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Arthur C. Clarke Award

The Arthur C. Clarke Award is a British award given for the best Sci-Fi-London film festival.[1] The award has been described as "the UK's most prestigious science fiction prize".[2]

Any "full-length" science fiction novel written or translated into English is eligible for the prize, provided that it was first published in the United Kingdom during the prior calendar year. There is no restriction on the nationality of the author, and the publication history of works outside of the United Kingdom is not taken into consideration. Books must be submitted for consideration by their publishing company and self-published titles are not currently eligible. An official call for entries is issued to UK publishers every year and members of the judging panel and organisation committee also actively call in titles they would like to see submitted. A title must be actively submitted in order to be considered. The judges form a shortlist of six works that they feel are worthy of consideration, from which they select a winning book.[3] The winner receives an engraved bookend and a prize consisting of a number of pounds sterling equal to the current year, such as £2012 for the year 2012.[2] Prior to 2001, the award was £1000.[4]

During the 29 nomination years, 111 authors have had works nominated, 25 of whom have won. China Miéville has won three times, while Pat Cadigan and Geoff Ryman have won twice; no other author has won multiple times. Stephen Baxter and Gwyneth Jones have the most nominations at seven, and Baxter has the most nominations without winning. Neal Stephenson has won once out of six nominations; Ken MacLeod and Kim Stanley Robinson have also been nominated six times. Paul J. McAuley and Miéville have been nominated five times; McAuley has one win, whereas MacLeod and Robinson have none.

Contents

  • Winners and nominees 1
  • References 2
  • Etymology 3
  • Definition and meanings 4
    • Karma and causality 4.1
    • Karma and ethicization 4.2
    • Karma and rebirth 4.3
  • History 5
  • Discussion 6
    • Karma, free will, and destiny 6.1
    • Psychological indeterminacy 6.2
    • Transferability of karma 6.3
    • Karma and the problem of evil 6.4
  • Eastern interpretations 7
    • Hinduism 7.1
    • Sikhism 7.2
    • Buddhism 7.3
    • Jainism 7.4
  • Etymology 8
  • Definition and meanings 9
    • Karma and causality 9.1
    • Karma and ethicization 9.2
    • Karma and rebirth 9.3
  • History 10
  • Discussion 11
    • Karma, free will, and destiny 11.1
    • Psychological indeterminacy 11.2
    • Transferability of karma 11.3
    • Karma and the problem of evil 11.4
  • Eastern interpretations 12
    • Hinduism 12.1
    • Sikhism 12.2
    • Buddhism 12.3
    • Jainism 12.4
  • External links 13

Winners and nominees

In the following table, the years correspond to the date of the ceremony, rather than when the novel was first published. Each year links to the corresponding "year in literature". Entries with a blue background and an asterisk (*) next to the writer's name have won the award; those with a white background are the other nominees on the shortlist.

  *   Winners

Year Author Novel Publisher Ref.
1987 Atwood, MargaretMargaret Atwood* The Handmaid's Tale McClelland & Stewart [5]
Shaw, BobBob Shaw The Ragged Astronauts Victor Gollancz Ltd [5]
Bear, GregGreg Bear Eon Victor Gollancz Ltd [5]
Delany, Samuel R.Samuel R. Delany Stars in My Pocket Like Grains of Sand Grafton [5]
Jones, GwynethGwyneth Jones Escape Plans Allen & Unwin [5]
Robinson, Kim StanleyKim Stanley Robinson The Memory of Whiteness Futura/Macdonald [5]
Saxton, JosephineJosephine Saxton Queen of the States The Women's Press [5]
Shepard, LuciusLucius Shepard Green Eyes Chatto & Windus [5]
1988 Turner, GeorgeGeorge Turner* The Sea and Summer Faber and Faber [6]
Lem, StanisławStanisław Lem Fiasco André Deutsch Publishing [6]
Bishop, MichaelMichael Bishop Ancient of Days Grafton [6]
Crowley, JohnJohn Crowley Aegypt Victor Gollancz Ltd [6]
Grimwood, KenKen Grimwood Replay Grafton [6]
Roberts, KeithKeith Roberts Gráinne Kerosina Books [6]
Saint, H. F.H. F. Saint Memoirs of an Invisible Man Viking UK [6]
1989 Pollack, RachelRachel Pollack* Unquenchable Fire Century Publishing [7]
Stableford, BrianBrian Stableford Empire of Fear Simon & Schuster UK [7]
Bishop, MichaelMichael Bishop Philip K. Dick is Dead, Alas Grafton [7]
Grant, RichardRichard Grant Rumours of Spring Bantam UK [7]
Jones, GwynethGwyneth Jones Kairos Unwin Hyman [7]
Shepard, LuciusLucius Shepard Life During Wartime Grafton [7]
Watson, IanIan Watson Whores of Babylon Grafton [7]
1990 Ryman, GeoffGeoff Ryman* The Child Garden Unwin Hyman [8]
Carroll, JonathanJonathan Carroll A Child Across the Sky Century Publishing [8]
Goldstein, LisaLisa Goldstein A Mask for the General Arrow Books [8]
McDonald, IanIan McDonald Desolation Road Bantam UK [8]
Park, PaulPaul Park Soldiers of Paradise Grafton [8]
Resnick, MikeMike Resnick Ivory Century Publishing [8]
Zindell, DavidDavid Zindell Neverness Grafton [8]
1991 Greenland, ColinColin Greenland* Take Back Plenty Unwin Hyman [9]
Gentle, MaryMary Gentle Rats and Gargoyles Bantam UK [9]
Banks, Iain M.Iain M. Banks Use of Weapons Macdonald Publishing [9]
Nogha, MishaMisha Nogha Red Spider, White Web Morrigan Publications [9]
Jeter, K. W.K. W. Jeter Farewell Horizontal Grafton [9]
Murphy, PatPat Murphy The City, Not Long After Pan Books [9]
1992 Cadigan, PatPat Cadigan* Synners HarperCollins [10]
McAuley, Paul J.Paul J. McAuley Eternal Light Victor Gollancz Ltd [10]
Baxter, StephenStephen Baxter Raft Grafton [10]
Jones, GwynethGwyneth Jones White Queen Victor Gollancz Ltd [10]
Russo, Richard PaulRichard Paul Russo Subterranean Gallery Grafton [10]
Simmons, DanDan Simmons The Hyperion Cantos Headline Publishing Group [10]
1993 Piercy, MargeMarge Piercy* Body of Glass Michael Joseph [11]
Robinson, Kim StanleyKim Stanley Robinson Red Mars HarperCollins UK [11]
McDonald, IanIan McDonald Hearts, Hands and Voices Victor Gollancz Ltd [11]
Russo, Richard PaulRichard Paul Russo Destroying Angel Headline Publishing Group [11]
Swanwick, MichaelMichael Swanwick Stations of the Tide Legend Publishing [11]
Thomas, SueSue Thomas Correspondence The Women's Press [11]
Tuttle, LisaLisa Tuttle Lost Futures Grafton [11]
Willis, ConnieConnie Willis Doomsday Book New English Library [11]
1994 Noon, JeffJeff Noon* Vurt Ringpull [12]
Barnes, JohnJohn Barnes A Million Open Doors Millennium [12]
Griffith, NicolaNicola Griffith Ammonite Grafton [12]
Stephenson, NealNeal Stephenson Snow Crash Roc UK [12]
Swanwick, MichaelMichael Swanwick The Iron Dragon's Daughter Millennium [12]
Zindell, DavidDavid Zindell The Broken God HarperCollins UK [12]
1995 Cadigan, PatPat Cadigan* Fools HarperCollins UK [13]
Barnes, JohnJohn Barnes Mother of Storms Millennium [13]
Jones, GwynethGwyneth Jones North Wind Victor Gollancz Ltd [13]
McAuley, Paul J.Paul J. McAuley Pasquale's Angel Victor Gollancz Ltd [13]
Morrow, James K.James K. Morrow Towing Jehovah Arrow Books [13]
Rusch, Kristine KathrynKristine Kathryn Rusch Alien Influences Millennium [13]
1996 McAuley, Paul J.Paul J. McAuley* Fairyland Victor Gollancz Ltd [14]
MacLeod, KenKen MacLeod The Star Fraction Legend Publishing [14]
Anthony, PatriciaPatricia Anthony Happy Policeman New English Library [14]
Baxter, StephenStephen Baxter The Time Ships HarperCollins UK [14]
Priest, ChristopherChristopher Priest The Prestige Simon & Schuster UK [14]
Stephenson, NealNeal Stephenson The Diamond Age Viking UK [14]
1997 Ghosh, AmitavAmitav Ghosh* The Calcutta Chromosome Picador [15]
Baxter, StephenStephen Baxter Voyage HarperCollins Voyager [15]
McDevitt, JackJack McDevitt The Engines of God HarperCollins Voyager [15]
Robinson, Kim StanleyKim Stanley Robinson Blue Mars HarperCollins Voyager [15]
Tepper, Sheri S.Sheri S. Tepper Gibbon's Decline and Fall HarperCollins Voyager [15]
Wood, N. LeeN. Lee Wood Looking for the Mahdi HarperCollins Voyager [15]
1998 Russell, Mary DoriaMary Doria Russell* The Sparrow Black Swan [16]
Baxter, StephenStephen Baxter Titan HarperCollins Voyager [16]
Hand, ElizabethElizabeth Hand Glimmering HarperCollins Voyager [16]
Lovegrove, JamesJames Lovegrove Days Phoenix Books [16]
Noon, JeffJeff Noon Nymphomation Doubleday [16]
Tepper, Sheri S.Sheri S. Tepper The Family Tree HarperCollins Voyager [16]
1999 Sullivan, TriciaTricia Sullivan* Dreaming In Smoke Orbit Books [17]
Barnes, JohnJohn Barnes Earth Made of Glass Orion Publishing Group [17]
Delacorte, PeterPeter Delacorte Time on My Hands Victor Gollancz Ltd [17]
MacLeod, KenKen MacLeod The Cassini Division Orbit Books [17]
Priest, ChristopherChristopher Priest The Extremes Simon & Schuster UK [17]
Sinclair, AlisonAlison Sinclair Cavalcade Millennium [17]
2000 Sterling, BruceBruce Sterling* Distraction Millennium [18]
Baxter, StephenStephen Baxter Manifold: Time HarperCollins Voyager [18]
Goonan, Kathleen AnnKathleen Ann Goonan The Bones of Time HarperCollins Voyager [18]
Robson, JustinaJustina Robson Silver Screen Macmillan UK [18]
Stephenson, NealNeal Stephenson Cryptonomicon Heinemann [18]
Vinge, VernorVernor Vinge A Deepness in the Sky Millennium [18]
2001 Miéville, ChinaChina Miéville* Perdido Street Station Macmillan Publishers [19]
Butler, Octavia E.Octavia E. Butler Parable of the Talents The Women's Press [19]
Gentle, MaryMary Gentle Ash: A Secret History Victor Gollancz Ltd [19]
MacLeod, KenKen MacLeod Cosmonaut Keep Orbit Books [19]
Reynolds, AlastairAlastair Reynolds Revelation Space Victor Gollancz Ltd [19]
Roberts, AdamAdam Roberts Salt Victor Gollancz Ltd [19]
2002 Jones, GwynethGwyneth Jones* Bold As Love Victor Gollancz Ltd [20]
Grimwood, Jon CourtenayJon Courtenay Grimwood Pashazade Earthlight [20]
Hamilton, Peter F.Peter F. Hamilton Fallen Dragon Macmillan Publishers [20]
McAuley, Paul J.Paul J. McAuley The Secret of Life HarperCollins Voyager [20]
Robson, JustinaJustina Robson Mappa Mundi Macmillan Publishers [20]
Willis, ConnieConnie Willis Passage HarperCollins Voyager [20]
2003 Priest, ChristopherChristopher Priest* The Separation Scribner UK [21]
Brin, DavidDavid Brin Kiln People Orbit Books [21]
Harrison, M. JohnM. John Harrison Light Victor Gollancz Ltd [21]
Miéville, ChinaChina Miéville The Scar Macmillan Publishers [21]
Moon, ElizabethElizabeth Moon Speed of Dark Orbit Books [21]
Robinson, Kim StanleyKim Stanley Robinson The Years of Rice and Salt HarperCollins [21]
2004 Stephenson, NealNeal Stephenson* Quicksilver Heinemann [22]
Baxter, StephenStephen Baxter Coalescent Victor Gollancz Ltd [22]
Bear, GregGreg Bear Darwin's Children HarperCollins UK [22]
Gibson, WilliamWilliam Gibson Pattern Recognition Viking Press [22]
Jones, GwynethGwyneth Jones Midnight Lamp Victor Gollancz Ltd [22]
Sullivan, TriciaTricia Sullivan Maul Orbit Books [22]
2005 Miéville, ChinaChina Miéville* Iron Council Macmillan Publishers [23]
McDonald, IanIan McDonald River of Gods Simon & Schuster [23]
Mitchell, DavidDavid Mitchell Cloud Atlas Sceptre [23]
Morgan, Richard K.Richard K. Morgan Market Forces Victor Gollancz Ltd [23]
Niffenegger, AudreyAudrey Niffenegger The Time Traveler's Wife Jonathan Cape [23]
Stephenson, NealNeal Stephenson The System of the World Heinemann [23]
2006 Ryman, GeoffGeoff Ryman* Air Victor Gollancz Ltd [24]
MacLeod, KenKen MacLeod Learning the World Orbit Books [24]
Reynolds, AlastairAlastair Reynolds Pushing Ice Victor Gollancz Ltd [24]
Ishiguro, KazuoKazuo Ishiguro Never Let Me Go Faber and Faber [24]
Stross, CharlesCharles Stross Accelerando Orbit Books [24]
Williams, LizLiz Williams Banner of Souls Tor UK [24]
2007 Harrison, M. JohnM. John Harrison* Nova Swing Victor Gollancz Ltd [25]
Grimwood, Jon CourtenayJon Courtenay Grimwood End of the World Blues Victor Gollancz Ltd [25]
Millet, LydiaLydia Millet Oh Pure and Radiant Heart Heinemann [25]
Morris, JanJan Morris Hav Faber and Faber [25]
Roberts, AdamAdam Roberts Gradisil Victor Gollancz Ltd [25]
Stableford, BrianBrian Stableford Streaking PS Publishing [25]
2008 Morgan, Richard K.Richard K. Morgan* Black Man Victor Gollancz Ltd [26]
Abaitua, Matthew deMatthew de Abaitua The Red Men Snowbooks [26]
Hall, SarahSarah Hall The Carhullan Army Faber and Faber [26]
Hall, StevenSteven Hall The Raw Shark Texts Canongate Books [26]
MacLeod, KenKen MacLeod The Execution Channel Orbit Books [26]
Baxter, StephenStephen Baxter The H-Bomb Girl Faber and Faber [26]
2009 MacLeod, Ian R.Ian R. MacLeod* Song of Time PS Publishing [27]
McAuley, Paul J.Paul J. McAuley The Quiet War Victor Gollancz Ltd [27]
Reynolds, AlastairAlastair Reynolds House of Suns Victor Gollancz Ltd [27]
Stephenson, NealNeal Stephenson Anathem Atlantic Books [27]
Tepper, Sheri S.Sheri S. Tepper The Margarets HarperCollins [27]
Wernham, MarkMark Wernham Martin Martin’s on the Other Side Jonathan Cape [27]
2010 Miéville, ChinaChina Miéville* The City & the City Macmillan Publishers [28]
Jones, GwynethGwyneth Jones Spirit: The Princess of Bois Dormant Victor Gollancz Ltd [28]
Roberts, AdamAdam Roberts Yellow Blue Tibia Victor Gollancz Ltd [28]
Robinson, Kim StanleyKim Stanley Robinson Galileo's Dream HarperCollins [28]
Theroux, MarcelMarcel Theroux Far North Faber and Faber [28]
Wooding, ChrisChris Wooding Retribution Falls Victor Gollancz Ltd [28]
2011 Beukes, LaurenLauren Beukes* Zoo City Angry Robot [29]
Ness, PatrickPatrick Ness Monsters of Men Walker Books [29]
McDonald, IanIan McDonald The Dervish House Victor Gollancz Ltd [29]
Powers, RichardRichard Powers Generosity Atlantic Books [29]
Powers, TimTim Powers Declare Corvus Books [29]
Sullivan, TriciaTricia Sullivan Lightborn Orbit Books [29]
2012 Rogers, JaneJane Rogers* The Testament of Jessie Lamb Sandstone Press [30]
Bear, GregGreg Bear Hull Zero Three Victor Gollancz Ltd [30]
Magary (Drew Magary), DrewDrew Magary (Drew Magary) The End Specialist HarperCollins Voyager [30]
Miéville, ChinaChina Miéville Embassytown Macmillan Publishers [30]
Stross, CharlesCharles Stross Rule 34 Orbit Books [30]
Tepper, Sheri S.Sheri S. Tepper The Waters Rising Victor Gollancz Ltd [30]
2013 Beckett, ChrisChris Beckett* Dark Eden Corvus [31]
Robinson, Kim StanleyKim Stanley Robinson 2312 Orbit Books [31]
Harkaway, NickNick Harkaway Angelmaker Heinemann [31]
Heller, PeterPeter Heller The Dog Stars Headline Publishing Group [31]
MacLeod, KenKen MacLeod Intrusion Orbit Books [31]
Barnes, AdrianAdrian Barnes Nod Bluemoose [31]
2014 Leckie, AnnAnn Leckie* Ancillary Justice Orbit Books [32]
Hurley, KameronKameron Hurley God's War Del Rey Books [32]
Mann, PhillipPhillip Mann The Disestablishment of Paradise Victor Gollancz Ltd [32]
Naam, RamezRamez Naam Nexus Angry Robot [32]
Priest, ChristopherChristopher Priest The Adjacent Victor Gollancz Ltd [32]
Smythe, JamesJames Smythe The Machine Blue Door [32]
2015 Mandel, Emily St. JohnEmily St. John Mandel* Station Eleven Picador [33]
Faber, MichelMichel Faber The Book of Strange New Things Canongate Books [33]
Hutchinson, DaveDave Hutchinson Europe in Autumn Solaris Books [33]
North, ClaireClaire North The First Fifteen Lives of Harry August Orbit Books [33]
Carey, M. R.M. R. Carey The Girl with All the Gifts Orbit Books [33]
Itäranta, EmmiEmmi Itäranta Memory of Water HarperVoyager [33]

References

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  34. ^ See:
    • Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 15, New York, pp 679-680, Article on Karma; Quote - "Karma meaning deed or action; in addition, it also has philosophical and technical meaning, denoting a person's deeds as determining his future lot."
    • The Encyclopedia of World Religions, Robert Ellwood & Gregory Alles, ISBN 978-0-8160-6141-9, pp 253; Quote - "Karma: Sanskrit word meaning action and the consequences of action."
    • Hans Torwesten (1994), Vedanta: Heart of Hinduism, ISBN 978-0802132628, Grove Press New York, pp 97; Quote - "In the Vedas the word karma (work, deed or action, and its resulting effect) referred mainly to..."
  35. ^ Karma Encyclopedia Britannica (2012)
  36. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Halbfass, Wilhelm (2000), Karma und Wiedergeburt im indischen Denken, Diederichs, München, Germany
  37. ^ Lawrence C. Becker & Charlotte B. Becker, Encyclopedia of Ethics, 2nd Edition, ISBN 0-415-93672-1, Hindu Ethics, pp 678
  38. ^ a b c d e f James Lochtefeld (2002), The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Rosen Publishing, New York, ISBN 0-8239-2287-1, pp 351-352
  39. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n John Bowker (1997), The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions, ISBN 978-0192800947, Oxford University Press, See entry on Karma
  40. ^
  41. ^ a b Eva Wong, Taoism, Shambhala Publications, ISBN 978-1590308820, pp. 193
  42. ^ a b c d see:
    • kṛ,कृ Monier Monier-Williams, Monier Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary (2008 revision), pp 300-301;
    • Carl Cappeller (1999), Monier-Williams: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary, Etymological and Philologically Arranged with Special Reference to Cognate Indo-European Languages, Asian Educational Services, ISBN 978-8120603691
  43. ^ Mulla & Krishnan (2009), Do Karma-Yogis Make Better Leaders? Exploring the Relationship between the Leader's Karma-Yoga and Transformational Leadership, Journal of Human Values, 15(2), pp 167-183
  44. ^ See Rigveda 9.69.5, 10.159.4, 10.95.2, Svetâsvatara Upanishad 2.7.v.1, Mahabharata 1.5141, etc.
  45. ^ Erdosy, G. (1989), Ethnicity in the Rigveda and its Bearing on the Question of Indo-European Origins, South Asian Studies, 5(1), pp 35-47
  46. ^ John Algeo and Thomas Pyles (2010), The Origins and Development of the English Language, 6th Edition, ISBN 978-1428231450, pp 54-55
  47. ^ Julius Lipner (2010), Hindus: Their religious beliefs and practices, 2nd Edition, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-45677-7, pp 261-262
  48. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Karl Potter (1964), The Naturalistic Principle of Karma, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 14, No. 1 (Apr., 1964), pp. 39-49
  49. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Wendy D. O'Flaherty (1980), Karma and Rebirth in Classical Indian Traditions, University of California Press, ISBN 978-0520039230, pp xi-xxv (Introduction)
  50. ^ Wendy D. O'Flaherty (1980), Karma and Rebirth in Classical Indian Traditions, University of California Press, ISBN 978-0520039230, pp 3-37
  51. ^ Karl Potter (1980), in Karma and Rebirth in Classical Indian Traditions (O'Flaherty, Editor), University of California Press, ISBN 978-0520039230, pp 241-267
  52. ^ See:
    • For Hinduism view: Jeffrey Brodd (2009), World Religions: A Voyage of Discovery, Saint Mary's Press, ISBN 978-0884899976, pp. 47;
    • For Buddhism view: Khandro Rinpoche (2003), This Precious Life, Shambhala, pp. 95
  53. ^ a b c d see:
    • Kaufman, W. R. (2005), Karma, rebirth, and the problem of evil, Philosophy East and West, pp 15-32;
    • Sharma, A. (1996), On the distinction between Karma and Rebirth in Hinduism, Asian Philosophy, 6(1), pp 29-35;
    • Bhattacharya, R. (2012), Svabhāvavāda and the Cārvāka/Lokāyata: A Historical Overview, Journal of Indian Philosophy, 40(6), pp 593-614
  54. ^ Harold Coward (2003), Encyclopedia of Science of Religion, MacMillan Reference, ISBN 978-0028657042, see article on Karma
  55. ^ Maria I. Macioti, The Buddha Within Ourselves: Blossoms of the Lotus Sutra, Translator: Richard Maurice Capozzi, ISBN 978-0761821892, pp 69-70
  56. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Bruce R. Reichenbach, The Law of Karma and the Principle of Causation, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 38, No. 4 (Oct., 1988), pp. 399-410
  57. ^ Anguttara-Nikaya 3.4.33, Translator: Henry Warren (1962), Buddhism in Translations, Atheneum Publications, New York, pp 216-217
  58. ^ a b c d see:
    • James McDermott, Karma and Rebirth in Early Buddhism, in Editor: Wendy D. O'Flaherty (1980), Karma and Rebirth in Classical Indian Traditions, University of California Press, ISBN 978-0520039230, pp 165-192
    • Padmanabh Jaini, Karma and the problem of rebirth in Jainism, in Editor: Wendy D. O'Flaherty (1980), Karma and Rebirth in Classical Indian Traditions, University of California Press, ISBN 978-0520039230, pp 217-239
    • Ludo Rocher, Karma and Rebirth in the Dharmasastras, in Editor: Wendy D. O'Flaherty (1980), Karma and Rebirth in Classical Indian Traditions, University of California Press, ISBN 978-0520039230, pp 61-89
  59. ^ Damien Keown (1996), Karma, character, and consequentialism, The Journal of Religious Ethics, pp 329-350
  60. ^ Karl Potter's suggestion is supported by the Bhagavad-Gita, which links good bondage and bad bondage to good habits and bad habits respectively. It also lists various types of habits - such as good (sattva), passion (rajas) and indifferent (tamas) - while explaining karma. See the cited Potter reference; elsewhere, in Yoga Sutras, the role of karma to creating habits is explained with Vāsanās - see Ian Whicher, The Integrity of the Yoga Darsana: A Reconsideration of Classical Yoga, State University of New York, ISBN 0-7914-3816-3, Chapter 3, particularly pp 102-105
  61. ^ Ian Whicher (1998), The final stages of purification in classical yoga, Asian Philosophy, 8(2), pp 85-102
  62. ^ Harold Coward (1983), Psychology and Karma, Philosophy East and West, 33 (Jan), pp. 49-60
  63. ^ Francis X. Clooney, Evil, Divine Omnipotence, and Human Freedom: Vedānta's Theology of Karma, The Journal of Religion, Vol. 69, No. 4 (Oct., 1989), pp. 530-548
  64. ^ Wilhelm Halbfass (1998), Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Routledge, London, see article on Karma and Rebirth (Indian Conceptions)
  65. ^ see:
    • James Hastings et al. (1915), Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics (Hymns-Liberty), Volume VII, Article on Jainism, pp 469-471;
    • Christopher Chapple (1975), Karma and the path of purification, in Virginia Hanson et al. (Editors) - Karma: Rhythmic Return to Harmony, ISBN 978-0835606639, Chapter 23;
    • Krishan, Y. (1988), The Vedic origins of the doctrine of karma, South Asian Studies, 4(1), pp 51-55
  66. ^ Austin Creel (1986), in Editor: Ronald Wesley Neufeldt, Karma and Rebirth: Post Classical Developments, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0873959902, Chapter 1
  67. ^ M Yamunacharya (1966), Karma and Rebirth, Indian Philo. Annual, 1, pp 66
  68. ^ M. Hiriyana (1949), Essentials of Indian Philosophy, George Allen Unwin, London, pp 47
  69. ^ James Lochtefeld (2002), The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Volume 2, Rosen Publishing, New York, ISBN 0-8239-2287-1, pp 589
  70. ^ Harold Coward (2003), Encyclopedia of Science of Religion, Karma
  71. ^ see:
    • Wilhelm Halbfass (1998), Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Routledge, London, see article on Karma and Rebirth (Indian Conceptions)
    • Ronald Wesley Neufeldt, Karma and Rebirth: Post Classical Developments, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0873959902
  72. ^ A. Javadekar (1965), Karma and Rebirth, Indian Philosophical Annual, 1, 78
  73. ^ Damien Keown (2013), Buddhism: A very short introduction, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0199663835
  74. ^ Étienne Lamotte(1936), Le traité de l'acte de Vasubandhu: Karmasiddhiprakarana, in Mélanges chinois et bouddhiques 4, pp 151-288
  75. ^ a b c d e f Krishan, Y. (1988), The Vedic origins of the doctrine of karma, South Asian Studies, 4(1), pp 51-55
  76. ^ see:
    • Y. Masih (2000) In : A Comparative Study of Religions, Motilal Banarsidass Publ : Delhi, ISBN 81-208-0815-0, page 37, Quote - "This confirms that the doctrine of transmigration is non-aryan and was accepted by non-vedics like Ajivikism, Jainism and Buddhism. The Indo-aryans have borrowed the theory of re-birth after coming in contact with the aboriginal inhabitants of India. Certainly Jainism and non-vedics [..] accepted the doctrine of rebirth as supreme postulate or article of faith."
    • Gavin D. Flood (1996), An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press: UK ISBN 0-521-43878-0, page 86, Quote - "The origin and doctrine of Karma and Saṃsāra are obscure. These concepts were certainly circulating amongst sramanas, and Jainism and Buddhism developed specific and sophisticated ideas about the process of transmigration. It is very possible that the karmas and reincarnation entered the mainstream brahaminical thought from the sramana or the renouncer traditions."
  77. ^ a b c d G. Obeyesekere (2002), Imagining Karma - Ethical Transformation in Amerindian, Buddhist, and Greek Rebirth, University of California Press, Berkeley, ISBN 978-0520232433
  78. ^ see:
    • Bimala Law (1952, Reprint 2005), The Buddhist Conception of Spirits, ISBN 81-206-1933-1, Asian Educational Services; in particular, see Chapter II
    • Y. Krishan, The doctrine of Karma and Śraddhas, Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Vol. 66, No. 1/4 (1985), pp. 97-115
  79. ^ Wendy D. O'Flaherty (1980), Karma and Rebirth in Classical Indian Traditions, University of California Press, ISBN 978-0520039230, pp xvii-xviii; Quote - "There was such constant interaction between Vedism and Buddhism in the early period that it is fruitless to attempt to sort out the earlier source of many doctrines, they lived in one another's pockets, like Picasso and Braque (who, in later years, were unable to say which of them had painted certain paintings from their earlier, shared period)."
  80. ^ a b c d e f Kaufman, W. R. (2005), Karma, rebirth, and the problem of evil, Philosophy East and West, pp 15-32
  81. ^ [Moral responsibility] Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Stanford University (2009); Quote - "Can a person be morally responsible for her behavior if that behavior can be explained solely by reference to physical states of the universe and the laws governing changes in those physical states, or solely by reference to the existence of a sovereign God who guides the world along a divinely ordained path?"
  82. ^ Herman, Arthur (1976), The Problem of Evil in Indian Thought, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidas
  83. ^ Harold Coward (2003) Encyclopedia of Science of Religion, Macmillan Reference, see Karma
  84. ^ Reichenbach, Bruce (1990), The Law of Karma, University of Hawai'i Press, Honolulu, ISBN 978-0333535592
  85. ^ a b c d e f Matthew Dasti and Edwin Bryant (2013), Free Will, Agency, and Selfhood in Indian Philosophy, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0199922758
  86. ^ a b c d G. Obeyesekere (1968), Theodicy, sin and salvation in a sociology of Buddhism, Practical religion, Editor: E.R. Leach, Cambridge University Press
  87. ^ Ronald Wesley Neufeldt, Karma and Rebirth: Post Classical Developments, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0873959902
  88. ^ see:
    • Charles Keyes (1983), Merit-Transference in the Kammic Theory of Popular Theravada Buddhism, In Karma, Editors: Charles Keyes and Valentine Daniel, Berkeley, University of California Press;
    • F.L. Woodward (1914), The Buddhist Doctrine of Reversible Merit, The Buddhist Review, Vol. 6, pp 38-50
  89. ^ Ronald Wesley Neufeldt, Karma and Rebirth: Post Classical Developments, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0873959902, pp 226, see Footnote 74
  90. ^ Wendy D. O'Flaherty (1980), Karma and Rebirth in Classical Indian Traditions, University of California Press, ISBN 978-0520039230, Chapter 1
  91. ^ R Green (2005), Theodicy, in The Encyclopedia of Religion, 2nd Edition (Editor: Lindsay Jones), Volume 12, MacMillian Reference, ISBN 978-0028657332
  92. ^ Max Weber (Translated by Fischoff, 1993), The Sociology of Religion, Beacon Press, ISBN 978-0807042052, pp. 129-153
  93. ^ Francis Clooney (2005), in The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism (Editor: Gavin Flood), Wiley-Blackwell, ISBN 0631215352, pp. 454-455
  94. ^ Francis Clooney (1989), ‘‘Evil, Divine Omnipotence and Human Freedom: Vedanta’s theology of Karma, Journal of Religion, Vol. 69, pp 530-548
  95. ^ a b c d P. Bilimoria (2007), Karma’s suffering: A Mimamsa solution to the problem of evil, in Indian Ethics (Editors: Bilimoria et al.), Volume 1, Ashgate Publishing, ISBN 978-0754633013, pp. 171-189
  96. ^ See Kumarila’s ‘‘Slokavarttika’’; for English translation of parts and discussions: P. Bilimoria (1990), ‘ Hindu doubts about God - Towards a Mimamsa Deconstruction’, International Philosophical Quarterly, 30(4), pp. 481-499
  97. ^ a b c d e f P. Bilimoria (2013), Toward an Indian Theodicy, in The Blackwell Companion to the Problem of Evil (Editors: McBrayer and Howard-Snyder), 1st Edition, John Wiley & Sons, ISBN 978-0470671849, Chapter 19
  98. ^ a b c d e f Emily Hudson (2012), Disorienting Dharma: Ethics and the Aesthetics of Suffering in the Mahabharata, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0199860784, pp. 178-217
  99. ^ Manmatha Nath Dutt (1895), English translation of The Mahabharata, Udyoga Parva, Chapter 159, verse 15
  100. ^ Gregory Bailey (1983), Suffering in the Mahabharata: Draupadi and Yudhisthira, Purusartha, No. 7, pp. 109-129
  101. ^ Alf Hiltebeitel (2001), Rethinking the Mahabharata: A Reader's Guide to the Education of the Dharma King, University of Chicago Press, ISBN 978-0226340531, Chapters 2 and 5
  102. ^ P.B. Mehta (2007), The ethical irrationality of the world - Weber and Hindu Ethics, in Indian Ethics (Editors: Billimoria et al.), Volume 1, Ashgate, ISBN 978-0754633013, pp. 363-375
  103. ^ Ursula Sharma (1973), Theodicy and the doctrine of karma, ‘‘Man’’, Vol. 8, No. 3, pp. 347-364
  104. ^ The Nyaya-Vaisesika school of Hinduism is one of the exceptions where the premise is similar to the Christian concept of an omnibenevolent, omnipotent creator
  105. ^ G. Obeyesekere (I968), Theodicy, sin and salvation in a sociology of Buddhism, in Practical religion (Ed. Edmund Leach), Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0521055253
  106. ^ B. Reichenbach (1998), Karma and the Problem of Evil, in Philosophy of Religion Toward a Global Perspective (Editor: G.E. Kessler), Wadsworth, ISBN 978-0534505493, pp. 248–255
  107. ^ Bruce R. Reichenbach (1989), Karma, Causation, and Divine Intervention, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 39, No. 2, pp. 135-149
  108. ^ Arthur Herman, The problem of evil and Indian thought, 2nd Edition, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-20807537, pp. 5 with Part II and III of the book
  109. ^ P. Singh, Sikh perspectives on health and suffering: A focus on Sikh theodicy, in Religion, Health and Suffering (Editors: John Hinnells and Roy Porter), Routledge, ISBN 978-0710306111, pp. 111-132
  110. ^ Whitley Kaufman (2005), Karma, rebirth, and the problem of evil, Philosophy East & West, Vol. 55, No. 1, pp. 15-32
  111. ^ Chadha and Trakakis (2007), Karma and the Problem of Evil: A Response to Kaufman, Philosophy East & West, Vol. 57, No. 4, pp. 533-556
  112. ^ Colebrooke, H. T. (1829), Essay on the Philosophy of the Hindus, Part V. Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 2(1), 1-39
  113. ^ a b c d William Mahony (1987), Karman: Hindu and Jain Concepts, in Editor: Mircea Eliade, Encyclopedia of Religion, Collier Macmillan, New York
  114. ^ E. Washburn Hopkins, Modifications of the Karma Doctrine, The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, (Jul., 1906), pp. 581-593
  115. ^ Christopher Chapple (1986), Karma and creativity, State University of New York Press, ISBN 0-88706-251-2; see Chapter 3 and Appendix 1
  116. ^ Christopher Chapple (1986), Karma and creativity, State University of New York Press, ISBN 0-88706-251-2; pp 60-64
  117. ^ J. Bruce Long, The concepts of human action and rebirth in the Mahabharata, in Wendy D. O'Flaherty (1980), Karma and Rebirth in Classical Indian Traditions, University of California Press, ISBN 978-0520039230, Chapter 2
  118. ^ Harold Coward (2003) Encyclopedia of Science of Religion, MacMillan Reference, see Karma
  119. ^ Sharma, C. (1997). A Critical Survey of Indian Philosophy, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-0365-5, pp. 209-10
  120. ^ Wilhelm Halbfass, The concepts of human action and rebirth in the Mahabharata, in Wendy D. O'Flaherty (1980), Karma and Rebirth in Classical Indian Traditions, University of California Press, ISBN 978-0520039230, Chapter 11
  121. ^ Eli Franco (1981), Lokayata La Philosophie Dite Materialiste de l'Inde Classique, Nanterre-Paris, France
  122. ^ Franco, Eli (1998), Nyaya-Vaisesika, Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, London
  123. ^ Gurbani.org
  124. ^ Thanissaro Bhikkhu, trans. (1997). Nibbedhika Sutta: Penetrative, AN 6.63, PTS: A iii 410
  125. ^ a b , Anguttara Nikaya 4.77Acintita Sutta: Unconjecturableaccesstoinsight,
  126. ^ a b , translated by Thanissaro BhikkhuAggi-Vacchagotta Sutta: To Vacchagotta on Fireaccesstoinsight,
  127. ^ , transalated by Thanissaro BhikkhuAggi-Vacchagotta Sutta: To Vacchagotta on Fireaccesstoinsight,
  128. ^ a b c d Hermann Kuhn, Karma, the Mechanism, 2004
  129. ^ Acharya Umasvati, Tattvartha Sutra, Ch VIII, Sutra 24
  130. ^
  131. ^ See:
    • Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 15, New York, pp 679-680, Article on Karma; Quote - "Karma meaning deed or action; in addition, it also has philosophical and technical meaning, denoting a person's deeds as determining his future lot."
    • The Encyclopedia of World Religions, Robert Ellwood & Gregory Alles, ISBN 978-0-8160-6141-9, pp 253; Quote - "Karma: Sanskrit word meaning action and the consequences of action."
    • Hans Torwesten (1994), Vedanta: Heart of Hinduism, ISBN 978-0802132628, Grove Press New York, pp 97; Quote - "In the Vedas the word karma (work, deed or action, and its resulting effect) referred mainly to..."
  132. ^ Karma Encyclopedia Britannica (2012)
  133. ^ Lawrence C. Becker & Charlotte B. Becker, Encyclopedia of Ethics, 2nd Edition, ISBN 0-415-93672-1, Hindu Ethics, pp 678
  134. _|accessdate=2012-10-11_|archiveurl=http://www.webcitation.org/6BMh6N4Zn_|archivedate=2012-10-12_|deadurl=no}} _|accessdate=2012-10-11_|archiveurl=http://www.webcitation.org/6BMh6N4Zn_|archivedate=2012-10-12_|deadurl=no}} ^
  135. ^
  136. ^ Mulla & Krishnan (2009), Do Karma-Yogis Make Better Leaders? Exploring the Relationship between the Leader's Karma-Yoga and Transformational Leadership, Journal of Human Values, 15(2), pp 167-183
  137. ^ See Rigveda 9.69.5, 10.159.4, 10.95.2, Svetâsvatara Upanishad 2.7.v.1, Mahabharata 1.5141, etc.
  138. ^ Erdosy, G. (1989), Ethnicity in the Rigveda and its Bearing on the Question of Indo-European Origins, South Asian Studies, 5(1), pp 35-47
  139. ^ John Algeo and Thomas Pyles (2010), The Origins and Development of the English Language, 6th Edition, ISBN 978-1428231450, pp 54-55
  140. ^ Julius Lipner (2010), Hindus: Their religious beliefs and practices, 2nd Edition, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-45677-7, pp 261-262
  141. ^ Wendy D. O'Flaherty (1980), Karma and Rebirth in Classical Indian Traditions, University of California Press, ISBN 978-0520039230, pp 3-37
  142. ^ Karl Potter (1980), in Karma and Rebirth in Classical Indian Traditions (O'Flaherty, Editor), University of California Press, ISBN 978-0520039230, pp 241-267
  143. ^ See:
    • For Hinduism view: Jeffrey Brodd (2009), World Religions: A Voyage of Discovery, Saint Mary's Press, ISBN 978-0884899976, pp. 47;
    • For Buddhism view: Khandro Rinpoche (2003), This Precious Life, Shambhala, pp. 95
  144. ^ Harold Coward (2003), Encyclopedia of Science of Religion, MacMillan Reference, ISBN 978-0028657042, see article on Karma
  145. ^ Maria I. Macioti, The Buddha Within Ourselves: Blossoms of the Lotus Sutra, Translator: Richard Maurice Capozzi, ISBN 978-0761821892, pp 69-70
  146. ^ Anguttara-Nikaya 3.4.33, Translator: Henry Warren (1962), Buddhism in Translations, Atheneum Publications, New York, pp 216-217
  147. ^ Damien Keown (1996), Karma, character, and consequentialism, The Journal of Religious Ethics, pp 329-350
  148. ^ Karl Potter's suggestion is supported by the Bhagavad-Gita, which links good bondage and bad bondage to good habits and bad habits respectively. It also lists various types of habits - such as good (sattva), passion (rajas) and indifferent (tamas) - while explaining karma. See the cited Potter reference; elsewhere, in Yoga Sutras, the role of karma to creating habits is explained with Vāsanās - see Ian Whicher, The Integrity of the Yoga Darsana: A Reconsideration of Classical Yoga, State University of New York, ISBN 0-7914-3816-3, Chapter 3, particularly pp 102-105
  149. ^ Ian Whicher (1998), The final stages of purification in classical yoga, Asian Philosophy, 8(2), pp 85-102
  150. ^ Harold Coward (1983), Psychology and Karma, Philosophy East and West, 33 (Jan), pp. 49-60
  151. ^ Francis X. Clooney, Evil, Divine Omnipotence, and Human Freedom: Vedānta's Theology of Karma, The Journal of Religion, Vol. 69, No. 4 (Oct., 1989), pp. 530-548
  152. ^ Wilhelm Halbfass (1998), Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Routledge, London, see article on Karma and Rebirth (Indian Conceptions)
  153. ^ see:
    • James Hastings et al. (1915), Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics (Hymns-Liberty), Volume VII, Article on Jainism, pp 469-471;
    • Christopher Chapple (1975), Karma and the path of purification, in Virginia Hanson et al. (Editors) - Karma: Rhythmic Return to Harmony, ISBN 978-0835606639, Chapter 23;
    • Krishan, Y. (1988), The Vedic origins of the doctrine of karma, South Asian Studies, 4(1), pp 51-55
  154. ^ Austin Creel (1986), in Editor: Ronald Wesley Neufeldt, Karma and Rebirth: Post Classical Developments, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0873959902, Chapter 1
  155. ^ M Yamunacharya (1966), Karma and Rebirth, Indian Philo. Annual, 1, pp 66
  156. ^ M. Hiriyana (1949), Essentials of Indian Philosophy, George Allen Unwin, London, pp 47
  157. ^ James Lochtefeld (2002), The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Volume 2, Rosen Publishing, New York, ISBN 0-8239-2287-1, pp 589
  158. ^ Harold Coward (2003), Encyclopedia of Science of Religion, Karma
  159. ^ see:
    • Wilhelm Halbfass (1998), Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Routledge, London, see article on Karma and Rebirth (Indian Conceptions)
    • Ronald Wesley Neufeldt, Karma and Rebirth: Post Classical Developments, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0873959902
  160. ^ A. Javadekar (1965), Karma and Rebirth, Indian Philosophical Annual, 1, 78
  161. ^ Damien Keown (2013), Buddhism: A very short introduction, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0199663835
  162. ^ Étienne Lamotte(1936), Le traité de l'acte de Vasubandhu: Karmasiddhiprakarana, in Mélanges chinois et bouddhiques 4, pp 151-288
  163. ^ see:
    • Y. Masih (2000) In : A Comparative Study of Religions, Motilal Banarsidass Publ : Delhi, ISBN 81-208-0815-0, page 37, Quote - "This confirms that the doctrine of transmigration is non-aryan and was accepted by non-vedics like Ajivikism, Jainism and Buddhism. The Indo-aryans have borrowed the theory of re-birth after coming in contact with the aboriginal inhabitants of India. Certainly Jainism and non-vedics [..] accepted the doctrine of rebirth as supreme postulate or article of faith."
    • Gavin D. Flood (1996), An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press: UK ISBN 0-521-43878-0, page 86, Quote - "The origin and doctrine of Karma and Saṃsāra are obscure. These concepts were certainly circulating amongst sramanas, and Jainism and Buddhism developed specific and sophisticated ideas about the process of transmigration. It is very possible that the karmas and reincarnation entered the mainstream brahaminical thought from the sramana or the renouncer traditions."
  164. ^ see:
    • Bimala Law (1952, Reprint 2005), The Buddhist Conception of Spirits, ISBN 81-206-1933-1, Asian Educational Services; in particular, see Chapter II
    • Y. Krishan, The doctrine of Karma and Śraddhas, Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Vol. 66, No. 1/4 (1985), pp. 97-115
  165. ^ Wendy D. O'Flaherty (1980), Karma and Rebirth in Classical Indian Traditions, University of California Press, ISBN 978-0520039230, pp xvii-xviii; Quote - "There was such constant interaction between Vedism and Buddhism in the early period that it is fruitless to attempt to sort out the earlier source of many doctrines, they lived in one another's pockets, like Picasso and Braque (who, in later years, were unable to say which of them had painted certain paintings from their earlier, shared period)."
  166. ^ [Moral responsibility] Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Stanford University (2009); Quote - "Can a person be morally responsible for her behavior if that behavior can be explained solely by reference to physical states of the universe and the laws governing changes in those physical states, or solely by reference to the existence of a sovereign God who guides the world along a divinely ordained path?"
  167. ^ Herman, Arthur (1976), The Problem of Evil in Indian Thought, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidas
  168. ^ Harold Coward (2003) Encyclopedia of Science of Religion, Macmillan Reference, see Karma
  169. ^ Reichenbach, Bruce (1990), The Law of Karma, University of Hawai'i Press, Honolulu, ISBN 978-0333535592
  170. ^ Ronald Wesley Neufeldt, Karma and Rebirth: Post Classical Developments, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0873959902
  171. ^ see:
    • Charles Keyes (1983), Merit-Transference in the Kammic Theory of Popular Theravada Buddhism, In Karma, Editors: Charles Keyes and Valentine Daniel, Berkeley, University of California Press;
    • F.L. Woodward (1914), The Buddhist Doctrine of Reversible Merit, The Buddhist Review, Vol. 6, pp 38-50
  172. ^ Ronald Wesley Neufeldt, Karma and Rebirth: Post Classical Developments, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0873959902, pp 226, see Footnote 74
  173. ^ Wendy D. O'Flaherty (1980), Karma and Rebirth in Classical Indian Traditions, University of California Press, ISBN 978-0520039230, Chapter 1
  174. ^ R Green (2005), Theodicy, in The Encyclopedia of Religion, 2nd Edition (Editor: Lindsay Jones), Volume 12, MacMillian Reference, ISBN 978-0028657332
  175. ^ Max Weber (Translated by Fischoff, 1993), The Sociology of Religion, Beacon Press, ISBN 978-0807042052, pp. 129-153
  176. ^ Francis Clooney (2005), in The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism (Editor: Gavin Flood), Wiley-Blackwell, ISBN 0631215352, pp. 454-455
  177. ^ Francis Clooney (1989), ‘‘Evil, Divine Omnipotence and Human Freedom: Vedanta’s theology of Karma, Journal of Religion, Vol. 69, pp 530-548
  178. ^ See Kumarila’s ‘‘Slokavarttika’’; for English translation of parts and discussions: P. Bilimoria (1990), ‘ Hindu doubts about God - Towards a Mimamsa Deconstruction’, International Philosophical Quarterly, 30(4), pp. 481-499
  179. ^ Manmatha Nath Dutt (1895), English translation of The Mahabharata, Udyoga Parva, Chapter 159, verse 15
  180. ^ Gregory Bailey (1983), Suffering in the Mahabharata: Draupadi and Yudhisthira, Purusartha, No. 7, pp. 109-129
  181. ^ Alf Hiltebeitel (2001), Rethinking the Mahabharata: A Reader's Guide to the Education of the Dharma King, University of Chicago Press, ISBN 978-0226340531, Chapters 2 and 5
  182. ^ P.B. Mehta (2007), The ethical irrationality of the world - Weber and Hindu Ethics, in Indian Ethics (Editors: Billimoria et al.), Volume 1, Ashgate, ISBN 978-0754633013, pp. 363-375
  183. ^ Ursula Sharma (1973), Theodicy and the doctrine of karma, ‘‘Man’’, Vol. 8, No. 3, pp. 347-364
  184. ^ The Nyaya-Vaisesika school of Hinduism is one of the exceptions where the premise is similar to the Christian concept of an omnibenevolent, omnipotent creator
  185. ^ G. Obeyesekere (I968), Theodicy, sin and salvation in a sociology of Buddhism, in Practical religion (Ed. Edmund Leach), Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0521055253
  186. ^ B. Reichenbach (1998), Karma and the Problem of Evil, in Philosophy of Religion Toward a Global Perspective (Editor: G.E. Kessler), Wadsworth, ISBN 978-0534505493, pp. 248–255
  187. ^ Bruce R. Reichenbach (1989), Karma, Causation, and Divine Intervention, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 39, No. 2, pp. 135-149
  188. ^ Arthur Herman, The problem of evil and Indian thought, 2nd Edition, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-20807537, pp. 5 with Part II and III of the book
  189. ^ P. Singh, Sikh perspectives on health and suffering: A focus on Sikh theodicy, in Religion, Health and Suffering (Editors: John Hinnells and Roy Porter), Routledge, ISBN 978-0710306111, pp. 111-132
  190. ^ Whitley Kaufman (2005), Karma, rebirth, and the problem of evil, Philosophy East & West, Vol. 55, No. 1, pp. 15-32
  191. ^ Chadha and Trakakis (2007), Karma and the Problem of Evil: A Response to Kaufman, Philosophy East & West, Vol. 57, No. 4, pp. 533-556
  192. ^ Colebrooke, H. T. (1829), Essay on the Philosophy of the Hindus, Part V. Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 2(1), 1-39
  193. ^ E. Washburn Hopkins, Modifications of the Karma Doctrine, The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, (Jul., 1906), pp. 581-593
  194. ^ Christopher Chapple (1986), Karma and creativity, State University of New York Press, ISBN 0-88706-251-2; see Chapter 3 and Appendix 1
  195. ^ Christopher Chapple (1986), Karma and creativity, State University of New York Press, ISBN 0-88706-251-2; pp 60-64
  196. ^ J. Bruce Long, The concepts of human action and rebirth in the Mahabharata, in Wendy D. O'Flaherty (1980), Karma and Rebirth in Classical Indian Traditions, University of California Press, ISBN 978-0520039230, Chapter 2
  197. ^ Harold Coward (2003) Encyclopedia of Science of Religion, MacMillan Reference, see Karma
  198. ^ Sharma, C. (1997). A Critical Survey of Indian Philosophy, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-0365-5, pp. 209-10
  199. ^ Wilhelm Halbfass, The concepts of human action and rebirth in the Mahabharata, in Wendy D. O'Flaherty (1980), Karma and Rebirth in Classical Indian Traditions, University of California Press, ISBN 978-0520039230, Chapter 11
  200. ^ Eli Franco (1981), Lokayata La Philosophie Dite Materialiste de l'Inde Classique, Nanterre-Paris, France
  201. ^ Franco, Eli (1998), Nyaya-Vaisesika, Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, London
  202. ^ Gurbani.org
  203. ^ Thanissaro Bhikkhu, trans. (1997). Nibbedhika Sutta: Penetrative, AN 6.63, PTS: A iii 410
  204. ^ , transalated by Thanissaro BhikkhuAggi-Vacchagotta Sutta: To Vacchagotta on Fireaccesstoinsight,
  205. ^ Acharya Umasvati, Tattvartha Sutra, Ch VIII, Sutra 24
  206. ^

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