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350s BC

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350s BC

Millennium: 1st millennium BC
Centuries: 5th century BC4th century BC3rd century BC
Decades: 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC350s BC340s BC 330s BC 320s BC
Years: 359 BC 358 BC 357 BC 356 BC 355 BC 354 BC 353 BC 352 BC 351 BC 350 BC
350s BC-related
categories:
BirthsDeaths
Establishments

350s BC: events by year

Contents: 359 BC 358 BC 357 BC 356 BC 355 BC 354 BC 353 BC 352 BC 351 BC 350 BC

359 BC

By place

Macedonia

  • The Macedonian King Perdiccas III is killed while defending his country against an Illyrian attack led by King Bardylis. He is succeeded by his infant son, Amyntas IV. The child's uncle, Philip II, assumes the regency.
  • The Illyrians prepare to close in, the Paeonians raid from the north and two claimants to the Macedonian throne are supported by foreign powers. Philip II buys off his dangerous neighbours and, with a treaty, cedes Amphipolis to Athens.

358 BC

By place

Persian Empire

Greece

Macedonia

Roman Republic

  • The Romans defeat the Volsci, annex most of their territory, and settle it with Roman colonists. The Romans also force the Latin League to renew its close alliance with Rome, an alliance which was weakened by Rome’s defeat at the hands of the Gauls in 390 BC.

357 BC

By place

Persian Empire

Thrace

Macedonia

Sicily

356 BC

By place

Persian Empire

  • Having blamed the defeats by Philip II in Thessaly and Chalcidice on his colleagues, Chares is left as sole Athenian commander. Chares is in need of money for his war effort, but frowns upon asking it from the Athenians so, partly compelled by his mercenaries, he enters the service of the insurgent Persian satrap Artabazus of Phrygia who rewards Chares very generously.
  • Artabazus of Phrygia is also supported by the Thebans, who send him 5,000 men under their general Pammenes. With the assistance of these and other allies, Artabazus defeats his Persian enemies in two great battles.
  • The Persian King Artaxerxes III orders all the satraps (governors) of his empire to dismiss their mercenaries. The Athenians, who have originally approved their mercenaries' collaboration with Artabazus of Phrygia, order them to leave due to their fear of Persian support for the revolting states of Chios, Rhodes, and Cos. Thebes follows suit and withdraws its mercenaries.
  • With King Artaxerxes III succeeding in depriving Artabazus of his Athenian and Theban allies, Artabazus is defeated by the Persian King's general, Autophradates.

Greece

  • Philip II of Macedon secretly offers the city of Amphipolis back to the Athenians in exchange for the valuable port of Pydna. Despite the Athenians being willing to comply, both Pydna and Potidaea are conquered by the Macedonians (along with other Athenian strongholds in Thessaly and Chalcidice) despite being defended by Athenian forces led by general and mercenary commander, Chares, as well as generals Iphicrates and Timotheus.
  • With Pydna and Potidaea occupied, Philip II decides to keep Amphipolis anyway. He also takes the city of Crenides from the Odrysae and renames it Philippi.
  • The Phocians capture and sack Delphi in whose territory the famous temple and oracle stand. A sacred war is declared against them by the other members of the Great Amphictyonic League. The Phocians, led by two capable generals, Philomelus and Onomarchus, use Delphi's riches to hire a mercenary army to carry the war into Boeotia and Thessaly.
  • The Social War or the "War of the Allies" begins between the Second Athenian Empire, led by Athens, and its revolting allies of Chios, Rhodes, and Kos as well as the independent state Byzantium. Mausolus, the tyrant of Caria, instigates the rebellion against the Athenian control of these states. The revolting allies ravage the islands of Lemnos and Imbros which are loyal to Athens.
  • The Athenian generals Chares and Chabrias are given command of the Athenian fleet with the aim of defeating the rebellious cities. However, Chabrias' fleet is defeated and he is killed in its attack on the island of Chios, off the coast of Ionia.
  • Chares is given complete command of the Athenian fleet and withdraws to the Hellespont to move against Byzantium. The generals Timotheus, Iphicrates and his son Menestheus are sent to help him when the enemy fleet is sighted on the Hellespont. Timotheus and Iphicrates refuse to engage due to a severe gale, but Chares does engage and lose many of his ships. Timotheus and Iphicrates are accused by Chares and put on trial, however only Timotheus is condemned to pay a fine.

Roman Republic

China

By topic

Architecture

355 BC

By place

Greece

  • King Artaxerxes III of Persia forces Athens to conclude a peace which requires the city to leave Asia Minor and to acknowledge the independence of its rebellious allies.
  • King Archidamus III of Sparta supports the Phocians against Thebes in the "Sacred War".
  • Chares' war party in Athens is replaced by one under Eubulus which favours peace. Eubulus restores the economic position of Athens without increasing the burden of taxation and improves the Athenian fleet while its docks and fortifications are repaired.

354 BC

By place

Greece

Roman Republic

China

By topic

Architecture

353 BC

By place

Persian Empire

Greece

  • The Phocians threaten Thessaly to their north. Philip II of Macedon sees his opportunity to penetrate south.
  • Clearchus, the tyrant of Heraclea, a Greek city on the Black Sea, is murdered by some of the city's citizens led by Chion after a reign of twelve years. Most of the conspirators are killed by the tyrant's body-guards upon the spot, while others are captured and put to death. Within a short time, the city falls under the rule of the new tyrant Satyrus, Clearchus' brother.

352 BC

By place

Greece

  • After two initial efforts, Philip II of Macedon drives the Phocians south after a major victory over them in the Battle of Crocus Field. Athens and Sparta come to the assistance of the Phocians and Philip is checked at Thermopylae. Philip does not attempt to advance into central Greece with the Athenians occupying this pass. With this victory, Philip accrues great glory as the righteous avenger of Apollo, since the Phocian general Onomarchos has plundered the sacred treasury of Delphi to pay his mercenaries. Onomarchos' body is crucified, and the prisoners are drowned as ritual demanded for temple-robbers.
  • Philip then moves against Thrace. He makes a successful expedition into Thrace, gaining a firm ascendancy in the country, and brings away a son of Cersobleptes, the King of Thrace, as a hostage. Philip II's Thessalian victory earns him election as president (archon) of the Thessalian League.

351 BC

By place

Persian Empire

Greece

  • Demosthenes tries to get the Athenians to cease depending on paid mercenaries and return to the old concept of a citizen army. He also delivers his first Philippic, warning Athenians of the folly of believing that Philip's ill health will save Athens from the Macedonians. In response, Athens' citizens votes for increased armaments.

Roman Republic

  • The Etruscans are badly defeated by the Romans and abandon their attacks on the city and sue for peace.
  • First use of the heavy throwing spear, the pilum, (according to Livy) in battle against the Gauls.
  • The first Roman plebeian is elected to the office of censor.

350 BC

By place

Persian Empire

Greece

Roman Republic

  • The Gauls, once more threatening Rome, are decisively beaten by an army comprising Rome and its allies.

America

By topic

Science

  • Organon.
  • Plato proposes a geocentric model of the universe with the stars rotating on a fixed celestial sphere.

Art


Births

Deaths

References

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