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From Genes to Proteins

By: Department of Health and Human Services

...GENETICS 2 CHAPTER 1: HOW GENES WORK 4 From Genes to Proteins 5 Remarkable RNA 6 Controlling Genes 8 “Extra” DNA in Genes and RNA Splicing 12 How Ribo... ... of muta- tions drive the evolution of new life forms. Ribonucleic acid (RNA). RNA has the bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and uracil... ... (G), and uracil (U) instead of the thymine that occurs in DNA. Remarkable RNA How does DNA make proteins? It doesn’t. DNA is just a collection of ins... ... appropriate for running that particular cell at that particular The RNA polymerase II holoenzyme (not shown) transcribes DNA to make messenger RNA ... ...e for running that particular cell at that particular The RNA polymerase II holoenzyme (not shown) transcribes DNA to make messenger RNA (mRNA). The... ...is the cell’s transcription apparatus. It consists of an enzyme called RNA polymerase plus a set of helper proteins called accessory factors. RNA poly... ...G T A How Genes Work I 9 Initiation of transcription by RNA polymerase. In addition to revealing details of gene tran- scription, study... ...lleagues at Ohio State University in Columbus discovered that some Group II intron splicing into DNA. Adapted from an illustration provided by Alan ... ...n Lambowitz and Huatao Guo + Intron RNA Complementary DNA DNA Target Group II Intron RNA Intron RNA Intron RNA inserts into DNA target DNA Target Str...

... A SCIENCE CALLED GENETICS 2 CHAPTER 1: HOW GENES WORK 4 From Genes to Proteins 5 Remarkable RNA 6 Controlling Genes 8 “Extra”DNA in Genes and RNA Splicing 12 How Ribosomes Make Proteins 14 How Genes Control Development 16 CHAPTER 2: STRANGE BUT TRUE: EXCEPTIONS TO MENDEL’S RULES 20 The Genetics of Anticipation 21 Th...

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RNA polymerase II holoenzyme

Encyclopedia Article

...RNA polymerase II holoenzyme is a form of eukaryotic RNA polymerase II that is recruited to the promoters of protein -coding ge... ...RNA polymerase II holoenzyme is a form of eukaryotic RNA polymerase II that is recruited to the promoters of protein -coding genes ... ...RNA polymerase II holoenzyme is a form of eukaryotic RNA polymerase II that is recruited to the promoters of protein -coding genes in living c... ...ein -coding genes in living cells.Koleske, A.J., and Young, R.A. (1994) An RNA polymerase II holoenzyme responsive to activators. Nature 368: 466-469.... ...-coding genes in living cells.Koleske, A.J., and Young, R.A. (1994) An RNA polymerase II holoenzyme responsive to activators. Nature 368: 466-469. It... ...es in living cells.Koleske, A.J., and Young, R.A. (1994) An RNA polymerase II holoenzyme responsive to activators. Nature 368: 466-469. It consists o... ...holoenzyme responsive to activators. Nature 368: 466-469. It consists of RNA polymerase II, a subset of general transcription factor s, and regula... ...enzyme responsive to activators. Nature 368: 466-469. It consists of RNA polymerase II, a subset of general transcription factor s, and regulatory... ...onsive to activators. Nature 368: 466-469. It consists of RNA polymerase II, a subset of general transcription factor s, and regulatory protein s ...

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Glossary of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering

By: A. Zaid

...olas Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Rome, 1999 – ii – The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this... ...ology and Genetic Engineering 1 – A – A Adenine residue, in either DNA or RNA. Ab See antibody. abiotic stress The effect of non-living factors whi... ... a cohesive end created by cleavage of a DNA molecule with a specific type II restriction endonuclease. The blunt end of the adaptor can be ligated to... ...14) (symbol: A) A white crystalline purine base. A constituent of DNA and RNA and nucleotides 4 Glossary of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering su... ...posed of a highly purified form of agar is used to separate larger DNA and RNA molecules. See electrophoresis. aggregate 1. A clump or mass formed by... ...t a locus in a population. allele-specific amplification (ASA) The use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) at a sufficiently high stringency that only... ...chromosomal segment. 4. Creation of many copies of a segment of DNA by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFL... ...g into a cloning vector that replicates within a host cell, or in vitro by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). ampometric See enzyme electrode. amylase ... ...are anticlinal, i.e., perpendicular to the surface; and below the tunica, (ii) the corpus, where the cells divide in all directions, giving them an in...

...Excerpt: A ? A Adenine residue, in either DNA or RNA. Ab See antibody. abiotic stress The effect of non-living factors which can harm living organisms. These non-living factors include drought, extreme temperatures, pollutants, etc. abscisic acid A plant growth regulator in...

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RNA polymerase II subunit B4

Encyclopedia Article

...rces: Amigo / QuickGO RNA expression pattern ... ... DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB4 is an en... ... DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB4 is an enzyme... ... DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB4 is an enzyme that in hu... ... is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLR2D gene.[1] This gene encodes the fourth-largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, the polymerase respo... ...an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLR2D gene.[1] This gene encodes the fourth-largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, the polymerase responsib... ...hat in humans is encoded by the POLR2D gene.[1] This gene encodes the fourth-largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, the polymerase responsible for synt... ... of RNA polymerase II, the polymerase responsible for synthesizing messenger RNA in eukaryotes. In yeast, this polymerase subunit is associated with t... ... Majors J, Sonoda G, Testa JR, Golemis EA (May 1998). "Analysis of the interaction of the novel RNA polymerase II (pol II) subunit hsRPB4 with its par...

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The Division of Intramural Research of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (Niehs)

By: Department of Health and Human Services

... to prevent mutations. These mechanisms include base selection by the DNA polymerase, exonucleolytic, and DNA mismatch correction, as well as numerou... ...vestigated through in vitro DNA replication studies using purified pol III holoenzyme (HE) and its reconstituted subassemblies. A comparison of in vi... ...and its reconstituted subassemblies. A comparison of in vivo and in vitro polymerase errors in the same sequence target (the lacI gene) has revealed ... ...t additional factors contribute to in vivo replication fidelity other than polymerase base selection and proofreading. To investigate these questions... ...close to the maximum compatible with life, about one mutation per gamete. RNA viruses have mutation rates of about one per genome per chromosome repl... ...123-3128. Drake, J.W., and Holland, J.J. (1999) Mutation rates among lytic RNA viruses. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96: 13910-13913. 10 11 Epidemiolo... ...V., Brickey, D., and Soderling, T.R. (1995) Identification of a CaM-Kinase II regulatory phosphorylation site in non-NMDA glutamate receptors. Proc. ... ...cleave chromatin during apoptosis; (2) evaluation of the role of ribosomal RNA degradation in apoptosis; (3) cloning of inhibitors of apoptosis; (4) t...

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RNA polymerase

Encyclopedia Article

... RNA polymerase (RNAP or RNApol), also known as DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, is an enzyme that produces RNA . In cell s, RNAP is... ... RNA polymerase (RNAP or RNApol), also known as DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, is an enzyme that produces RNA . In cell s, RNAP is nec... ...n enzyme that produces RNA . In cell s, RNAP is necessary for constructing RNA chains using DNA gene s as templates, a process called transcript... ...g RNA chains using DNA gene s as templates, a process called transcription . RNA polymerase enzymes are essential to life and are found in all organ... ...A chains using DNA gene s as templates, a process called transcription . RNA polymerase enzymes are essential to life and are found in all organisms... ...s awarded to Roger D. Kornberg for creating detailed molecular images of RNA polymerase during various stages of the transcription process. Control... ... rRNAs which will form the major RNA sections of the ribosome .RNA polymerase II synthesizes precursors of mRNA s and most snRNA and microRNA s.... ...ly closely structurally and mechanistically related to eukaryotic nuclear RNAP II.Korkhin, Y., U. Unligil, O. Littlefield, P. Nelson, D. Stuart, P. Si... ...ove techniques.* Alpha-amanitin DNA polymerase RNA polymerase I RNA polymerase II RNA polymerase III T7 RNA polymerase Transcription (genetics) DNAi ...

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The Division of Intramural Research of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (Niehs)

By: Department of Health and Human Services

... to prevent mutations. These mechanisms include base selection by the DNA polymerase, exonucleolytic, and DNA mismatch correction, as well as numerou... ...vestigated through in vitro DNA replication studies using purified pol III holoenzyme (HE) and its reconstituted subassemblies. A comparison of in vi... ...and its reconstituted subassemblies. A comparison of in vivo and in vitro polymerase errors in the same sequence target (the lacI gene) has revealed ... ...t additional factors contribute to in vivo replication fidelity other than polymerase base selection and proofreading. To investigate these questions... ...close to the maximum compatible with life, about one mutation per gamete. RNA viruses have mutation rates of about one per genome per chromosome repl... ...123-3128. Drake, J.W., and Holland, J.J. (1999) Mutation rates among lytic RNA viruses. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96: 13910-13913. 10 11 Epidemiolo... ...V., Brickey, D., and Soderling, T.R. (1995) Identification of a CaM-Kinase II regulatory phosphorylation site in non-NMDA glutamate receptors. Proc. ... ...cleave chromatin during apoptosis; (2) evaluation of the role of ribosomal RNA degradation in apoptosis; (3) cloning of inhibitors of apoptosis; (4) t...

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Polymerase

Encyclopedia Article

...Structure of Taq DNA polymerase A polymerase is an enzyme (EC 2.7.7.6/7/19/48/49) that synthesizes long chain... ...7/19/48/49) that synthesizes long chains or polymers of nucleic acids. DNA polymerase and RNA polymerase are used to assemble DNA and RNA molecules, r... ...t synthesizes long chains or polymers of nucleic acids. DNA polymerase and RNA polymerase are used to assemble DNA and RNA molecules, respectively, by... ... used to assemble DNA and RNA molecules, respectively, by copying a DNA or RNA template strand using base-pairing interactions. It... ...nsible for the generation of other biopolymers are not also referred to as polymerases. For example, the enzymatic complex that assembles amino acids ... ... Reverse Transcriptase, an enzyme used by RNA retroviruses like HIV, which is used to create a complementary strand t... ... DNA polymerase I DNA polymerase II DNA polymerase III holoenzyme ... ... DNA polymerase II DNA polymerase III holoenzyme DNA polymerase IV (DinB) – ... ... RNA polymerase I RNA polymerase II RNA polymerase III ...

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Fy 2000 Budget Request for the U. S. Geological Survey : Overview

By: Thomas A. Kunkel

... to prevent mutations. These mechanisms include base selection by the DNA polymerase, exonucleolytic, and DNA mismatch correction, as well as numerou... ...vestigated through in vitro DNA replication studies using purified pol III holoenzyme (HE) and its reconstituted subassemblies. A comparison of in vi... ...and its reconstituted subassemblies. A comparison of in vivo and in vitro polymerase errors in the same sequence target (the lacI gene) has revealed ... ...t additional factors contribute to in vivo replication fidelity other than polymerase base selection and proofreading. To investigate these questions... ...close to the maximum compatible with life, about one mutation per gamete. RNA viruses have mutation rates of about one per genome per chromosome repl... ...123-3128. Drake, J.W., and Holland, J.J. (1999) Mutation rates among lytic RNA viruses. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96: 13910-13913. 10 11 Epidemiolo... ...V., Brickey, D., and Soderling, T.R. (1995) Identification of a CaM-Kinase II regulatory phosphorylation site in non-NMDA glutamate receptors. Proc. ... ...cleave chromatin during apoptosis; (2) evaluation of the role of ribosomal RNA degradation in apoptosis; (3) cloning of inhibitors of apoptosis; (4) t...

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RNA polymerase III

Encyclopedia Article

...In eukaryote cells, RNA polymerase III (also called Pol III ) transcribes DNA to synthesize r... ...d role than the Pol III in prokaryote cells. The genes transcribed by RNA Pol III fall in the category of "housekeeping" genes whose expression i... ...rowth and the cell cycle, thus requiring fewer regulatory proteins than RNA polymerase II . In the process of transcription (by any polymerase) ... ...h and the cell cycle, thus requiring fewer regulatory proteins than RNA polymerase II . In the process of transcription (by any polymerase) ther... ... cell cycle, thus requiring fewer regulatory proteins than RNA polymerase II . In the process of transcription (by any polymerase) there are three... ...e) there are three main stages: #Initiation; requiring construction of the RNA polymerase complex on the gene's promoter . #Elongation; the synthesis... ...here are three main stages: #Initiation; requiring construction of the RNA polymerase complex on the gene's promoter . #Elongation; the synthesis of ... ...he polymerase complex on the promoter. Pol III is unusual (compared to Pol II) requiring no control sequences upstream of the gene, instead normally ... ...ionally seen, e.g. U6 snRNA gene has an upstream TATA box as seen in Pol II Promoters). Class I Typical stages in 5S rRNA (also termed class I...

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Genetics

By: Roel M. Schaaper

... to prevent mutations. These mechanisms include base selection by the DNA polymerase, exonucleolytic proofreading, and DNA mismatch correction, as we... ...998) The base substitution and frameshift fidelity of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase III holoenzyme in vitro. J. Biol. Chem. 273: 23575-23584. Taft-... ...ubstitution and frameshift fidelity of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase III holoenzyme in vitro. J. Biol. Chem. 273: 23575-23584. Taft-Benz, S.A., and... ...al analysis of the 3'->5' proofreading exonuclease of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase III. Nucleic Acids Res. 26: 4005-4011. 3 Fijalkowska, I.J., an... ...close to the maximum compatible with life, about one mutation per gamete. RNA viruses have mutation rates of about one per genome per chromosome repl... ...V., Brickey, D., and Soderling, T.R. (1995) Identification of a CaM-Kinase II regulatory phosphorylation site in non-NMDA glutamate receptors. Proc. ... ...cleave chromatin during apoptosis; (2) evaluation of the role of ribosomal RNA degradation in apoptosis; (3) cloning of inhibitors of apoptosis; (4) t... ... study the overlapping areas of embryonic development, cell signaling, and RNA-protein interactions. Many macromolecules involved in the processes of...

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DNA polymerase III holoenzyme

Encyclopedia Article
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Mechanisms of Mutation Section Laboratory of Molecular Genetics

By: Department of Health and Human Services

... to prevent mutations. These mechanisms include base selection by the DNA polymerase, exonucleolytic proofreading, and DNA mismatch correction, as we... ...998) The base substitution and frameshift fidelity of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase III holoenzyme in vitro. J. Biol. Chem. 273: 23575-23584. Taft-... ...ubstitution and frameshift fidelity of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase III holoenzyme in vitro. J. Biol. Chem. 273: 23575-23584. Taft-Benz, S.A., and... ...al analysis of the 3'->5' proofreading exonuclease of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase III. Nucleic Acids Res. 26: 4005-4011. 3 Fijalkowska, I.J., an... ...close to the maximum compatible with life, about one mutation per gamete. RNA viruses have mutation rates of about one per genome per chromosome repl... ...V., Brickey, D., and Soderling, T.R. (1995) Identification of a CaM-Kinase II regulatory phosphorylation site in non-NMDA glutamate receptors. Proc. ... ...cleave chromatin during apoptosis; (2) evaluation of the role of ribosomal RNA degradation in apoptosis; (3) cloning of inhibitors of apoptosis; (4) t... ... study the overlapping areas of embryonic development, cell signaling, and RNA-protein interactions. Many macromolecules involved in the processes of...

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DNA polymerase

Encyclopedia Article

... A DNA polymerase is a cellular or viral polymerase enzyme that synthesizes DNA molecules from their nucle... ... that synthesizes DNA molecules from their nucleotide building blocks. DNA polymerases are essential for DNA replication, and usually function in... ...uble-stranded DNAs in a process termed semiconservative DNA replication. DNA polymerases also play key roles in other processes within cells, includ... ...ed the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for this work. DNA polymerase II was also discovered by Kornberg and Malcolm E. Gefter in 1970 while... ...needs a primer at which it can add the first nucleotide. Primers consist of RNA and/or DNA bases. In DNA replication, the first two bases are alwa... ...s encode an unusual DNA polymerase called reverse transcriptase, which is an RNA-dependent DNA polymerase (RdDp). It polymerizes DNA from a template... ...an RNA-dependent DNA polymerase (RdDp). It polymerizes DNA from a template of RNA . {border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center" ! sc... ...ymerase γ B Replicative and Repair Polymerases Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Pol II, Pol B, Pol ζ, Pol α, δ, and ε C Replicative Polymerases Prokaryoti... ...mbled and takes over replication at a highly processive speed and nature. Pol II DNA polymerase II, a Family B polymerase, is a polB gene product al...

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Genetics

By: Department of Health and Human Services

... to prevent mutations. These mechanisms include base selection by the DNA polymerase, exonucleolytic proofreading, and DNA mismatch correction, as we... ...998) The base substitution and frameshift fidelity of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase III holoenzyme in vitro. J. Biol. Chem. 273: 23575-23584. Taft-... ...ubstitution and frameshift fidelity of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase III holoenzyme in vitro. J. Biol. Chem. 273: 23575-23584. Taft-Benz, S.A., and... ...al analysis of the 3'->5' proofreading exonuclease of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase III. Nucleic Acids Res. 26: 4005-4011. 3 Fijalkowska, I.J., an... ...close to the maximum compatible with life, about one mutation per gamete. RNA viruses have mutation rates of about one per genome per chromosome repl... ...V., Brickey, D., and Soderling, T.R. (1995) Identification of a CaM-Kinase II regulatory phosphorylation site in non-NMDA glutamate receptors. Proc. ... ...cleave chromatin during apoptosis; (2) evaluation of the role of ribosomal RNA degradation in apoptosis; (3) cloning of inhibitors of apoptosis; (4) t... ... study the overlapping areas of embryonic development, cell signaling, and RNA-protein interactions. Many macromolecules involved in the processes of...

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DNA polymerase I

Encyclopedia Article
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Biochemistry at Stanford, Biotechnology at Dnax

By: Kornberg, Arthur, 1918; Hughes, Sally Smith; Bancroft Library. Regional Oral History Office; Program in the History of the Biosciences and Biotechnology

...iculum, industry ties, Industrial Affiliates Program; research programs: DNA polymerase, DNA replication, viral synthesis, polyphosphate, Nobel prize;... ...EER AT THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH 1 Research in Nutrition 1 Mentors 2 II CHAIRMAN, DEPARTMENT OF MICROBIOLOGY, WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF ... ...tide Chain Synthesis 13 DNA as the Genetic Material 14 Jacques Monod and DNA Polymerase 16 Obtaining Diverse Scientific Expertise 16 III CHAIRMAN, DEP... ...6 IV RESEARCH PROGRAMS 68 DNA as the Genetic Material 68 Research on DNA and RNA Polymerase 69 Joseph Fruton's Reaction to DNA Polymerase 71 E. coli M... ... RESEARCH PROGRAMS 68 DNA as the Genetic Material 68 Research on DNA and RNA Polymerase 69 Joseph Fruton's Reaction to DNA Polymerase 71 E. coli Mutan... ...out Polymerase 72 Tom Kornberg's Contributions 74 Severe Ochoa's Research on RNA Polymerase 75 Kornberg's Research on DNA Synthesis 77 Synthesis of Vi... ...this generous gift, Bancroft has begun to build an integrated collection of ii research materialsprimarily oral history transcripts, personal papers,... ...of the universities for training in the skills to be recruited for World War II that finally cracked those barriers (as shaped my own experience). Ind... ...ld do the modest thing of extending chains of nucleotides as we find them in RNA or DNA. The first work I did was on RNA. We made an important discove...

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Non-coding RNA

Encyclopedia Article

... A non-coding RNA (ncRNA) is a functional RNA molecule that is not translated into a protein . Less-frequentl... ...slated into a protein . Less-frequently used synonyms are non-protein-coding RNA (npcRNA), non-messenger RNA (nmRNA) and functional RNA (fRNA). The ... ...(npcRNA), non-messenger RNA (nmRNA) and functional RNA (fRNA). The term small RNA (sRNA) is often used for short bacterial ncRNAs. The DNA seque... ...ups of self-splicing RNAs, these are the group I catalytic intron and group II catalytic intron . These ncRNAs catalyze their own excision from mRN... ...r the normal and efficient transcription of various ncRNAs transcribed by RNA polymerase III . These include tRNA, 5S rRNA, SRP RNA, and U6 snRN... ...wn that 7SK RNA, a metazoan ncRNA, acts as a negative regulator of the RNA polymerase II elongation factor P-TEFb, and that this activity is inf... ...K RNA, a metazoan ncRNA, acts as a negative regulator of the RNA polymerase II elongation factor P-TEFb, and that this activity is influenced by ... ...onse pathways. The bacterial ncRNA, 6S RNA, specifically associates with RNA polymerase holoenzyme containing the sigma70 specificity factor. This... ...eat shock in mouse cells. B2 RNA inhibits transcription by binding to core Pol II. Through this interaction, B2 RNA assembles into preinitiation comp...

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Cdc Emerging Infectious Diseases, Volume 6, Number 5, September–October 2000: Genomics, Toxin-Producing E-coli, Antigenic Variation

By: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

...lence of S. Gallinarum in 1949 likely reflects the fact that after World War II available resources were directed toward rebuilding the poultry indust... ...alysis. References 1. Bullis KL. The history of avian medicine in the U.S. II. Pullorum disease and fowl typhoid. Avian Dis 1977;21:422-9. 2. Sojk... ...mechanisms. The structure of the final construct was confirmed by diagnostic polymerase chain reaction, Southern blotting, and nucleotide sequencing a... ...eusch GT, Acheson DW, Tschape H, Kane AV. Regulation of the Shiga-like toxin II operon in Escherichia coli. Infect Immun 1996;64:495-502. 11. Neely MN... ...he single-stranded arenavirus genome consists of a small (S) and a large (L) RNA fragment, sizes 3.4 kb and 7 kb, respectively. The S RNA encodes the ... ...viral glycoprotein precursor protein (GPC) and the nucleoprotein (NP). The L RNA encodes the viral polymerase and a small, zinc-binding (Z) protein. S... ...cursor protein (GPC) and the nucleoprotein (NP). The L RNA encodes the viral polymerase and a small, zinc-binding (Z) protein. Sequencing of the compl... ...lymerase and a small, zinc-binding (Z) protein. Sequencing of the complete S RNA of two Lassa virus strains, originating from Sierra Leone (strain Jos... ...ient’s serum was amplified and sequenced. A long-range reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction allowed amplification of the full-length (3.4 k...

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Transcription (genetics)

Encyclopedia Article

...ep of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA by the enzyme, RNA polymerase . Both RNA and DNA are nucleic ac... ... which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA by the enzyme, RNA polymerase . Both RNA and DNA are nucleic acid s, which use base pair... ...as a complementary language that can be converted back and forth from DNA to RNA by the action of the correct enzyme s. During transcription, a DNA... ... of the correct enzyme s. During transcription, a DNA sequence is read by an RNA polymerase, which produces a complementary, antiparallel RNA stra... ...the correct enzyme s. During transcription, a DNA sequence is read by an RNA polymerase, which produces a complementary, antiparallel RNA strand. ... ...re sigma factor s initiate transcription of a gene by enabling binding of RNA polymerase to promoter DNA . #RNA polymerase moves a transcription bub... ...itself a subunit of another transcription factor, called Transcription Factor II D (TFIID). After TFIID binds to the TATA box via the TBP, five more... ...orm a preinitiation complex . One transcription factor, Transcription factor II H, has two components with helicase activity and so is involved in... ...ing site; however, in archaea, this complex is composed of only RNA polymerase II, TBP, and TFB (the archaeal homologue of eukaryotic transcription f...

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Annexe 1-Prefixes des Multiples et Sous-Multiples Decimaux des Unites Si

By: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

...ais Terme français correspondant antisense gene gŁne antisens antisense RNA ARN antisens antisense therapy thØrapie antisens antiseptic antisepti... ...Łre aquaculture aquaculture Arabidopsis Arabidopsis arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction rØaction de polymØrisation en cha ne utilisant ... ... catalyst catalyseur catalytic antibody anticorps catalytique catalytic RNA ARN catalytique catalytic site site catalytique Glossaire de la biot... ...idation d ADN DNA ligase ADN ligase DNA micro-array biopuces ADN DNA polymerase ADN polymØrase DNA polymorphism polymorphisme d ADN DNA primas... ...hate) guanylic acid acide guanylique guard cell cellules de garde guide RNA ARN guide guide sequence sØquence guide GURT GURT GUS GUS gus gene ... ...HLA hnRNA hnRNA Hogness box bo te de Hogness hollow fibre fibre creuse holoenzyme holoenzyme holometabolous holomØtabole homeobox bo te homØotiq... ...ematode nØmatode neo-formation nØoformation neomycin phosphotransferase II nØomycine phosphotransfØrase II neoplasm nØoplasme neo r neo r ... ...nt agent non virulent NOR NOR northern blot transfert de northern npt-II npt-II nucellar embryo embryon nucellaire nucellus nucelle nuclear tr... ... anglais Terme français correspondant pollination pollinisation poly-(A) polymerase poly(A)-polymØrase poly-(A) tail queue poly-(A) polyacrylamide...

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Transcription factor II D

Encyclopedia Article

...D (TFIID) is one of several general transcription factors that make up the RNA polymerase II preinitiation complex. RNA polymerase II holoenzyme is a ... ...FIID) is one of several general transcription factors that make up the RNA polymerase II preinitiation complex. RNA polymerase II holoenzyme is a form... ...e of several general transcription factors that make up the RNA polymerase II preinitiation complex. RNA polymerase II holoenzyme is a form of eukaryo... ...reinitiation complex. RNA polymerase II holoenzyme is a form of eukaryotic RNA polymerase II that is recruited to the promoters of protein-coding gene... ...itiation complex. RNA polymerase II holoenzyme is a form of eukaryotic RNA polymerase II that is recruited to the promoters of protein-coding genes in... ...mplex. RNA polymerase II holoenzyme is a form of eukaryotic RNA polymerase II that is recruited to the promoters of protein-coding genes in living cel... ...d to the promoters of protein-coding genes in living cells. It consists of RNA polymerase II, a subset of general transcription factors, and regulator... ... the promoters of protein-coding genes in living cells. It consists of RNA polymerase II, a subset of general transcription factors, and regulatory pr... ...ers of protein-coding genes in living cells. It consists of RNA polymerase II, a subset of general transcription factors, and regulatory proteins know...

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Prefixes des Multiples et Sous-Multiples Decimaux des Unites Si

By: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

...ais Terme français correspondant antisense gene gŁne antisens antisense RNA ARN antisens antisense therapy thØrapie antisens antiseptic antisepti... ...Łre aquaculture aquaculture Arabidopsis Arabidopsis arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction rØaction de polymØrisation en cha ne utilisant ... ... catalyst catalyseur catalytic antibody anticorps catalytique catalytic RNA ARN catalytique catalytic site site catalytique Glossaire de la biot... ...idation d ADN DNA ligase ADN ligase DNA micro-array biopuces ADN DNA polymerase ADN polymØrase DNA polymorphism polymorphisme d ADN DNA primas... ...hate) guanylic acid acide guanylique guard cell cellules de garde guide RNA ARN guide guide sequence sØquence guide GURT GURT GUS GUS gus gene ... ...HLA hnRNA hnRNA Hogness box bo te de Hogness hollow fibre fibre creuse holoenzyme holoenzyme holometabolous holomØtabole homeobox bo te homØotiq... ...ematode nØmatode neo-formation nØoformation neomycin phosphotransferase II nØomycine phosphotransfØrase II neoplasm nØoplasme neo r neo r ... ...nt agent non virulent NOR NOR northern blot transfert de northern npt-II npt-II nucellar embryo embryon nucellaire nucellus nucelle nuclear tr... ... anglais Terme français correspondant pollination pollinisation poly-(A) polymerase poly(A)-polymØrase poly-(A) tail queue poly-(A) polyacrylamide...

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Transcription preinitiation complex

Encyclopedia Article

...ene s in eukaryote s (+ archaea ). The preinitiation complex helps position RNA polymerase II over gene transcription start site s, denatures t... ...s in eukaryote s (+ archaea ). The preinitiation complex helps position RNA polymerase II over gene transcription start site s, denatures the ... ...yote s (+ archaea ). The preinitiation complex helps position RNA polymerase II over gene transcription start site s, denatures the DNA, and po... ...transcription start site s, denatures the DNA, and positions the DNA in the RNA polymerase II active site for transcription. The minimal PIC inc... ...scription start site s, denatures the DNA, and positions the DNA in the RNA polymerase II active site for transcription. The minimal PIC include... ...tart site s, denatures the DNA, and positions the DNA in the RNA polymerase II active site for transcription. The minimal PIC includes RNA polym... ...e RNA polymerase II active site for transcription. The minimal PIC includes RNA polymerase II and six general transcription factor s: TFIIA, TFI... ...A polymerase II active site for transcription. The minimal PIC includes RNA polymerase II and six general transcription factor s: TFIIA, TFIIB, ... ...e II active site for transcription. The minimal PIC includes RNA polymerase II and six general transcription factor s: TFIIA, TFIIB, TFIID, TF...

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NIADDK annual project report; Issue: 1981 Volume: 2

By: National Institute of Arthritis, Diabetes, and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (U. S. )National Institute of Arthritis, Metabolism and Digestive Diseases (U. S. )

... words or less - underline keywords) Transcription of plasmid ColEl DNA by RNA polymerase in vitro starts at two sites in a region required for mainte... ...ds or less - underline keywords) Transcription of plasmid ColEl DNA by RNA polymerase in vitro starts at two sites in a region required for maintenanc... ... primers for DNA replication. Transcription from the other site produces a RNA * 108 nucleotides long (RNA I). If purified RNA I is added to the trans... ...iption reaction containing RNase H, formation of primer is inhibited. Each RNA I can inhibit primer form- ation by the plasmid that specifies it but h... ... demonstrated with a mixture of three highly purified E. coli enzymes: RNA polymerase, DNA polymerase I and ribonuclease H (RNase H) . Transcription o... ...ymerase I and ribonuclease H (RNase H) . Transcription of ColEl DNA by RNA polymerase ^n vitro starts at two sites in a region required for maintenanc... ...T. L.: Steady-state head-to-tail polymerization of actin or micro- tubules II. Two-state and three-state kinetic cycles. Biophys. J. 33: 353-372 (1981... ...-2038 (1981). Chen, Y.: Monte Carlo study of freely jointed ring polymers. II. The writhing number. J. Chem. Phys., in press. 665 SMITHSONIAN SCIENCE... ...synaptic input delivered to the soma and dendritic branches ojF a neuron; (ii) steady propagation of action potentials along axons; (iii) stimulus-res...

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Biomolecular complex

Encyclopedia Article

...plex, is any biological complex made of more than one molecule of protein, RNA, DNA, [1] lipids, carbohydrates. The interactions between these biomole... ...Examples: protein complexes: proteasome, DNA polymerase III holoenzyme, RNA polymerase II holoenzyme, symmetric viral ca... ... protein complexes: proteasome, DNA polymerase III holoenzyme, RNA polymerase II holoenzyme, symmetric viral capsids, complex ... ... protein complexes: proteasome, DNA polymerase III holoenzyme, RNA polymerase II holoenzyme, symmetric viral capsids, complex of GroEL and... ...otein complexes: proteasome, DNA polymerase III holoenzyme, RNA polymerase II holoenzyme, symmetric viral capsids, complex of GroEL and GroES, photosy... ...x of GroEL and GroES, photosystem I, ATP synthase RNA-protein complexes: vault, SnRNP. Such complexes in cell nucleus are cal... ...Examples: protein complexes: proteasome, DNA polymerase III holoenzyme, RNA polymerase II holoenzyme, symmetric viral ca... ... protein complexes: proteasome, DNA polymerase III holoenzyme, RNA polymerase II holoenzyme, symmetric viral capsids, complex ... ...otein complexes: proteasome, DNA polymerase III holoenzyme, RNA polymerase II holoenzyme, symmetric viral capsids, complex of GroEL and GroES, photosy...

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NIADDK annual project report; Issue: 1981

By: National Institute of Arthritis, Diabetes, and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (U. S. ); National Institute of Arthritis, Metabolism and Digestive Diseases (U. S. )

... of antiviral activity induced by interferon 283 Purification of messenger RNA for human interferon 284 Biochemical mechanisms of interferon action 28... ...ologically important macromolecules — 363 (I) Oxidation of hemoglobin and (II) Reactions of Formaldehyde 366 Estimation, metabolism, and function of a... ...imation, metabolism, and function of amines 369 The killer double-stranded RNA plasmids of Saccharomyces cerevisiae — 373 Laboratory of Chemical Biolo... ... of Arthritis, Diabetes, and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIADDK). Title II of the Health Programs Extension Act, signed by President Carter in Dece... .... We have established a heterologous transcription system for the yeast 5S RNA gene using a HeLa cell extract. The system transcribes the gene faithfu... ...is intragenic, as in the Xenopus homologous system. A homologous yeast RNA polymerase III system has been established and efforts are proceeding to si... ...n established and efforts are proceeding to similar development of a yeast polymerase II system, required for detailed study of the features of chroma... ...ed and efforts are proceeding to similar development of a yeast polymerase II system, required for detailed study of the features of chromatin structu... ...ntly, we have established a homologous yeast transcription system for R.MA polymerase III and the tRNA gene. A precursor is initially synthesized and ...

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POLR2G

Encyclopedia Article

...rces: Amigo / QuickGO RNA expression pattern ... ... DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB7 is an en... ... DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB7 is an enzyme... ... DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB7 is an enzyme that in hu... ...an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLR2G gene.[1][2] This gene encodes the seventh largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, the polymerase respo... ...nzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLR2G gene.[1][2] This gene encodes the seventh largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, the polymerase responsib... ...in humans is encoded by the POLR2G gene.[1][2] This gene encodes the seventh largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, the polymerase responsible for synt... ...e responsible for synthesizing messenger RNA in eukaryotes. In yeast, the association of this subunit with the polymerase under suboptimal growth cond... ... ^ Khazak V, Sadhale PP, Woychik NA, Brent R, Golemis EA (December 1995). "Human RNA polymerase II subunit hsRPB7 functions in yeast an...

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The Biological Bulletin : Volume 197

By: Marine Biological Laboratory (Woods Hole, Mass.); Moore, Carl Richard, 1892; Marine Biological Laboratory (Woods Hole, Mass.). Annual Report 1907/08-1952; Lillie, Frank Rattray, 1870-1947; Redfield, Alfred Clarence, 1890-1983

...fall and overwintered in aquaria. in the fall animals is due toDNA dependent-RNA polymer- ase (which utilizes the same substrates in the RT assay) rat... ...2), ft /xl 100 mM DTT, 9.75 LI! 100mM thymidine triphosphate (TTP), 1.25 /xl RNA-guard (Pharmacia), 1.0 /xl poly(rA)-p(dT) (Pharmacia), and 10 /xCi of... ...ation between chloroplasts of Codium fragile and the mollusc, Elysia viridis II. Chloroplast ultrastructure and photosynthetic carbon fixation in . )/... ...9. Separate photosensitizers mediate degrada- tion of the 32 kDa photosystem II reaction center protein in the visible Lind UV spectral regions. Proc.... ...atoo, A. K., J. B. Marder, and M. Edelman. 1989. Dynamics of the photosystem II reaction center. Cell 56: 241-246. 24. Barber. J., and B. Andersson. 1... ...eatures and continue, among other measures of neuronal health, to synthesize RNA and proteins. One application of this culture system is demonstrated:... ...-xr Y-Y-R (PC/GENE, 1995 [Prosite]). By choosing appropriate primers for the polymerase chain re- action, sequences were obtained from sponges that mu... ... Technologies (Madi- son, WI; USA), and Promega (Madison, WI; USA). Tut/ DNA polymerase, DIG [digoxigeninj DNA labeling kit. DIG-11-dUTP, anti-DIG AP ... ...ete cDNAs as well as those encoding the catalytic domains were cloned by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from the A. vastus cDNA library (see abov...

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POLR2J

Encyclopedia Article

...rces: Amigo / QuickGO RNA expression pattern ... ... DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB11-a is an... ... DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB11-a is an enz... ... DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB11-a is an enzyme that in... ...e II subunit RPB11-a is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLR2J gene. This gene encodes a subunit of RNA polymerase II, the polymerase respo... ... subunit RPB11-a is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLR2J gene. This gene encodes a subunit of RNA polymerase II, the polymerase responsib... ...B11-a is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLR2J gene. This gene encodes a subunit of RNA polymerase II, the polymerase responsible for synt... ...le for synthesizing messenger RNA in eukaryotes. The product of this gene exists as a heterodimer with another polymerase subunit; together they form ... ... References ^ "Entrez Gene: POLR2J polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide J, 13.3kD...

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The Biological Bulletin : Volume 193

By: Marine Biological Laboratory (Woods Hole, Mass.); Moore, Carl Richard, 1892; Marine Biological Laboratory (Woods Hole, Mass.). Annual Report 1907/08-1952; Lillie, Frank Rattray, 1870-1947; Redfield, Alfred Clarence, 1890-1983

...glas. 1934. Principles underlying ciliary activity in the respiratory tract. II. A comparison ofnasal clearance in man, monkey, and other mammals. Arc... ...A: 359-364. 14. Gardiner, D. B., F. S. Turner, J. M. Myers, T. H. Dietz, and II. Silverman. 1991. Long-term culture of freshwater mussel gill strips: ... ...r io\m. ./ Invest Dermatol. 51: 330-336. Campbell, E. 1992. .1 (innle in ihc II '< /</<>///;< Jellyfish Monterey Bay Aquarium Foundation, Monterey, CA... ...eobox genes in outgroups to the Bilateria, such as the Cnidaria. We used the polymerase chain reaction to recover 12 partial homeoboxes from 2 species... ...to rapidly survey metazoan genomes for the presence ofhomeoboxes: ( 1 ) PCR (polymerase chain reaction) amplification of geno- mic DNA with degenerate... ...ing and sequencing PCR products were blunted prior to cloning by using T4DNA Polymerase (Costa and Weiner. 1 994). The en- tire reaction was then run ... ... for the newly emerging discipline of molecular ecology. Using the ribosomal RNA database and nucleic acid-based probe technology, it is possible to d... ...Glassman Lecture) August 16 Gerald F. Joyce, Scripps Research Institute "The RNA World: Life BeforeDNA and Proteins" August 23 Jared M. Diamond, Depar... ... (Kleinschimdt and Steinbeisser. 1991). DNA-PK has been reported to suppress RNA polymerase I tran- scription in extracts of embryonic kidney cells of...

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POLR2A

Encyclopedia Article

...rces: Amigo / QuickGO RNA expression pattern ... ... DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB1 is an en... ... DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB1 is an enzyme... ... DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB1 is an enzyme that in hu... ...bunit RPB1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLR2A gene. This gene encodes the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, the polymerase respo... ...t RPB1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLR2A gene. This gene encodes the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, the polymerase responsib... ...n enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLR2A gene. This gene encodes the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, the polymerase responsible for synt... ...roduct of this gene contains a carboxy terminal domain composed of heptapeptide repeats that are essential for polymerase activity. These repeats cont... ...CA1,[4][5][6][7] GTF2H4,[5] TATA-binding protein,[5] PCAF,[3] GTF2F1,[3][5] SUPT5H,[8][9] Transcription Factor II B,[5] POLR2H,[10] POLR2L,[10] MED26,...

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Glossaire de la Biotechnologie Pour Lalimentation et Lagriculture

By: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

...une coenzyme pour fonctionner. Le complexe apoenzyme/coenzyme est appelØ holoenzyme. apomixie Production d un embryon en absence de méiose. Les pl... ...érisation en chaîne utilisant des amorces arbitraires (arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction). aptamère MolØcule polynuclØotidique qui se li... ... ARN ribosomique. ARNsn AbrØviation de petit ARN nucléaire (small nuclear RNA). ARNt AbrØviation d ARN de transfert. Petites molØcules d ARN qui ... ...es deux chromatides (durant l’anaphase de la mitose; et durant l anaphase II de la mØiose), elles prennent le nom de chromosomes. Glossaire de la ... ...DN double brin, gØnØralement avec une endonucléase de restriction de type II Synonyme: couper, digØrer. cloison Paroi de division ou partition qui ... ...ose ou des chromatides s urs durant l anaphase de la mitose ou l anaphase II de la mØiose. disomie PrØsence d une paire de chromosomes homologues s... ... dans E. coli. PCR AbrØviation de réaction de polymérisation en chaîne (polymerase chain reaction). PCR-RFLP Terme alternatif pour digestion des p... ...le, pédoncule. petit ARN nucléaire (AbrØviation: ARNsn pour small nuclear RNA). Transcrits d ARN de 100-300 pb qui s associent aux protéines pour ... ...eule amorce. réaction de polymérisation en chaîne (AbrØviation: PCR pour polymerase chain reaction). Technique de biologie molØculaire largement rØ...

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Endogenous mediator

Encyclopedia Article

...r complex is required for the successful transcription of nearly all class II gene promoters in yeast.[1] It works in the same manner in mammals. The ... ... mediator functions as a coactivator and binds to the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II holoenzyme, acting as a bridge between this enzyme and tr... ...iator functions as a coactivator and binds to the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II holoenzyme, acting as a bridge between this enzyme and transc... ...ions as a coactivator and binds to the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II holoenzyme, acting as a bridge between this enzyme and transcription fac... ...s as a coactivator and binds to the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II holoenzyme, acting as a bridge between this enzyme and transcription factor...

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Glossaire de la Biotechnologie Pour Lalimentation et Lagriculture

By: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

...une coenzyme pour fonctionner. Le complexe apoenzyme/coenzyme est appelØ holoenzyme. apomixie Production d un embryon en absence de méiose. Les pl... ...érisation en chaîne utilisant des amorces arbitraires (arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction). aptamère MolØcule polynuclØotidique qui se li... ... ARN ribosomique. ARNsn AbrØviation de petit ARN nucléaire (small nuclear RNA). ARNt AbrØviation d ARN de transfert. Petites molØcules d ARN qui ... ...es deux chromatides (durant l’anaphase de la mitose; et durant l anaphase II de la mØiose), elles prennent le nom de chromosomes. Glossaire de la ... ...DN double brin, gØnØralement avec une endonucléase de restriction de type II Synonyme: couper, digØrer. cloison Paroi de division ou partition qui ... ...ose ou des chromatides s urs durant l anaphase de la mitose ou l anaphase II de la mØiose. disomie PrØsence d une paire de chromosomes homologues s... ... dans E. coli. PCR AbrØviation de réaction de polymérisation en chaîne (polymerase chain reaction). PCR-RFLP Terme alternatif pour digestion des p... ...le, pédoncule. petit ARN nucléaire (AbrØviation: ARNsn pour small nuclear RNA). Transcrits d ARN de 100-300 pb qui s associent aux protéines pour ... ...eule amorce. réaction de polymérisation en chaîne (AbrØviation: PCR pour polymerase chain reaction). Technique de biologie molØculaire largement rØ...

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Coactivator (genetics)

Encyclopedia Article

...r can enhance transcription initiation by stabilizing the formation of the RNA polymerase holoenzyme enabling faster clearance of the promoter. Coacti... ...n enhance transcription initiation by stabilizing the formation of the RNA polymerase holoenzyme enabling faster clearance of the promoter. Coactivato... ...ranscription initiation by stabilizing the formation of the RNA polymerase holoenzyme enabling faster clearance of the promoter. Coactivators may cont... ...rs may control many other substeps of transcription, including elongation, RNA splicing, and termination and degradation of the coactivator-activator ... ... bacterial RNA polymerase: rpoB ... ... bacterial RNA polymerase: rpoB ... ... eukaryotic RNA polymerase: RNA polymerase II ... ... eukaryotic RNA polymerase: RNA polymerase II ...

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Amino Acid Pools : Distribution, Formation and Function of Free Amino Acids; Proceedings

By: Symposium on Free Amino Acids (1961; City of Hope); Holden, Joseph T; United States. Office of Naval Research; City of Hope National Medical Center (U.S.)

... K. Kinugasa (Duarte, Calif.) 350 Free amino acids in the blood ofman and animals: II. Normal individuals and patients with chronic granulocytic leuke... ...re have been supported by data that would, at best, CO2H CO2H CO2H CO2H CO2H I ' I II NH2_C-H NH2-C-H NH2-C-H H-C-NH-C-H I I I II CH2 . CH2 (CH2), CH3... ...n is here precluded. References p. 22/24 IDENTIFICATION OF THE ELUSIVE AMINO ACID II ESTABLISHMENT OF STRUCTURE VIA SYNTHESIS AND RESOLUTION Although... ... similarly specific pool described by Lacks and Gros to be associated with soluble RNA. In conclusion, certain knowledge concerning the intracellular ... ...rnate interpretation that protein synthesis must occur simultaneously by measuring RNA synthesis in the presence ofchloramphenicol. The validity ofthe... ...d by Ludwig^^" for Popillia japonica. Parallel to protein synthesis, variations in RNA contents oi Tenebrio during morphogenetic development have been... ...hat one would find intracellular amino acids at these levels bound to coenzymes or holoenzymes. Multiple pools are most to be expected under these con... ...s is modelled on the findings of Kornberg et al}^ on DNA synthesis, where a single polymerase forms all the phosphodiester linkages, the sequential sp... ...s will be E^, E^, etc., numbered according to their specific substrates, while the polymerase that forms peptide bonds will be E' . Permeases will be ...

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Promoter (genetics)

Encyclopedia Article

...the repressor, so the repressor binds to the operator, which obstructs the RNA polymerase from binding to the promoter and making lactase. Bottom: The... ...repressor, so the repressor binds to the operator, which obstructs the RNA polymerase from binding to the promoter and making lactase. Bottom: The gen... ...: The gene is turned on. Lactose is inhibiting the repressor, allowing the RNA polymerase to bind with the promoter, and express the genes, which synt... ...e gene is turned on. Lactose is inhibiting the repressor, allowing the RNA polymerase to bind with the promoter, and express the genes, which synthesi... ... For the transcription to take place, the enzyme that synthesizes RNA, known as RNA polymerase, must attach to the DNA near a gene. Promoters... ...transcription to take place, the enzyme that synthesizes RNA, known as RNA polymerase, must attach to the DNA near a gene. Promoters contain specific ... ...seven different factors are necessary for the binding of an RNA polymerase II to the promoter. Promoters represent critical... ...osomal RNA RNA polymerase II: transcribes genes encoding messenger RNA and certain small nuclear RNAs... ...ences far from the actual site of transcription. Eukaryotic RNA-polymerase-II-dependent promoters can contain a TATA element (consensus sequence TATAA...

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The Biological Bulletin : Volume 187

By: Marine Biological Laboratory (Woods Hole, Mass.); Moore, Carl Richard, 1892; Marine Biological Laboratory (Woods Hole, Mass.). Annual Report 1907/08-1952; Lillie, Frank Rattray, 1870-1947; Redfield, Alfred Clarence, 1890-1983

... of the cells throughout the suspension. AN IMPROVED ASSAY FOR CHEMOKINESIS II 0.25 -i 0,20- c 0. 1 5 - o a o.io-l o 0,05- 0,00^ 0.25 -i 0,30-i 20 30... ...1. Chemotaxis in Tetra- hymena thermophila. Cell Motil. 1:261-268. Andersen, II. A., H. Flodgaard, H. Klenow, and V. Leick. 1984. Platelet-derived gro... ... the antennae ofthe cephalocarid Hutchinxoniella macracantha. J. Crust. Bin/ II: 345-355. Elofsson, R., and R. R. Messier. 1992. Monoaminergic and pep... ...plasma have been particularly important organisms for the study of ribosomal RNA sequences as a means of learning more about the relatedness of organi... ...he structure analysis ofribosomal RN hrities between small subunit ribosomal RNA sequencer , infer the evolutionary history of eukaryotic micro. d to ... ...A"-bis-2-ethane sulfonic acid; nL, norleucine; NS, nonspecific binding; PCR, polymerase chain reaction; PMSF. phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride; RIA, radio... ...orted by immunoblotting experiments, which also showed that chloroperoxidase holoenzyme is localized in the tail. Immunological results were substanti... ...lavoprotein and a heme protein, which associate in a 1:1 molar ratio to form holoenzyme. The flavoprotein is composed of four identical subunits (alph... ...on. 199 1 . Analysis of cephalopod evolution and systematics using ribosomal RNA sequence data. Bull. Mar. Sci. 49: 665. (Abstract) Lipinski, M. R. 19...

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MNAT1

Encyclopedia Article

...rces: Amigo / QuickGO RNA expression pattern ... ...ence.274.5287.605.  Parada CA, Roeder RG (1996). "Enhanced processivity of RNA polymerase II triggered by Tat-indu... ....274.5287.605.  Parada CA, Roeder RG (1996). "Enhanced processivity of RNA polymerase II triggered by Tat-induced ... ...05.  Parada CA, Roeder RG (1996). "Enhanced processivity of RNA polymerase II triggered by Tat-induced phosphoryla... ...TP, Cho H, Maldonado E, et al. (1997). "The human immunodeficiency virus transactivator Tat interacts with the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme.". Mol. Ce... ...Cho H, Maldonado E, et al. (1997). "The human immunodeficiency virus transactivator Tat interacts with the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme.". Mol. Cell. ... ...onado E, et al. (1997). "The human immunodeficiency virus transactivator Tat interacts with the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme.". Mol. Cell. Biol. 17 (4... ...-derived human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat-associated kinase phosphorylates the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II and induces CAK activity.... ...man immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat-associated kinase phosphorylates the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II and induces CAK activity.". J. Virol...

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DNA replication

Encyclopedia Article

...of the initiation and continuation of DNA synthesis. Most prominently, DNA polymerase synthesizes the new DNA by adding complementary nucleotides to t... ...ication can also be performed in vitro (artificially, outside a cell). DNA polymerases isolated from cells and artificial DNA primers can be used to i... ... initiate DNA synthesis at known sequences in a template DNA molecule. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a common laboratory technique, cyclically ... ... initiate synthesis of new strands, but can only extend an existing DNA or RNA strand paired with a template strand. To begin synthesis, a short fragm... ...and paired with a template strand. To begin synthesis, a short fragment of RNA , called a primer, must be created and paired with the template DNA str... ... many DNA viruses, phages and plasmids use a primase to synthesize a short RNA primer with a free 3' OH group which is subsequently elongated by a DNA... ... is also found in the catalytic domains of topoisomerase Ia, topoisomerase II, the OLD-family nucleases and DNA repair proteins related to the RecR pr... ... DNA polymerase III holoenzyme ...

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Flap endonuclease

Encyclopedia Article

...es. In prokaryotes, the FEN enzyme is found as an N-terminal domain of DNA polymerase I, but some prokaryotes appear to encode a second homologue.[1][... ... Deoxyribonuclease II ... ... RNA-induced silencing complex ... ... DNA polymerase III holoenzyme ... ... DNA polymerase III holoenzyme ... ... Prokaryotic DNA polymerase: DNA polymerase I ... ... Deoxyribonuclease II ... ... RNA-induced silencing complex ... ... DNA polymerase III holoenzyme ...

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Organelle

Encyclopedia Article

... RNA ... ...^ Alliegro MC, Alliegro MA, Palazzo RE (June 2006). "Centrosome-associated RNA in surf clam oocytes". Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 103 (24): 9037–9038. &... ... nucleoid DNA maintenance, transcription to RNA DNA-protein ... ...s: vault large protein complexes: proteasome, DNA polymerase III holoenzyme, RNA polymerase II holoenzyme, symmetric viral ca... ... large protein complexes: proteasome, DNA polymerase III holoenzyme, RNA polymerase II holoenzyme, symmetric viral capsids, complex ... ...otein complexes: proteasome, DNA polymerase III holoenzyme, RNA polymerase II holoenzyme, symmetric viral capsids, complex of GroEL and GroES; membran...

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Replication protein A1

Encyclopedia Article

... Dornreiter I, Erdile LF, Gilbert IU, et al. (1992). "Interaction of DNA polymerase alpha-primase with cellular replication protein A and SV40 T ant... ...). "The human immunodeficiency virus transactivator Tat interacts with the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme.". Mol. Cell. Biol. 17 (4): 1817–23. PMC ... ...The human immunodeficiency virus transactivator Tat interacts with the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme.". Mol. Cell. Biol. 17 (4): 1817–23. PMC 2320... ...mmunodeficiency virus transactivator Tat interacts with the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme.". Mol. Cell. Biol. 17 (4): 1817–23. PMC 232028. PMID&nb... ...nodeficiency virus transactivator Tat interacts with the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme.". Mol. Cell. Biol. 17 (4): 1817–23. PMC 232028. PMID ... ... DNA polymerase III holoenzyme ... ... DNA polymerase III holoenzyme ... ...). "The human immunodeficiency virus transactivator Tat interacts with the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme.". Mol. Cell. Biol. 17 (4): 1817–23. PMC ... ...mmunodeficiency virus transactivator Tat interacts with the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme.". Mol. Cell. Biol. 17 (4): 1817–23. PMC 232028. PMID&nb...

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Telomerase reverse transcriptase

Encyclopedia Article

... RNA expression pattern ... ...ytic subunit of the enzyme telomerase, which, together with the telomerase RNA component (TERC), comprises the most important unit of the telomerase c... ....[1][2] Telomerases are part of a distinct subgroup of RNA-dependent polymerases. Telomerase lengthens telomeres in DNA strands, t... ... Telomerases are part of a distinct subgroup of RNA-dependent polymerases. Telomerase lengthens telomeres in DNA strands, thereby allowin... ... Function Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein polymerase that maintains telomere ends by addition of the telomere repeat ... ...itic cells, which can display hTERT-associated antigens on MHC class I and II receptors following adenoviral transduction of an hTERT plasmid into den... ... Class II PI 3 ... ... Polymerase ... ... II ...

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Index of biochemistry articles

Encyclopedia Article

...ion - analytical chemistry - androgen receptor - angiotensin - angiotensin II - angiotensin receptor - ankyrin - annexin II - antibiotic - antibody - ... ...- Histidine - histone - History of science and technology - HIV receptor - holoenzyme - homeobox - homeodomain protein - homology - homoserine - homoz... ...ion molecule-1 - interferon receptor - interferon type I - interferon type II - interferon-alpha - interferon-beta - interleukin receptor - interleuki... ...receptor - photorespiration - photosynthesis - photosystem I - photosystem II - phototransduction - phylogenetics - phylogeny - physical chemistry - p... ...erived growth factor - platelet-derived growth factor receptor - polymer - polymerase chain reaction - polymerization - polymyxin - polymyxin B - poly... ...in - ribose - ribosomal protein - ribosomal protein S6 kinase - ribosome - RNA - RNA virus - RNA-binding protein - RNA-directed DNA polymerase - rod o... ...nase - ribosome - RNA - RNA virus - RNA-binding protein - RNA-directed DNA polymerase - rod outer segment - rough ER - S ...

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BRCA1

Encyclopedia Article

...ociated genome surveillance complex (BASC). The BRCA1 protein associates with RNA polymerase II, and through the C-terminal domain, also interacts ... ...ted genome surveillance complex (BASC). The BRCA1 protein associates with RNA polymerase II, and through the C-terminal domain, also interacts with... ...surveillance complex (BASC). The BRCA1 protein associates with RNA polymerase II, and through the C-terminal domain, also interacts with histone d... ...ntaining pathways. Transcription BRCA1 was shown to co-purify with the human RNA Polymerase II holoenzyme in HeLa extracts, implying it is a compone... ...ning pathways. Transcription BRCA1 was shown to co-purify with the human RNA Polymerase II holoenzyme in HeLa extracts, implying it is a component o... ...ys. Transcription BRCA1 was shown to co-purify with the human RNA Polymerase II holoenzyme in HeLa extracts, implying it is a component of the holoe... ... Transcription BRCA1 was shown to co-purify with the human RNA Polymerase II holoenzyme in HeLa extracts, implying it is a component of the holoenzy...

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ORC1

Encyclopedia Article

... RNA expression pattern ... ...hta S, Tatsumi Y, Fujita M, et al. (2003). "The ORC1 cycle in human cells: II. Dynamic changes in the human ORC complex during the cell cycle.". J. Bi... ... DNA polymerase III holoenzyme ... ... DNA polymerase III holoenzyme ... ... Prokaryotic DNA polymerase: DNA polymerase I ... ... Eukaryotic DNA polymerase: ... ... RNA expression pattern ... ...hta S, Tatsumi Y, Fujita M, et al. (2003). "The ORC1 cycle in human cells: II. Dynamic changes in the human ORC complex during the cell cycle.". J. Bi... ... DNA polymerase III holoenzyme ...

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MCM3

Encyclopedia Article

... RNA expression pattern ... ... Todorov I, Romanowski P, et al. (1999). "MCM Proteins Are Associated with RNA Polymerase II Holoenzyme". Mol. Cell. Biol. 19 (9): 6154–63. PMC 8... ...orov I, Romanowski P, et al. (1999). "MCM Proteins Are Associated with RNA Polymerase II Holoenzyme". Mol. Cell. Biol. 19 (9): 6154–63. PMC 84545... ...anowski P, et al. (1999). "MCM Proteins Are Associated with RNA Polymerase II Holoenzyme". Mol. Cell. Biol. 19 (9): 6154–63. PMC 84545. PMID ... ...wski P, et al. (1999). "MCM Proteins Are Associated with RNA Polymerase II Holoenzyme". Mol. Cell. Biol. 19 (9): 6154–63. PMC 84545. PMID 10... ... RNA expression pattern ... ...orov I, Romanowski P, et al. (1999). "MCM Proteins Are Associated with RNA Polymerase II Holoenzyme". Mol. Cell. Biol. 19 (9): 6154–63. PMC 84545... ...anowski P, et al. (1999). "MCM Proteins Are Associated with RNA Polymerase II Holoenzyme". Mol. Cell. Biol. 19 (9): 6154–63. PMC 84545. PMID ... ...wski P, et al. (1999). "MCM Proteins Are Associated with RNA Polymerase II Holoenzyme". Mol. Cell. Biol. 19 (9): 6154–63. PMC 84545. PMID 10...

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SMARCA4

Encyclopedia Article

...rces: Amigo / QuickGO RNA expression pattern ... ... ^ Neish AS, Anderson SF, Schlegel BP, Wei W, Parvin JD (1998). "Factors associated with the mammalian RNA polymerase II holoenzyme". Nucleic ... ... ^ Neish AS, Anderson SF, Schlegel BP, Wei W, Parvin JD (1998). "Factors associated with the mammalian RNA polymerase II holoenzyme". Nucleic Acid... ...h AS, Anderson SF, Schlegel BP, Wei W, Parvin JD (1998). "Factors associated with the mammalian RNA polymerase II holoenzyme". Nucleic Acids Res. 26 (... ...S, Anderson SF, Schlegel BP, Wei W, Parvin JD (1998). "Factors associated with the mammalian RNA polymerase II holoenzyme". Nucleic Acids Res. 26 (3):... ..., Zhang S, Ornatsky O, Bukhman YV, Ethier M, Sheng Y, Vasilescu J, Abu-Farha M, Lambert JP, Duewel HS, Stewart II, Kuehl B, Hogue K, Colwill K, Gladwi...

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Histone acetyltransferase

Encyclopedia Article

...t, Hat2. Elp3 is an example of a type A HAT found in yeast. It is part of the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme and plays a role in transcriptional elong... ...at2. Elp3 is an example of a type A HAT found in yeast. It is part of the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme and plays a role in transcriptional elongatio... ...s an example of a type A HAT found in yeast. It is part of the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme and plays a role in transcriptional elongation. MYST H... ...n example of a type A HAT found in yeast. It is part of the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme and plays a role in transcriptional elongation. MYST HATs... ...ains of GNATs. TFIIIC is one of the general transcription factors involved in RNA polymerase III -mediated transcription. Three components in the hum... ... of GNATs. TFIIIC is one of the general transcription factors involved in RNA polymerase III -mediated transcription. Three components in the human p...

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P53

Encyclopedia Article

... RNA expression pattern ... ..., Cooch Neil S, Godwin Andrew K, Shiekhattar Ramin. Regulation of BRCC, a holoenzyme complex containing BRCA1 and BRCA2, by a signalosome-like subuni... ...^ Cuddihy AR, Wong A H, Tam N W, Li S, Koromilas A E. The double-stranded RNA activated protein kinase PKR physically associates with the tumor suppr... ... Hatakeyama M. Physical interaction and functional antagonism between the RNA polymerase II elongation factor ELL and p53. J. Biol. Chem.. 1999;274(2... ...akeyama M. Physical interaction and functional antagonism between the RNA polymerase II elongation factor ELL and p53. J. Biol. Chem.. 1999;274(24):1... ... Physical interaction and functional antagonism between the RNA polymerase II elongation factor ELL and p53. J. Biol. Chem.. 1999;274(24):17003–10. do... ... 2ata: Structural Basis of DNA Recognition by p53 Tetramers (complex II)  ... ... II ...

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