.; Blöschl, G. and Sivapalan, M.: Scale issues in hydrological modelling: A review, Hydrol. Processes, 9(3–4), 251–290, 1995.; Clair, T. A., Pollock, T. L., and Ehrman, J. M.: Exports of carbon and nitrogen from river basins in Canada's Atlantic provinces, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 8, 441–450, 1994.; Creed, I. F., Sanford, S. E., Beall., F. D., Mol...

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Scientific Method Its Philosophy and Its Practice

By: F. W. Westaway

Carniege Millon University ; Indian Institute of Science ; Par Informatatics

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MacC Regional Multi-model Ensemble Simulations of Birch Pollen Dispersion in Europe : Volume 15, Issue 14 (23/07/2015)

By: M. Prank; J. Vira; R. Gehrig; R. Kranenburg; C. Galan; K.-c. Bergmann; V. Marécal; J. Belmonte; A.-m. Pessi; F. Chéroux; V. Rodinkova; A. Segers; F. Meleux; E. Severova; I. Sauliene; U. Kumar; B. M. Steensen; J. Arteta; A. Saarto; M. Thibaudon; L. Robertson; M. Sofiev; D. Khvorostyanov; H. Elbern; V.-h. Peuch; E. Teinemaa; E. Friese; O. Ritenberga; U. Berger; P. Siljamo; L. Menut

Description: Finnish Meteorological Institute, Erik Palmenin Aukio 1, Helsinki, Finland. This paper presents the first ensemble modelling experiment in relation to birch pollen in Europe. The seven-model European ensemble of MACC-ENS, tested in trial simulations over the flowering season of 2010, was run through the flowering season of 2013. The simulations have been compared with observations in 11 countries, all members of the European Aeroallergen Network, for both individual models and the ensemble mean and median. It is shown that the models successfully reproduced the timing of the very late season of 2013, generally within a couple of days from the observed start of the season. The end of the season was generally predicted later than observed, by 5 days or more, which is a known feature of the source term used in the study. Absolute pollen concentrations during the season were somewhat underestimated in the southern part of the birch habitat. In the northern part of Europe, a record-low pollen season was strongly overestimated by all models. The median of the multi-model ensemble demonstrated robust performance,...

Atkinson, M. D.: Betula pendula Roth (B. verrucosa Ehrh.) and B. pubescens Ehrh. J. Ecol., 80, 837–870, 1992.; Baklanov, A. and Sorensen, J. H.: Parameterisation of radionuclide deposition in atmospheric long-range transport modelling, Phys. Chem. Earth, Pt. B, 26, 787–799, 2001.; Bassett, I. J., Crompton, C. W., and Parmelee, J. A.: An Atlas of Airborne Pollen Fungus Spores of Canada. Research Branch Canada Department of Agriculture, Ottawa, 1978.; Bechtold, P., Bazile, E., Guichard, F., Mascart, P., and Richard, E.: A mass-flux convection scheme for regional and global models, Q. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., 127, 869–886, 2001.; Belmonte, J., Vendrell, M., Roure, J., Vidal, J., Botey, J., and Cadahía, A.: Levels of Ambrosia pollen in the atmospheric spectra of Catalan aerobiological stations, Aerobiologia (Bologna), 16, 93–99, 2000.; Bott, A.: A positive definite advection scheme obtained by nonlinear renormalization of the advective fluxes, Mon. Weather Rev., 117, 1006–1016, 1989.; Bousquet, P.-J., Chinn, S., Janson, C., Kogevinas, M., Burney, P., and Jarvis, D.: Geographical variation in the prevalence of positive skin tests to envir...

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The Teaching of Scientific Method and Other Papers on Education

By: Armstrong, Henry Edward, 1848-1937

Contributor: Digitized from the holdings of the MSN Live Books ; OISE - University of Toronto

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Visual Ethnography for Performative Geographies: How Women Politicians Perform Identities on Ecuadorian Political Stages : Volume 67, Issue 4 (19/03/2013)

By: C. Schurr

Description: Department of Geography, Graduate School of the Interdisciplinary Centre for Gender Studies (IZFG), Bern, Switzerland. While there has been intense discussion of the theories of performativity in human geography, little has been said about the methodological implications of the performative turn. This paper suggests visual ethnography as a suitable methodology for performative geographies, since it focuses explicitly on the embodied and non-textual performances that bring both subjectivities and spatialities into being. In order to be able to connect the observed performances with performativity, a visual ethnography of performativity needs to be developed that combines visual research methods with insights about visual culture. By drawing on a visual ethnographic case study of politicians' identity performances in Ecuador, I show in the empirical section of this paper how the filmed identity performances can be linked and contrasted to hegemonic discourses around masculinity, femininity, whiteness, and indigenousness represented in Ecuador's visual culture. This visual ethnography reveals the ambivalence o...

Butler, J.: Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity, New York, Routledge, 1990.; Butler, J.: Bodies That Matter: On the Discursive Limits of Sex, New York, London, Routledge, 1993.; Byron, M.: Using Audio-Visual Aids in Geography Research: Questions of Access and Responsibility, Area, 4, 379–385, 1993.; Castañeda, J.: Latin America's Left Turn, Foreign Aff., 3, 28–42, 2006.; Collier, J. and Collier, M.: Visual Anthropology: Photography as a Research Method, Albuquerque, NM, University of New Mexico Press, 1986.; Crang, M.: Qualitative Methods: The New Orthodoxy?, Prog. Hum. Geog., 5, 647–655, 2002.; Cream, J.: Re-Solving Riddles: The Sexed Body, in: Mapping Desire, edited by: Bell, D. and Valentine, G., London, 31–40, 1995.; Dirksmeier, P. and Helbrecht, I.: Time, Non-Representational Theory and the Performative Turn – Towards a New Methodology in Qualitative Social Research, Forum Qualitative Social Research, 2, 2008.; El Guindi, F.: Visual Anthropology: Essential Method and Theory, Plymouth, Altamira Press, 2004.; Emmison, M. and Smith, P.: Researching the Visual, London, Sage Publications Ltd., 2000.; Garrett, B. ...

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The Method of Darwin: A Study in Scientific Method

By: Cramer, Frank
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Der Husserlsche Bildbegriff Als Theoretische Grundlage Der Reflexiven Fotografie: Ein Beitrag Zur Visuellen Methodologie in Der Humangeografie : Volume 2, Issue 1 (04/01/2007)

By: P. Dirksmeier

Description: Universität Bremen, Institut für Geographie, Bibliothekstraße 1, 28359 Bremen, Germany. The article picks up on a gap in the methodology of human geographic empirical research. Although geography is a visual science, an in-depth analysis of its self-produced images, maps and charts has not yet been made from the point of view of image theory. The mental map research carried out in the 1970s can be seen as the last examination of this subject. Against this background, the paper initially develops an image theoretical approach based on Edmund Husserl's Phenomenology in order to elaborate on these theoretical considerations and introduce into specialist discussions the method of reflexive photography that comes from visual sociology as an important method of investigation, one that has so far been disregarded in geographical methodology. Reflexive photography marks a change of perspective. The test person photographs autonomously without being influenced by the scientific observer and appears in the subsequent interview as an expert on his own photographs. The objectivisation of the subjective perspective of ...

Adair, J. and Worth, S.: Through Navajo eyes: an exploration in film communication and anthropology, Indiana University Press, Bloomington/London, 1972.; Arsenian, J. and Cornelison, F. S.: A study of the response of psychotic patients to photographic self-image experience, Psychiatric Quarterly, 34, 1, 1–8, 1960.; Barthes, R.: Rhétorique de l'image, Communications, 4, 40–51, 1964.; Becker, H. S.: Photography and sociology, Studies in the Anthropology of Visual Communication, 1, 1, 3–26, 1974.; Biemann, U.: Remotely sensed: a topography of the global sex trade, Feminist Review, 70, 75–88, 2002.; Benjamin, W.: Kleine Geschichte der Photographie, in: Das Kunstwerk im Zeitalter seiner technischen Reproduzierbarkeit. Drei Studien zur Kunstsoziologie, Benjamin, W., Suhrkamp, Frankfurt a.M., 47–64, 1963/1931.; Berman, H., Ford-Gilboe, M., Moutrey, B., and Cekic, S.: Portraits of pain and promise: a photographic study of bosnian youth, Canadian Journal of Nursing Research, 32, 4, 21–41, 2001.; Bourdieu, P.: Einleitung, in: Eine illegitime Kunst. Die sozialen Gebrauchsweisen der Photographie, herausgegeben von: Boltanski, L., Bourdieu, P., ...

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The Building of the Intellect: A Contribution Towards Scientific Method in Education

By: Gane, Douglas M. (Douglas Montague), B. 1862
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Definitions of Climate and Climate Change Under Varying External Conditions : Volume 5, Issue 1 (10/06/2014)

By: C. Werndl

Description: Department of Philosophy, Logic and Scientific Method, London School of Economics, Houghton Street, WC1A 2AE London, UK. Commonly, definitions of climate are endorsed where the external conditions are held constant. This paper argues that these definitions risk being empirically void because in reality the external conditions vary. As a consequence, analogous definitions for varying external conditions are explored with help of the recently developed theory of non-autonomous dynamical systems, and the similarities and differences between the cases of constant and varying external conditions are discussed. It is argued that there are analogous definitions for varying external conditions which are preferable to the definitions where the external conditions are held constant. In this context, a novel definition is proposed (namely, climate as the distribution over time under a regime of varying external conditions), which is argued to be promising....

Hulme, M., Dessai, S., Lorenzoni, I., and Nelson, D.: Unstable climates: exploring the statistical and social constructions of climate, Geoforum, 40, 197–206, 2009.; Jacobsen, M. V.: Absolutely continuous invariant measures for one-parameter families of one-dimensional maps, Commun. Math. Phys., 81, 39–88, 1981.; Allen, M.: Liability for climate change, Nature, 421, 891–892, 2010.; Berger, A.: Chaos and Chance, an Introduction to Stochastic Aspects of Dynamics, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, 2001.; Bhattacharya, K., Ghil, M., and Vulis, I. L.: Internal variability of an energy-balance model with delayed albedo effects, J. Atmos. Sci., 39, 1747–1773, 1982.; Buzzi, J.: Exponential decay of correlations for random Lasota–Yorke maps, Commun. Math. Phys., 208, 25–54, 1999.; Checkroun, M. D., Simnnet, E., and Ghil, M.: Stochastic climate dynamics: random attractors and time-dependent invariant measures, Physica D, 240, 1685–1700, 2011.; Daron, J. D.: Examining the Decision-Relevance of Climate Model Information for the Insurance Industry, Ph.D. thesis, London School of Economics and Political Science, London, 2012.; Daron, J. D. and Stainfort...

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Investigating the Climate System Energy : A Balancing Act: by Eric Barron

Excerpt: OBJECTIVES. Students will use and apply the scientific method. Students will research and explain how energy is absorbed at the Earth?s surface. Students will research and explain how energy is reflected by the Earth?s surface. Students will apply their research to define albedo and explain how it is determined, including the possible effects of the type of ground surface involved......

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What Makes Darwinian Hydrology Darwinian? Asking a Different Kind of Question About Landscapes : Volume 18, Issue 2 (04/02/2014)

By: P. A. Troch; C. Harman

Description: Department of Geography and Environmental Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA. There have been repeated calls for a Darwinian approach to hydrologic science, or for a synthesis of Darwinian and Newtonian approaches, to deepen understanding of the hydrologic system in the larger landscape context, and so develop a better basis for predictions now and in an uncertain future. But what exactly makes a Darwinian approach to hydrology Darwinian? While there have now been a number of discussions of Darwinian approaches, many referencing Harte (2002), the term is potentially a source of confusion because its connections to Darwin remain allusive rather than explicit.

Here we suggest that the Darwinian approach to hydrology follows the example of Charles Darwin by focusing attention on the patterns of variation in populations and seeking hypotheses that explain these patterns in terms of the mechanisms and conditions that determine their historical development. These hypotheses do not simply catalog patterns or predict them statistically – they connect the present structure with...

Baker, V. R.: Geosemiosis, Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 111, 633–646, 1999.; Atkinson, S. E.: Climate and landscape controls on water balance model complexity over changing timescales, Water Resour. Res., 38, 1314, doi:10.1029/2002WR001487, 2002.; Ayala, F. J.: Darwin and the scientific method, P. Natl. Acad. Sci., 106, 10033–10039, doi:10.1073/pnas.0901404106, 2009.; Bain, D. J., Green, M. B., Campbell, J. L., Chamblee, J. F., Chaoka, S., Fraterrigo, J. M., Kaushal, S. S., Martin, S. L., Jordan, T. E., Parolari, A. J., Sobczak, W. V., Weller, D. E., Wollheim, W. M., Boose, E. R., Duncan, J. M., Gettel, G. M., Hall, B. R., Kumar, P., Thompson, J. R., Vose, J. M., Elliott, E. M., and Leigh, D. S.: Legacy Effects in Material Flux: Structural Catchment Changes Predate Long-Term Studies, Bioscience, 62, 575–584, doi:10.1525/bio.2012.62.6.8, 2012.; Baker, V. R.: Hypotheses and geomorphological reasoning, in: The scientific Nature of Geomorphology, edited by: Rhoads, B. L. and Thorn, C. E....

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Investigating the Climate System Energy : A Balancing Act: by Eric Barron

Excerpt: OBJECTIVES. Students will use and apply the scientific method. Students will research and explain how energy is absorbed at the Earth?s surface. Students will research and explain how energy is reflected by the Earth?s surface. Students will apply their research to define albedo and explain how it is determined, including the possible effects of the type of ground surface involved......

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Darwinian Hydrology: Can the Methodology Charles Darwin Pioneered Help Hydrologic Science? : Volume 10, Issue 5 (23/05/2013)

By: P. A. Troch; C. Harman

Description: Department of Geography and Environmental Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA. There have been repeated calls for a Darwinian approach to hydrologic science or for a synthesis of Darwinian and Newtonian approaches, to deepen understanding the hydrologic system in the larger landscape context, and so develop a better basis for predictions now and in an uncertain future. But what exactly makes a Darwinian approach to hydrology Darwinian? While there have now been a number of discussions of Darwinian approaches, many referencing Harte (2002), the term is potentially a source of confusion while its connections to Darwin remain allusive rather than explicit.

Here we discuss the methods that Charles Darwin pioneered to understand a variety of complex systems in terms of their historical processes of change. We suggest that the Darwinian approach to hydrology follows his lead by focusing attention on the patterns of variation in populations, seeking hypotheses that explain these patterns in terms of the mechanisms and conditions that ...

Atkinson, S. E.: Climate and landscape controls on water balance model complexity over changing timescales, Water Resour. Res., 38, 1314, doi:10.1029/2002WR001487, 2002.; Ayala, F. J.: Darwin and the scientific method, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 106, 10033–10039, doi:10.1073/pnas.0901404106, 2009.; Bain, D. J., Green, M. B., Campbell, J. L., Chamblee, J. F., Chaoka, S., Fraterrigo, J. M., Kaushal, S. S., Martin, S. L., Jordan, T. E., Parolari, A. J., Sobczak, W. V., Weller, D. E., WolLheim, W. M., Boose, E. R., Duncan, J. M., Gettel, G. M., Hall, B. R., Kumar, P., Thompson, J. R., Vose, J. M., Elliott, E. M., and Leigh, D. S.: Legacy effects in material flux: structural catchment changes predate long-term studies, Bioscience, 62, 575–584, doi:10.1525/bio.2012.62.6.8, 2012.; Beven, K.: Towards a coherent philosophy for modelling the environment, P. Roy. Soc. A-Math. Phy., 4582026, 2465–2484, doi:10.1098/rspa.2002.0986, 2002.; B...

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The Aim and Achievements of Scientific Method : An Epistemological Essay

By: Nunn, Thomas Percy, Sir B. 1870
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Multispace & Multistructure Neutrosophic Transdisciplinary : 100 Collected Papers of Sciences : Volume 4

By: Florentin Smarandache

The fourth volume, in my book series of “Collected Papers”, includes 100 published and unpublished articles, notes, (preliminary) drafts containing just ideas to be further investigated, scientific souvenirs, scientific blogs, project proposals, small experiments, solved and unsolved problems and conjectures, updated or alternative versions of previous papers, short or long humanistic essays, letters to the editors...

This short technical paper advocates a bootstrapping algorithm from which we can form a statistically reliable opinion based on limited clinically observed data, regarding whether an osteo-hyperplasia could actually be a case of Ewing’s osteosarcoma. The basic premise underlying our methodology is that a primary bone tumour, if it is indeed Ewing’s osteosarcoma, cannot increase in volume beyond some critical limit without showing metastasis. We propose a statistical method to extrapolate such critical limit to primary tumour volume. Our model does not involve any physiological variables but rather is entirely based on time series observations of increase in primary tumour volume from the point of initial detection to the actual detection of metastases....

Collected Eclectic Ideas - preface by the author.............................3 Contents....................................................6 ASTRONOMY..................................14 1. First Lunar Space Base, project proposal, by V. Christianto, Florentin Smarandache..15 2. On Recent Discovery of New Planetoids in the Solar System and Quantization of Celestial System, by V. Christianto, F. Smarandache..................28 3. Open and Solved Elementary Questions in Astronomy, by Florentin Smarandache.. 36 BIOLOGY......................................40 4. Statistical Modeling of Primary Ewing Tumors of the Bone, by Sreepurna Malakar, Florentin Smarandache, Sukanto Bhattacharya, in in , Vol. 3, No. JJ05, 81-88, 2005................41 CALCULUS....................................53 5. A Triple Inequality with Series and Improper Integrals, by Florentin Smarandache, in Bulletin of Pure and Applied Sciences, Vol. 25E, No. 1, 215-217, 2006.........54 6. Immediate Calculation of Some Poisson Type Integrals Using SuperMathematics Circular Ex-Centric Functions, by Florentin Smarandache & Mircea Eugen................................

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Scientific Method in Schools: A Suggestion

By: William Henry Samuel Jones

Supplemental catalog subcollection information: American Libraries Collection; Historical Literature

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Multispace & Multistructure Neutrosophic Transdisciplinary : 100 Collected Papers of Sciences : Volume 4

By: Florentin Smarandache

The fourth volume, in my book series of “Collected Papers”, includes 100 published and unpublished articles, notes, (preliminary) drafts containing just ideas to be further investigated, scientific souvenirs, scientific blogs, project proposals, small experiments, solved and unsolved problems and conjectures, updated or alternative versions of previous papers, short or long humanistic essays, letters to the editors...

This short technical paper advocates a bootstrapping algorithm from which we can form a statistically reliable opinion based on limited clinically observed data, regarding whether an osteo-hyperplasia could actually be a case of Ewing’s osteosarcoma. The basic premise underlying our methodology is that a primary bone tumour, if it is indeed Ewing’s osteosarcoma, cannot increase in volume beyond some critical limit without showing metastasis. We propose a statistical method to extrapolate such critical limit to primary tumour volume. Our model does not involve any physiological variables but rather is entirely based on time series observations of increase in primary tumour volume from the point of initial detection to the actual detection of metastases....

Collected Eclectic Ideas - preface by the author.............................3 Contents....................................................6 ASTRONOMY..................................14 1. First Lunar Space Base, project proposal, by V. Christianto, Florentin Smarandache..15 2. On Recent Discovery of New Planetoids in the Solar System and Quantization of Celestial System, by V. Christianto, F. Smarandache..................28 3. Open and Solved Elementary Questions in Astronomy, by Florentin Smarandache.. 36 BIOLOGY......................................40 4. Statistical Modeling of Primary Ewing Tumors of the Bone, by Sreepurna Malakar, Florentin Smarandache, Sukanto Bhattacharya, in in , Vol. 3, No. JJ05, 81-88, 2005................41 CALCULUS....................................53 5. A Triple Inequality with Series and Improper Integrals, by Florentin Smarandache, in Bulletin of Pure and Applied Sciences, Vol. 25E, No. 1, 215-217, 2006.........54 6. Immediate Calculation of Some Poisson Type Integrals Using SuperMathematics Circular Ex-Centric Functions, by Florentin Smarandache & Mircea Eugen................................

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Farming Methods and Systems Analysis

By: Gay Erinnan, Ph. D., C. S. F.

As I view it, my primary task as lead-off man for this session is to establish a perspective on the topic. It has been concluded for many years that accidents are a particular problem to those engaged in farming.' This conclusion has resulted from intuition and the use of epidemiology, the scientific method of studying epidemics in a particular population....

NA

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Developing a Protocol : A Guide for Cdc Investigators

By: Department of Health and Human Services

Quality of science is often improved when study objectives and methods are clearly thought through and described. A written protocol facilitates high quality science and is an invaluable tool to investigators as they develop and conduct studies. Regardless of the scientific discipline in which the study is undertaken, the same scientific method is used. Further, while the scientific content will differ across studies, the general elements of the study protocol will be similar. The Excellence in Science Committee has developed a Principal Investigator’s Protocol Development Checklist and companion guide to assist scientists in preparing protocols. The checklist is intended as an aid in suggesting a format for writing protocols and in identifying issues that scientists should consider as they design their study....

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