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Drug Class Review Newer Drugs for Insomnia: Final Report Update 2

By: Susan Carson

... evening), and pharmacotherapy with sedating antidepressants (for example, trazodone), sedating antihistamines, anticholinergics, benzodiazepines, or nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics. The benzodiazepines and the newer sedative hypnotics zolpidem, zaleplon, zopiclone, and eszopiclone work through gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors. Ramelteon, a hypnotic approved by the United Sta...

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Nonbenzodiazepine

Encyclopedia Article

...a class of psychoactive drugs that are very benzodiazepine-like in nature. Nonbenzodiazepines pharmacodynamics are almost entirely the same as benzodi... ...pine drugs and therefore employ similar benefits, side-effects, and risks. Nonbenzodiazepines, however, have dissimilar or entirely different chemical... ... Core structures of selected nonbenzodiazepines (left three diagrams) and the structure of benzodiazepin... ... Currently, the major chemical classes of nonbenzodiazepines are: Imidazopyridines ... ... Pharmacology The nonbenzodiazepines are positive allosteric modulators of the GABA-A recepto... ...of the receptor complex. Background Nonbenzodiazepines have demonstrated efficacy in treating sleep disorders. ... ... disorders. There is some limited evidence that suggests that tolerance to nonbenzodiazepines is slower to develop than with benzodiazepines. However,... ...nclusions can be drawn. Data is also limited into the long term effects of nonbenzodiazepines. Further research into the safety of nonbenzodiazepines ... ...earch into the safety of nonbenzodiazepines and long term effectiveness of nonbenzodiazepines has been recommended in a review of the literature.[3] S...

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Adipiplon

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CGS-9896

Encyclopedia Article

...enzodiazepine drugs, but is structurally distinct and so is classed as a nonbenzodiazepine anxiolytic. CGS-9896 is a benzodiazepine receptor parti...

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CGS-20625

Encyclopedia Article

...nzodiazepine drugs, but is structurally distinct and so is classed as a nonbenzodiazepine anxiolytic. CGS-20625 produces anxiolytic and anticonvu...

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U-90042

Encyclopedia Article

...enzodiazepine drugs, but is structurally distinct and so is classed as a nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic. U-90042 is a GABAA agonist acting primaril...

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ELB-139

Encyclopedia Article

...enzodiazepine drugs, but is structurally distinct and so is classed as a nonbenzodiazepine anxiolytic. ELB-139 is a subtype-selective partial ago...

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NS-2664

Encyclopedia Article

...enzodiazepine drugs, but is structurally distinct and so is classed as a nonbenzodiazepine anxiolytic. NS-2664 is a potent but non-selective parti...

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TP-003

Encyclopedia Article

...enzodiazepine drugs, but is structurally distinct and so is classed as a nonbenzodiazepine anxiolytic. It is a subtype-selective partial agonist ...

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Tracazolate

Encyclopedia Article

...aleplon, and is one of a structurally diverse group of drugs known as the nonbenzodiazepine s which act at the same receptor targets as benzodiazepi...

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NS-2710

Encyclopedia Article

...enzodiazepine drugs, but is structurally distinct and so is classed as a nonbenzodiazepine anxiolytic. NS-2710 is a potent but non-selective parti...

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TP-13

Encyclopedia Article

...enzodiazepine drugs, but is structurally distinct and so is classed as a nonbenzodiazepine anxiolytic. It is a subtype-selective partial agonist ...

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L-655,708

Encyclopedia Article

...producing the cognitive side effects displayed by many benzodiazepine and nonbenzodiazepine drugs, such as amnesia and difficulties with learning ...

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Pyrazolopyrimidine

Encyclopedia Article

...dines and cyclopyrrones—are sometimes grouped together and referred to as "nonbenzodiazepines". Z... ... See also Nonbenzodiazepine References ...

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Alpidem

Encyclopedia Article

...at of the benzodiazepines, and alpidem is thus sometimes referred to as a nonbenzodiazepine .Diamond BI, Nguyen H, O'Neal E, Ochs R, Kaffeman M, Bori... ...'Neal E, Ochs R, Kaffeman M, Borison RL. A comparative study of alpidem, a nonbenzodiazepine, and lorazepam in patients with nonpsychotic anxiety. Ps...

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Α5IA

Encyclopedia Article

...producing the cognitive side effects displayed by many benzodiazepine and nonbenzodiazepine drugs, such as amnesia and difficulties with learning ...

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Flurazepam

Encyclopedia Article

...atric disorders. Elderly Flurazepam, similar to other benzodiazepines and nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic drugs causes impairments in body balance and sta... ...underutilized. Compared with the benzodiazepines including flurazepam, the nonbenzodiazepine sedative-hypnotics appeared to offer few, if any, signifi...

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TPA-023

Encyclopedia Article

...enzodiazepine drugs, but is structurally distinct and so is classed as a nonbenzodiazepine anxiolytic. It is a subtype-selective, mixed agonist-ant...

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DS-1 (drug)

Encyclopedia Article

...targeted by other GABAA receptor PAMs such as the benzodiazepines or other nonbenzodiazepine drugs. Novel selective drugs such as DS-1 should prove us... ... Nonbenzodiazepines ... ...targeted by other GABAA receptor PAMs such as the benzodiazepines or other nonbenzodiazepine drugs. Novel selective drugs such as DS-1 should prove us... ... Nonbenzodiazepines ...

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Zaleplon

Encyclopedia Article

...ic, almost entirely used for the management/treatment of insomnia. It is a nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic from the pyrazolopyrimidine class.[1] ... ...azepines with less adverse effects.[4] Zaleplon or any nonbenzodiazepine should never be combined with any alcoholic beverage as b... ...more attention.[6] When compared with benzodiazepines, nonbenzodiazepines (including zaleplon) appear to offer few significant adv... ...einforcing and exhibits far fewer rebound effects when compared with other nonbenzodiazepines, or Z-drugs.[11] Mechanism ... ...c efficacy is diminished. This impact is shared by all GABAergics, whether nonbenzodiazepines, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, carbamates, quinazolines... ...inations/disruptions with the use of zaleplon than with other drugs in the nonbenzodiazepine class (e.g. zolpidem and the “Ambien Walrus”). Anterogra... ...n from vomiting. See also Nonbenzodiazepines Z-drugs ... ...ep latency is shortened during 4 weeks of treatment with zaleplon, a novel nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic. Zaleplon Clinical Study Group". J Clin Psychiat... ...uary 2002). "Binding and neuropharmacological profile of zaleplon, a novel nonbenzodiazepine sedative/hypnotic". Eur. J. Pharmacol. 434 (1-2): 21–8. &...

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Quazepam

Encyclopedia Article

...less rebound effects than other type1 benzodiazepine receptor selective nonbenzodiazepine drugs due to its longer half-life. Short acting hypnotic... ... underutilized. Compared with the benzodiazepines including quazepam, the nonbenzodiazepine sedative-hypnotics appeared to offer few, if any, signif... ... of causing less rebound insomnia than shorter acting subtype selective nonbenzodiazepines . However, one of the major metabolites of quazepam, the...

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Necopidem

Encyclopedia Article

... the better known drugs zolpidem and alpidem. It is therefore considered a nonbenzodiazepine and as such has sedative and anxiolytic effects. ... ... Nonbenzodiazepines: ... ... Nonbenzodiazepines ... ... the better known drugs zolpidem and alpidem. It is therefore considered a nonbenzodiazepine and as such has sedative and anxiolytic effects. ... ... Nonbenzodiazepines: ... ... Nonbenzodiazepines ...

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GBLD-345

Encyclopedia Article

... benzodiazepine drugs, but is structurally distinct and so is classed as a nonbenzodiazepine anxiolytic.[1] References ... ... Nonbenzodiazepines ... ... benzodiazepine drugs, but is structurally distinct and so is classed as a nonbenzodiazepine anxiolytic.[1] References ... ... Nonbenzodiazepines ...

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Zolpidem

Encyclopedia Article

... the treatment of insomnia and some brain disorders . It is a short-acting nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic of the imidazopyridine class that pote... ...with GABAA receptor positive modulators such as the benzodiazepines and the nonbenzodiazepine drugs. For this reason, alcoholics or recovering alc... ...nd these interventions are underused. Compared with the benzodiazepines, the nonbenzodiazepine (including zolpidem) sedative-hypnotics appeared to ... ...ndomised, controlled, clinical trials that compared benzodiazepines against nonbenzodiazepine s such as zolpidem has shown few consistent differenc...

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Estazolam

Encyclopedia Article

...underutilized. Compared with the benzodiazepines including estazolam, the nonbenzodiazepine sedative-hypnotics appeared to offer few, if any, signif...

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ZK-93423

Encyclopedia Article

...drug from the β-Carboline family, closely related to abecarnil.[1] It is a nonbenzodiazepine GABAA agonist which is not subtype selective and stimulat... ... Nonbenzodiazepines ... ...drug from the β-Carboline family, closely related to abecarnil.[1] It is a nonbenzodiazepine GABAA agonist which is not subtype selective and stimulat... ... Nonbenzodiazepines ...

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SB-205,384

Encyclopedia Article

... benzodiazepine drugs, but is structurally distinct and so is classed as a nonbenzodiazepine anxiolytic. SB-205,384 is a GABAA pos... ... Nonbenzodiazepines ... ... benzodiazepine drugs, but is structurally distinct and so is classed as a nonbenzodiazepine anxiolytic. SB-205,384 is a GABAA pos... ... Nonbenzodiazepines ...

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Orally disintegrating tablet

Encyclopedia Article

... AB Zolpidem Nonbenzodiazepine Hypnotics Short-term treat... ...32] Zolpidem Nonbenzodiazepine Hypnotics[37] Sleep disord... ... AB Zolpidem Nonbenzodiazepine Hypnotics Short-term treat... ...32] Zolpidem Nonbenzodiazepine Hypnotics[37] Sleep disord...

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Eszopiclone

Encyclopedia Article

...Eszopiclone, marketed by Sepracor under the brand-name Lunesta, is a nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic which is slightly effective for insomnia. Eszopi... ...se interventions are underutilized. Compared with the benzodiazepines, the nonbenzodiazepinesedative-hypnotics, including eszopiclone appeared to offe...

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Zopiclone

Encyclopedia Article

...Norway, Russia and the United Kingdom, brand name Zimovane in Europe) is a nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic agent used in the treatment of insomnia. It is a...

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Temazepam

Encyclopedia Article

...id psychiatric disorders . Temazepam, similar to other benzodiazepines and nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic drugs causes impairments in body balance ...

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Drugs controlled by the UK Misuse of Drugs Act

Encyclopedia Article

... Zolpidem Ambien nonbenzodiazepine 2003 ... ... Zopiclone nonbenzodiazepine 2014 ... ...ava Nonbenzodiazepines ...

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Insomnia

Encyclopedia Article

...erapy for insomnia is superior in the long-term to benzodiazepines and the nonbenzodiazepines in the treatment and management of insomnia.[63] In this... ...lamine.[77] Certain classes of sedatives such as benzodiazepines and newer nonbenzodiazepine drugs can also cause physical dependence, which manifests... ...symptoms if the drug is not carefully tapered down. The benzodiazepine and nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic medications also have a number of side-effects s... ...is an area of active research.[79] Benzodiazepines and nonbenzodiazepines have similar efficacy that is not significantly more tha... ... review of the literature regarding benzodiazepine hypnotic as well as the nonbenzodiazepines concluded that these drugs cause an unjustifiable risk t... ...ssible.[88][89] Non-benzodiazepines Nonbenzodiazepine sedative-hypnotic drugs, such as zolpidem (Ambien), zalep... ... Nonbenzodiazepines: ... ... Nonbenzodiazepines/Z-drugs: Eszopiclone ...

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Nitrazepam

Encyclopedia Article

...d it altogether. Elderly Nitrazepam, similar to other benzodiazepines and nonbenzodiazepines causes impairments in body balance and standing steadine... ...in many children taking nitrazepam but was not impaired with several other nonbenzodiazepine antiepileptic agents. It has been recommended that childr...

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Benzodiazepine misuse

Encyclopedia Article

...ll sedative-hypnotics, e.g. alcohol, barbiturates, benzodiazepines and the nonbenzodiazepine Z-drugs have a similar mechanism of action, working on th... ...e abuse potential. Use of prescription sedative-hypnotics; for example the nonbenzodiazepine Z-drugs often leads to a relapse back into substance misu... ...ll sedative-hypnotics, e.g. alcohol, barbiturates, benzodiazepines and the nonbenzodiazepine Z-drugs have a similar mechanism of action, working on th... ...e abuse potential. Use of prescription sedative-hypnotics; for example the nonbenzodiazepine Z-drugs often leads to a relapse back into substance misu...

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Hypnotic

Encyclopedia Article

... Most hypnotics prescribed today are either benzodiazepines or nonbenzodiazepines. Early classes of drugs, such as barbiturates, have fall... ... Benzodiazepines 2.3 Nonbenzodiazepines 2.4 Others 2.... ...sed as to whether they disturb sleep architecture.[14] Nonbenzodiazepines are the most recent development (1990s–present). Althoug... ...recommended.[18] It is not clear as to whether the new nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics (Z-drugs) are better than the short-acting benz... ...t side-effects from benzodiazepines may be about twice as frequent as from nonbenzodiazepines.[21] Some experts suggest using nonbenzodiazepines prefe... ...chanism of action is primarily at GABAA receptors.[23] Nonbenzodiazepines Nonbenzodiazepines are a ... ...class of psychoactive drugs that are very "benzodiazepine-like" in nature. Nonbenzodiazepines pharmacodynamics are almost entirely the same as benzodi... ...pine drugs and therefore employ similar benefits, side-effects, and risks. Nonbenzodiazepines, however, have dissimilar or entirely different chemical... ... and zolpidem (Ambien, Stilnox, Stilnoct). Research on nonbenzodiazepines is new and conflicting. A review by a team of researcher...

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Loprazolam

Encyclopedia Article

...sychiatric disorders.[16] Loprazolam, similar to other benzodiazepines and nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic drugs causes impairments in body balance and sta... ... Nonbenzodiazepines: ... ... Nonbenzodiazepines ...

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Lormetazepam

Encyclopedia Article

...tazepam is combined with other drugs with similar effects e.g. alcohol and nonbenzodiazepine drugs. Although lormetazepam has been... ... Nonbenzodiazepines: ... ... Nonbenzodiazepines ...

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Benzodiazepine

Encyclopedia Article

...recommended.[33] It is not clear as to whether the new nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics (Z-drugs) are better than the short-acting benz... ...t side-effects from benzodiazepines may be about twice as frequent as from nonbenzodiazepines.[36] Some experts suggest using nonbenzodiazepines prefe... ...ve metabolites, can be used as an alternative.[86][87] Nonbenzodiazepines are contraindicated during benzodiazepine withdrawal as ... ...pines are not recommended in the elderly due to increased adverse effects. Nonbenzodiazepines such as zaleplon and zolpidem and low doses of sedating ... ...of the benzodiazepine diazepam, while green represents carbon atoms of the nonbenzodiazepine CGS-9896. Red and blue sticks are oxygen and nitrogen ato... ...th their biological activity in many cases.,[128][129] Nonbenzodiazepines also bind to the benzodiazepine binding site on the GABA... ...e GABAA receptor and possess similar pharmacological properties. While the nonbenzodiazepines are by definition structurally unrelated to the benzodia... ...d.[7] For treatment of insomnia, benzodiazepines are now less popular than nonbenzodiazepines, which include zolpidem, zaleplon and eszopiclone.[143] ... ... Nonbenzodiazepines ...

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Flunitrazepam

Encyclopedia Article

...5] Flunitrazepam, similar to other benzodiazepines and nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic drugs, causes impairments in body balance and st... ...spected of driving under the influence of drugs. Other benzodiazepines and nonbenzodiazepines (anxiolytic or hypnotic) such as zolpidem and zopiclone ...

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Sleep

Encyclopedia Article

...d have become a major source of revenue for drug companies. Although these nonbenzodiazepine medications are generally believed to be better and safer... ...d drugs on sleep Hypnotics Nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics such as eszopiclone (Lunesta), zaleplon (Sonata... ...monly used as sleep aids prescribed by doctors to treat forms of insomnia. Nonbenzodiazepines are the most commonly prescribed and OTC sleep aids used...

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Benzodiazepine dependence

Encyclopedia Article

...ross tolerance between alcohol, the benzodiazepines, the barbiturates, the nonbenzodiazepine drugs, and corticosteroids, which all act by enhancing th... ...ates, benzodiazepines, alcohol, corticosteroids, neuroactive steroids, and nonbenzodiazepines, precipitate similar withdrawal effects characterized by... ...ross tolerance between alcohol, the benzodiazepines, the barbiturates, the nonbenzodiazepine drugs, and corticosteroids, which all act by enhancing th... ...ates, benzodiazepines, alcohol, corticosteroids, neuroactive steroids, and nonbenzodiazepines, precipitate similar withdrawal effects characterized by...

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