World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Vishnu sahasranama

Article Id: WHEBN0000863556
Reproduction Date:

Title: Vishnu sahasranama  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Sahasranama, Vishnu, List of names of Vishnu, Janardana, Madhava (Vishnu)
Collection: Forms of Vishnu, Hindu Texts, Mahabharata, Names of Vishnu, Sahasranama, Titles and Names of Krishna, Vaishnava Texts, Vaishnavism
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Vishnu sahasranama

Vishnusahasranama manuscript, ca1690.

The Vishnusahasranama (Sanskrit Viṣṇusahasranāma), a tatpurusha compound, is a list of 1,000 names (sahasranama) of Vishnu, one of the main forms of God in Hinduism and the personal supreme God for Vaishnavas (followers of Vishnu). It is also one of the most sacred and commonly chanted stotras in Hinduism. The Vishnusahasranama as found in the Anushasana Parva[1] of the Mahabharata is the most popular version of the 1,000 names of Vishnu. Another version exists in the Padma Purana and Matsya Purana. Each name eulogizes one of His countless great attributes.

The VishnuSahasranāma has been the subject of numerous commentaries. Adi Shankara wrote a definitive commentary on the sahasranāma in the 8th century which has been particularly influential for many schools of Hinduism even today. Parasara Bhattar, a follower of Ramanuja, wrote a commentary in the 12th century, detailing the names of Vishnu from a Vishishtadvaita perspective. Madhvacharya asserted that each name in the sahasranama has a minimum of 100 meanings.


  • Background 1
  • Etymology 2
  • Interpretations 3
    • Smarta interpretations 3.1
    • Vaishnava interpretations 3.2
    • Sandhya Interpretration 3.3
      • Interpretations alluding to the power of God in controlling karma 3.3.1
    • General thoughts 3.4
  • Quotes about Vishnu Sahasranama 4
  • Pronunciation 5
  • Merits of Recitation 6
  • Shlokas 7
    • Recitation and aggregation 7.1
  • The Thousand names 8
    • Most Popular Names of Lord Vishnu 8.1
    • Some other names 8.2
  • Complete List of Names of Lord Vishnu 9
    • Tradition of recitation 9.1
    • Inclusion of other deities 9.2
  • Quotes about Vishnu Sahasranama 10
  • Phalasruti - Benefits of chanting Vishnusahasranama 11
  • See also 12
  • Notes 13
  • References 14
  • Further reading 15
  • External links 16


According to the 149th chapter of Anushāsanaparva (verses 14 to 120) in the epic Mahabharata, the names were handed down to Yudhishthira by the famous warrior Bhishma who was on his death bed (of arrows) in the battlefield of Kurukshetra. Yudhishthira asks Bhishma the following questions:[2][3]

In this universe Who is the one (ekam) refuge (parāyaṇam) for all? Who (kim) is the greatest (ekam) Lord (daivatam) in the world (loke)? By eulogising (sthuvantaḥ) whom (kam) can a person (mānavāḥ) reach auspiciousness (śubham) (peace and prosperity)? By worshipping (archantaḥ) whom can a person reach auspiciousness (peace and prosperity)? What (kah) is, in thy opinion, the Greatest Dharma of all Dharmas? By (kim) chanting whose name, can a "creature" (jantuh) proceed beyond (muchyate) the bonds (bandhanāt) of samsāra?

Bhisma answers by stating that mankind will be free from all sorrows by chanting the "Vishnusahasranāma", which are the thousand names of the all-pervading Supreme Being Vishnu, who is the master of all the worlds, the supreme light, the essence of the universe and who is Brahman. All matter animate and inanimate reside in him, and he in turn resides within all matter.


In Sanskrit, sahasra means "a thousand" and nāma (nominative, the stem is nāman-) means "name". The compound is of the Bahuvrihi type and may be translated as "having a thousand names". In modern Hindi pronunciation, nāma is pronounced [na:m]. It is also pronounced sahasranāmam in South India.


There are Sahasranāma for many forms of God (Vishnu, Shiva, Ganesha, Shakti, and others). The Vishnu Sahasranāma is popular among common Hindus, and a major part of prayer for devout Vaishnavas, or followers of Vishnu. While Vaishanvas venerate other deities, they believe that the universe, including the other divinities such as Shiva and Devi, is ultimately a manifestation of the Supreme Lord Vishnu. Followers of Shaivism similarly give prominence to Shiva. Interestingly, despite the existence of other sahasranamas of other forms of God, referring a sahasranama as "The Sahasranama," generally refers to the Vishnu Sahasranama alone, thereby indicating its wide popularity and use. .[5]

Smarta interpretations

Two of the names in Vishnusahasranama that refer to Shiva are "Shiva" (names # 27 and # 600 in Adi Sankara's commentary) itself, "Shambhu" (name # 38), "Ishanah" (name #6 4), and "Rudra" (name # 114). Most notably, Adi Shankara, according to one interpretation, has not interpreted these to mean that the deity Shiva and the deity Vishnu are the same.[6] Specifically, he asserts that the deity Vishnu is Brahman itself (not just an aspect of Brahmam).[7] Again, he notes that "only Hari (Vishnu) is eulogized by names such as Shiva",[8] a position consistent with interpretations of the Srivaishnavite commentator Parasara Bhattar. Parasara Bhattar had interpreted Shiva to mean a quality of Vishnu, such as "One who bestows auspiciousness.".[9] In fact, the Shri Rudram, a sacred prayer for Hindus and devotees of Shiva in particular, describes Vishnu as an aspect of Shiva in the fifth anuvaka.

However, this interpretation of the name Shiva has been challenged by Swami Tapasyananda's translation of Sankara's commentary on the Vishnusahasranama.[10] He translates the 27th name, Shiva to mean:"One who is not affected by the three Gunas of Prakrti, Sattva, Rajas,and Tamas; The Kaivalaya Upanishad says, "He is both Brahma and Shiva." In the light of this statement of non-difference between Shiva and Vishnu, it is Vishnu Himself Who Is exalted by the praise and worship of Shiva." [10] Based on this commonly held Advaitan point of view which has been adopted by Smartas, Vishnu and Shiva are viewed as one and the same God, being different aspects of preservation and destruction respectively. As many Sanskrit words have multiple meanings, it is possible that both Vishnu and Shiva share names in this instance, e.g., the name Shiva itself means "auspicious"[11] which could also apply to Vishnu. The Deities Ananthapadmanabha and Shankaranarayana are worshipped by Hindus, as is Lord Panduranga Vitthala, a form of Lord Krishna with a Shiva Linga on his crown, signifying the oneness of both deities.

Vaishnava interpretations

However, the Vaishnava commentator, Parasara Bhattar, a follower of Ramanujacharya has interpreted the names "Shiva" and "Rudra" in Vishnu sahasranama to mean qualities or attributes of Vishnu, and not to indicate that Vishnu and Shiva are one and the same God. Vaishnavas worship Vishnu in his four-armed form, carrying conch, disc, flower and mace in his hands, believing that to be the Supreme form. However, Smarthas do not subscribe to this aspect or personification of God, as Smarthas say that God is pure and thus devoid of form. Additionally, they believe that God is not limited by time nor limited by shape and color. Vaishnava traditions are of the opinion that Vishnu is both unlimited and yet still capable of having specific forms, as to give arguments to the contrary (to say that God is incapable of having a form) is to limit the unlimitable and all-powerful Supreme.

In the Sri Vaishnava tradition, the Bhagavad-gita and the Vishnu Sahasranama are considered the two eyes of spiritual revelation.

In other Vaishnava traditions too, the Vishnu Sahasranama is considered an important text. Within Gaudiya Vaishnavism, Vallabha sampradaya, Nimbarka sampradaya and among Ramanandis, the chanting of the names of Krishna and Rama to be superior to that of Vishnu. Based on another verse in the Padma Purana which says that the benefit of chanting the one thousand names of Vishnu can be derived from chanting one name of Rama, and a verse in the Brahma Vaivarta Purana equating the benefit of chanting three names of Rama with one name of Krishna. However, it is important to realize that those verses in those puranas are not to be interpreted literally, as many believe that there is no difference between Vishnu and Krishna. This theological difference can be expressed as follows: Many Vaishnava groups recognize Krishna as an Avatar of Vishnu, while others, instead, consider Him to be svayam bhagavan, or the original form of the Lord. Yet these verses can be interpreted as it is more important to have pure bhakti or devotion than merely repeating the many names of God without emotion. Indeed, Shri Krishna Himself said, "Arjuna, One may be desirous of praising by reciting the thousand names. But, on my part, I feel praised by one shloka. There is no doubt about it.” [12]

Within Vaisnavism some groups, such as Sri sampradaya, adhere to and follow the Rig Veda: V.I.15b.3, which states "O ye who wish to gain realization of the supreme truth, utter the name of Vishnu at least once in the steadfast faith that it will lead you to such realization." [13]

Sandhya Interpretration

Sandhyavandanam in many traditions includes the assertion that Shiva and Vishnu are one and the same:[14]

Shivaaya Vishnu Roopaaya Shiva Roopaaya Vishanave |
Shivasya Hrudayam Vishnur Vishnuscha Hrudayam Shivaha ||
Yatha Shivamayo Vishnuhu Yevam Vishnu Mayaha Shivaha |
Yathaantharam Na Paschyaami Thatha Me Swasthi Ra Yushi ||

The popular name and deity ShankaraNarayana reflects this unity.

Interpretations alluding to the power of God in controlling karma

Many names in the Vishnusahasranama, the thousand names of Vishnu allude to the power of God in controlling karma. For example, the 135th name of Vishnu, Dharmadhyaksha, in Sankara's interpretation means, "One who directly sees the merits (Dharma) and demerits (Adharma), of beings by bestowing their due rewards on them." [15]

Other names of Vishnu alluding to this nature of God are Bhavanah, the 32nd name, Vidhata, the 44th name, Apramattah, the 325th name, Sthanadah, the 387th name and Srivibhavanah, the 609th name.[16] Bhavanah, according to Sankara's interpretation, means "One who generates the fruits of Karmas of all Jivas for them to enjoy." [17] The Brahma Sutra (3.2.28) "Phalmatah upapatteh" speaks of the Lord's function as the bestower of the fruits of all actions of the jivas.[17]

General thoughts

Sections from Swami Tapasyananda's translation of the concluding verses of Vishnu sahasranama, state the following: "Nothing evil or inauspicious will befall a man here or hereafter who daily hears or repeats these names." That comment is noteworthy. King Nahusha, a once righteous king, ancestor of Yudhishthira, according to excerpt from C. Rajagopalachari's translation of the Mahabharata, became an Indra, king of devas, but was later expelled from Swarga or heaven due to a curse by the great sage Agastya for his eventual gain in pride and arrogance and became a python for thousands of years.[18]

Thus, chanting of Vishnu sahasranama will help lead to success in this life and hereafter.

Quotes about Vishnu Sahasranama

  • Sri N. Krishnamachari, a Vaishnavite scholar, at Steven Knapp's web site, quoting Vaishnavite scholars, states that there are six reasons for the greatness of Vishnu sahasranama:
"1. Vishnu sahasranama is the essence of the Mahabharata;
2. Great sages such as Narada, the Alvars, and composers including Saint Tyagaraja have made repeated references to the "Thousand Names of Vishnu" in their devotional works;
3. The person who strung together the thousand names as part of the Mahabharata and preserved it for the world was none other than Sage Veda Vyasa, the foremost knower of the Vedas, who is considered an avatar of Vishnu;
4. Bhishma considered chanting of the Vishnu sahasranama the best and easiest of all dharmas, or the means to attain relief from all bondage;
5. It is widely accepted that the chanting of this Stotram gives relief from all sorrows and leads to happiness and peace of mind;
6. Vishnu sahasranama is in conformity with the teachings of the Gita." [19]
  • Adi Sankaracharya, the Advaita enlightened master, in verse 27 of his hymn, Bhaja Govindam,[20] said that the Gita and Vishnu sahasranama should be chanted and the form of the Lord of Lakshmi, Vishnu should always be meditated on. He also said that the Sahasranama bestowed all noble virtues on those who chanted it.[21]
  • Parasara Bhattar, a follower of Ramanujacharya had said that Vishnu sahasranama absolves people of all sins and has no equal[21]
  • Madhvacharya, the Dvaita philosopher, said that the Sahasranama was the essence of the Mahabharata which in turn was the essence of the Shastras and that each word of the Sahasranama had 100 meanings.[21]
  • Swaminarayan, founder of the Hindu Swaminarayan faith, said in verse 118 of the scripture, Shikshapatri, that one should "either recite or have the 10th canto,(of Bhagavata Purana ) and also other holy scriptures like the Vishnu Sahasranama recited at a holy place according to one's capacity. The recital is such that it gives fruits according to whatever is desired." [22]
  • Swaminarayan also said in verses 93-96, "I have the highest esteem for these eight holy scriptures: the four Vedas, the Vyas-Sutra,(i.e., Brahma Sutras, the Shreemad Bhagavata Purana, the Shree Vishnu Sahasranama in the Mahabharata, and the Yaagnavalkya Smruti which is at the center of the Dharma Scriptures; and all My disciples who wish to prosper should listen to these 8 holy scriptures, and brahmins under My shelter should learn and teach these holy scriptures and read them to others."
  • Swami Sivananda, in his 20 important spiritual instructions, stated that the Vishnu sahasranama, along with other religious texts, should be studied systematically.[23]
  • Quote by A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada; on February 15, 1970 to J.F.Staal; Professor of Philosophy and of South Asian Languages. Second paragraph, states:

”In this way we find all the scriptures aiming at the Supreme Person. In the Rig Veda (1.22.20) the mantra is om tad vishnoh paramam padam sada pashyanti surayah ("The demigods are always looking to that supreme abode of Vishnu"). The whole Vedic process, therefore, is to understand Lord Vishnu, and any scripture is directly or indirectly chanting the glories of the Supreme Lord, Vishnu.”[24]

sri rama rama rameti rame rame manorame; sahasra nama tat tulyam rama nama varanane
"O Varanana (lovely-faced woman), I chant the holy name of Rama, Rama, Rama and thus constantly enjoy this beautiful sound. This holy name of Ramachandra is equal to one thousand holy names of Lord Vishnu." (Brhad-visnu-sahasranama-stotra, Uttara-khanda, Padma Purana 72.335)
sahasra-namnam punyanam, trir-avrttya tu yat phalam; ekavrttya tu krsnasya, namaikam tat prayacchati
"The pious results (punya) achieved by chanting the thousand holy names of Vishnu (Vishnu sahasra nama stotram) three times can be attained by only one utterance of the holy name of Krishna."
  • Shri Krishna Himself said, "Arjuna, One may be desirous of praising by reciting the thousand names. But, on my part, I feel praised by one shloka. There is no doubt about it.”[12]
  • From the oldest scriptural text in Hinduism, the Rig Veda; V.I.15b.3, it states:

"O ye who wish to gain realization of the Supreme Truth, utter the name of "Vishnu" at least once in the steadfast faith that it will lead you to such realization."


In the linked preface prayer (But not in the succeeding Sahasranama) non-formal pronunciation is used, since correct representation of pronunciation requires extensive use of diacritic marks. An example: Sanskrit/Hindi has three letters representing S, which are represented here as 's', 'ś', and 'ṣ', as used in the Sanskrit word ṣatkona (= "hexagon"), Viṣnu, Kṛṣṇa and others is actually a retroflex phoneme and has no equivalent in English. Retroflex phonemes are those where the tongue is slightly coiled back in the palate and released along with the phoneme's sound. Also, the 'ṇ' in Viṣṇu and Kṛṣṇa is retroflex. In formal transliteration of Sanskrit alphabet to English, this set-up is denoted by placing dots below the letter 'ṣ'. More details can be found at Sanskrit language#Consonants, and at IAST

Although devotion is considered the most important thing while reciting any prayer or mantra (Unless used for tantric purposes, where the sound's vibration plays the major role), use of the correct pronunciation is believed by devotees to enhance the satisfaction derived from the recital, in the case of both vocal and mental chants.

Merits of Recitation

Believers in the recitation of the Sahasranama claim that it brings unwavering calm of mind, complete freedom from stress and brings eternal knowledge. A translation of the concluding verses (Phalasruti) of Vishnu sahasranama, state the following: "Nothing evil or inauspicious will befall a man here or hereafter who daily hears or repeats these names.. Whichever devoted man, getting up early in the morning and purifying himself, repeats this hymn devoted to Vasudeva, with a mind that is concentrated on Him, that man attains to great fame, leadership among his peers, wealth that is secure and the supreme good unsurpassed by anything. He will be free from all fears and be endowed with great courage and energy and he will be free from diseases. Beauty of form, strength of body and mind, and virtuous character will be natural to him.... One who reads this hymn every day with devotion and attention attains to peace of mind, patience, prosperity, mental stability, memory and reputation.... Whoever desires advancement and happiness should repeat this devotional hymn on Vishnu composed by Vyasa....Never will defeat attend on a man who adores the Lotus-Eyed One (Kamala Nayana), who is the Master of all the worlds, who is birthless, and out of whom the worlds have originated and into whom they dissolve."

In orthodox Hindu tradition, a devotee should daily chant the Upanishads, Gita, Rudram, Purusha Sukta and Vishnu sahasranama. If one cannot do all this on any day, it is believed that chanting Vishnu sahasranama alone is sufficient. Vishnu sahasranama can be chanted at any time, irrespective of gender.

Varahi Tantra says that in the age of Kali yuga, most stotras are cursed by Parashurama and hence are ineffective. While listing the ones which are free from this curse and hence suitable during Kali Yuga, it is said, "Gita of the Bhishma Parva, Vishnu Sahasranama of Mahabharata and Chandika Saptashati' (Devi Mahatmyam) are free from all Doshas and grant fruits immediately in Kali Yuga." [25]

In a classic astrological text, the Bṛhat Parāśara Horāśāstra, Sage Parashara frequently recommends the recitation of the Vishnu Sahasranama as the best remedial measure for planetary afflictions.[26] For example, see the following verse: "The most effective and beneficial remedial measure for the prolongation of longevity and to obtain relief from other evil effects is recitation of Vishnu Sahasranam." ch 56 verse 30 [26]

Sage Parashara mentions this practice more than ten times in his text. Here's another verse:

"The remedial measure to obtain relief from the above evil effects, is recitation of Vishnu Sahasranama." ch 59 verse 77 [26]

It is customary to commence the Vishnu sahasranama with a devotional prayer to Vishnu.


Recitation and aggregation

An alternative approach is to say the starting prayer, and then say the names collected in stanzas (As they were originally said by Bhishma.) Such stanzas are called Slokas in Sanskrit. The Sahasranama (apart from the initial and concluding prayers) has a total of 108 shlokas.

For example, the first sloka is:

om visvam vishnur-vashatkaro bhutbhavyabhavatprabhuh
bhutkrd bhutbhrd-bhaavo bhutatma bhutabhavanah

Notice the aggregation of several words and the omission of their intervening spaces. For example, the last word of the first line of this Sloka:


corresponds to:

om bhutabhavya bhavat prabhave namah

of the expanded version.

This joining-together of words is a common feature of Sanskrit and is called Samasa- a compound. It makes the slokas compact, and easier to remember.

The Thousand names

Most Popular Names of Lord Vishnu

  1. Vishwam ( विश्वं )- The world is a form or a body of Lord Vishnu.The world constitutes of earth, 21 heavens & 21 hells. This world is like a small fragment in the infinite space called Mahat-tatva. This world is Lord Vishnu. So the world being God one should not destroy this world & try to find the hidden God in this world through faith.
  2. Vishnu ( विष्णुः )
  3. Vashatkara ( वषट्कारः )
  4. Bhuta Bhavya Bhavatprabhu ( भूतभव्य भवत्प्रभुः )
  5. Bhutakrut ( भूतक्रुत )
  6. Bhutabhrut ( भूतभ्रुत )
  7. Bhava ( भावः )- Feelings is the abstract body of Lord Vishnu or God. A person with (true) feelings should be respected because he is holding God or God is holding that person. Hence feelings should be assumed to be the form of God or Lord Vishnu & should be respected.
  8. Bhutatma ( भूतात्मा )
  9. Bhutabhavanah ( भूतभावनः )
  10. Putatma ( पूतात्मा )
  11. Paramatma (परमात्मा )- The supersoul within all souls is Lord Vishnu. A sun can have 10 reflections in 10 pots or infinite reflections in infinite pots. That way Sun is Lord Vishnu or Bhagavan & the reflection "Sun Disc" is the Paramatma or the Supersoul within all souls
  12. Muktanam Parama Gatih ( मुक्तानां परमा गतिः )
  13. Avyaya ( अव्यय, the never changing)
  14. Purusha ( पुरुष )- Lord Vishnu is a male. A soul with strong masculinity is called Purusha.
  15. Keshava ( केशव )- One with beautiful hair.
  16. Shrinidhi ( श्रीनिधि )- One Who is the treasure- house (Nidhih) of Sree.
  17. Jayant - A victorious Finish or A Glorious End.
  18. Aadityay -
  19. Bhavnaay -
  20. Veday -

Some other names

The names are generally derived from the anantakalyanagunas (meaning: infinite auspicious attributes). Some names are:

  • Achintya (Incomprehensible, beyond understanding)
  • Acyutah (infallible)
  • Ananta (endless, eternal, infinite)
  • Anish (supreme)
  • Damodara (having a rope (dama) around his belly (udara): a name of Krishna)
  • Govinda (protector of the 'Go' - means Veda not Cow and Brahmins; master of the senses: a name of Krishna)
  • Hari (one who takes away the pain of material bondage of his devotees)
  • Hayagriva (giver of knowledge)
  • Jagannatha (Owner/Ruler of the world/universe)
  • Janardana (One who is worshiped by people for Wealth)
  • Keshava (slayer of Keshi, having long or much or handsome hair, from Atharvaveda viii, 6, 23 and one who is himself the three: kah Brahma; ah Vishnu and Isa Shiva.
  • Krishna (born during the third epoch or yuga, his deeds range from 'Go' - means Veda protection (go - means Veda, rakshya) to absolving the earth of load of sins)
  • Madhava (relating to the season of spring,ma=laxmi,dhav=dhaaran karne walle means madhava)
  • Madhusudana (he who destroyed the demon called Madhu)
  • Narayana (said to mean "he who is the abode of nār (= ether)", i.e., the whole universe's shelter. Also means "The supreme Man who is the foundation of all men". Another meaning is "He who lies (i.e., rests) in the water".)
  • Padmanabha (lotus-naveled one, from whose navel sprang the lotus which contained Brahma, who created the universe)
  • Parthasarathy (Charioteer of Arjuna/Partha)
  • Purushottama - The Supreme Eternal Being
  • Rama (born during the second epoch or Yuga, his deeds primarily established the ideal living principles for a man)
  • Hrishikesh (Lord of the senses or Lord within the heart; "hri" root meaning the heart)
  • Rohit (another Name of Vishnu)
  • Satyanarayana (a combination of satya and Narayana meaning 'protector of truth')
  • Shrivatsa
  • Shikhandee: He who wears a peacock feather.
  • Souryarayan (the one who destroys the evil/sins and who comforts us) described in Vishnu kautuvam.
  • Sridhara (consort of Sri = Laxmi or Ultimate wealth)
  • Siddhartha (one who attains perfection, birth name of Buddha avatar in the last epoch of Kali Yuga)
  • Sriman (the pride of Shri or Lakshmi); Often Sriman is combined with the name, Narayana, to form a compound word, Sriman Narayana.
  • Srinivasa (the abode of Shri) (also specifically referring to his form in the temple at Tirupati). Also the form of Vishnu at Tirupati is well known as Venkateswara.
  • Trivikrama (Conqueror of the three worlds, as in Vamana avatara).
  • Vishal (Immense, The Unstoppable One).
  • Vamana (dwarfish, small or short in stature, a dwarf brahmana)
  • Vāsudeva ( "All-Pervading god", with the long vowel A; it also means "the son of Vasudeva", i.e. Krishna)
  • Shreesh/Shrish (श्रीश) (Husband of Goddess Lakshmi).
  • Guruvayurappan Lord of Guruvayur (Temple made by Guru(Brihaspati) and Vayu deva)
  • Jaganath is the south eastern name of Vishnu. The word juggernaut (the mightiest) is derived from this name.
  • Sohama means the most intelligent, it is strongest form of Vishnu with a thousand brains and hands
  • Jayan means The Victorious or The conqueror of all enemies

Complete List of Names of Lord Vishnu

This is the complete list of names, in loose anglicized spelling and with idiosyncratic translations.[27][28]
# Name Transliteration Translation
1 विश्वम् vishwam Who is the universe himself
2 विष्णुः vishnuh He who pervades everywhere
3 वषट्कारः vashatkaarah He who is invoked for oblations
4 भूतभव्यभवत्प्रभुः bhoota-bhavya-bhavat-prabhuh The Lord of past, present and future
5 भूतकृत् bhoota-krit The creator of all creatures
6 भूतभृत् bhoota-bhrit He who nourishes all creatures
7 भावः bhaavah He who becomes all moving and nonmoving things
8 भूतात्मा bhootaatmaa The aatman of all beings
9 भूतभावनः bhoota-bhaavanah The cause of the growth and birth of all creatures
10 पूतात्मा pootaatmaa He with an extremely pure essence
11 परमात्मा paramaatmaa The Supersoul
12 मुक्तानां परमा गतिः muktaanaam paramaa gatih The final goal, reached by liberated souls
13 अव्ययः avyayah Without destruction
14 पुरुषः purushah He who dwells in the city of nine gates
15 साक्षी saakshee The witness
16 क्षेत्रज्ञः kshetrajnah The knower of the field
17 अक्षरः aksharah Indestructible
18 योगः yogah He who is realized through yoga
19 योगविदां नेता yoga-vidaam netaa The guide of those who know yoga
20 प्रधानपुरुषेश्वरः pradhaana-purusheshvarah Lord of pradhaana and purusha
21 नारसिंहवपुः naarasimha-vapuh He whose form is man-lion
22 श्रीमान् shreemaan He who is always with shree
23 केशवः kah Brahma; ah Vishnu and Isa Shiva keshavah: He who has beautiful locks of hair, slayer of Keshi and one who is himself the three
24 पुरुषोत्तमः purushottamah The Supreme Controller
25 सर्वः sarvah He who is everything
26 शर्वः sharvas The auspicious
27 शिवः shivah He who is eternally pure
28 स्थाणुः sthaanuh The pillar, the immovable truth
29 भूतादिः bhootaadih The cause of the five great elements
30 निधिरव्ययः nidhir-avyayah The imperishable treasure
31 सम्भवः sambhavah He who descends of His own free will
32 भावनः bhaavanah He who gives everything to his devotees
33 भर्ता bhartaa He who governs the entire living world
34 प्रभवः prabhavah The womb of the five great elements
35 प्रभुः prabhuh The Almighty Lord
36 ईश्वरः eeshvarah He who can do anything without any help
37 स्वयम्भूः svayambhooh He who manifests from Himself
38 शम्भुः shambhuh He who brings auspiciousness
39 आदित्यः aadityah The son of Aditi (Vaamana)
40 पुष्कराक्षः pushkaraakshah He who has eyes like the lotus
41 महास्वनः mahaasvanah He who has a thundering voice
42 अनादि-निधनः anaadi-nidhanah He without origin or end
43 धाता dhaataa He who supports all fields of experience
44 विधाता vidhaataa The dispenser of fruits of action
45 धातुरुत्तमः dhaaturuttamah The subtlest atom
46 अप्रमेयः aprameyah He who cannot be perceived
47 हृषीकेशः hrisheekeshah The Lord of the senses
48 पद्मनाभः padmanaabhah He from whose navel comes the lotus
49 अमरप्रभुः amaraprabhuh The Lord of the devas
50 विश्वकर्मा vishvakarmaa The creator of the universe
51 मनुः manuh He who has manifested as the Vedic mantras
52 त्वष्टा tvashtaa He who makes huge things small
53 स्तविष्ठः sthavishtah The supremely gross
54 स्थविरो ध्रुवः sthaviro dhruvah The ancient, motionless one
55 अग्राह्यः agraahyah He who is not perceived sensually
56 शाश्वतः shaashvatah He who always remains the same
57 कृष्णः krishnah He whose complexion is dark
58 लोहिताक्षः lohitaakshah Red-eyed
59 प्रतर्दनः pratardanah The Supreme destruction
60 प्रभूतस् prabhootas Ever-full
61 त्रिकाकुब्धाम trikakub-dhaama The support of the three quarters
62 पवित्रम् pavitram He who gives purity to the heart
63 मंगलं-परम् mangalam param The Supreme auspiciousness
64 ईशानः eeshanah The controller of the five great elements
65 प्राणदः praanadah He who gives life
66 प्राणः praanah He who ever lives
67 ज्येष्ठः jyeshthah Older than all
68 श्रेष्ठः shreshthah The most glorious
69 प्रजापतिः prajaapatih The Lord of all creatures
70 हिरण्यगर्भः hiranyagarbhah He who dwells in the womb of the world
71 भूगर्भः bhoogarbhah He who is the womb of the world
72 माधवः maadhavah Husband of Lakshmi
73 मधुसूदनः madhusoodanah Destroyer of the Madhu demon
74 ईश्वरः eeshvarah The controller
75 विक्रमः vikramee He who is full of prowess
76 धन्वी dhanvee He who always has a divine bow
77 मेधावी medhaavee Supremely intelligent
78 विक्रमः vikramah He who stepped (Vaamana)
79 क्रमः kramah All-pervading
80 अनुत्तमः anuttamah Incomparably great
81 दुराधर्षः duraadharshah He who cannot be attacked successfully
82 कृतज्ञः kritajnah He who knows all that is
83 कृतिः kritih He who rewards all our actions
84 आत्मवान् aatmavaan The self in all beings
85 सुरेशः sureshah The Lord of the demigods
86 शरणम् sharanam The refuge
87 शर्म sharma He who is Himself infinite bliss
88 विश्वरेताः visva-retaah The seed of the universe
89 प्रजाभवः prajaa-bhavah He from whom all praja comes
90 अहः ahah He who is the nature of time
91 संवत्सरः samvatsarah He from whom the concept of time comes
92 व्यालः vyaalah The serpent (vyaalah) to atheists
93 प्रत्ययः pratyayah He whose nature is knowledge
94 सर्वदर्शनः sarvadarshanah All-seeing
95 अजः ajah Unborn
96 सर्वेश्वरः sarveshvarah Controller of all
97 सिद्धः siddhah The most famous
98 सिद्धिः siddhih He who gives moksha
99 सर्वादिः sarvaadih The beginning of all
100 अच्युतः achyutah Infallible
101 वृषाकपिः vrishaakapih He who lifts the world to dharma
102 अमेयात्मा ameyaatmaa He who manifests in infinite varieties
103 सर्वयोगविनिसृतः sarva-yoga-vinissritah He who is free from all attachments
104 वसुः vasuh The support of all elements
105 वसुमनाः vasumanaah He whose mind is supremely pure
106 सत्यः satyah The truth
107 समात्मा samaatmaa He who is the same in all
108 सम्मितः sammitah He who has been accepted by authorities
109 समः samah Equal
110 अमोघः amoghah Ever useful
111 पुण्डरीकाक्षः pundareekaakshah He who dwells in the heart
112 वृषकर्मा vrishakarmaa He whose every act is righteous
113 वृषाकृतिः vrishaakritih The form of dharma
114 रुद्रः rudrah He who makes all people weep
115 बहुशिरः bahu-shiraah He who has many heads
116 बभ्रुः babhrur He who rules over all the worlds
117 विश्वयोनिः vishvayonih The womb of the universe
118 शुचिश्रवाः shuchi-shravaah He who listens only the good and pure
119 अमृतः amritah Immortal
120 शाश्वतः-स्थाणुः shaashvatah-sthaanur Permanent and immovable
121 वरारोहः varaaroho The most glorious destination
122 महातपः mahaatapaah He of great tapas
123 सर्वगः sarvagah All-pervading
124 सर्वविद्भानुः sarvavid-bhaanuh All-knowing and effulgent
125 विष्वक्सेनः vishvaksenah He against whom no army can stand
126 जनार्दनः janaardanah He who gives joy to good people
127 वेदः vedah He who is the Vedas
128 वेदविद् vedavid The knower of the Vedas
129 अव्यंगः avyangah Without imperfections
130 वेदांगः vedaangah He whose limbs are the Vedas
131 वेदविद् vedavit He who contemplates upon the Vedas
132 कविः kavih The seer
133 लोकाध्यक्षः lokaadhyakshah He who presides over all lokas
134 सुराध्यक्षः suraadhyaksho He who presides over all devas
135 धर्माध्यक्षः dharmaadhyakshah He who presides over dharma
136 कृताकृतः krita-akritah All that is created and not created
137 चतुरात्मा chaturaatmaa The four-fold self
138 चतुर्व्यूहः chaturvyoohah Vasudeva, Sankarshan etc.
139 चतुर्दंष्ट्रः chaturdamstrah He who has four canines (Nrsimha)
140 चतुर्भुजः chaturbhujah Four-handed
141 भ्राजिष्णुः bhraajishnur Self-effulgent consciousness
142 भोजनम् bhojanam He who is the sense-objects
143 भोक्ता bhoktaa The enjoyer
144 सहिष्णुः sahishnuh He who can suffer patiently
145 जगदादिजः jagadaadijah Born at the beginning of the world
146 अनघः anaghah Sinless
147 विजयः vijayah Victorious
148 जेता jetaa Ever-successful
149 विश्वयोनिः vishvayonih He who incarnates because of the world
150 पुनर्वसुः punarvasuh He who lives repeatedly in different bodies
151 उपेन्द्रः upendra The younger brother of Indra (Vamana)
152 वामनः vaamanah He with a dwarf body
153 प्रांशुः praamshuh He with a huge body
154 अमोघः amoghah He whose acts are for a great purpose
155 शुचिः shuchih He who is spotlessly clean
156 ऊर्जितः oorjitah He who has infinite vitality
157 अतीन्द्रः ateendrah He who surpasses Indra
158 संग्रहः samgrahah He who holds everything together
159 सर्गः sargah He who creates the world from Himself
160 धृतात्मा dhritaatmaa Established in Himself
161 नियमः niyamah The appointing authority
162 यमः yamah The administrator
163 वेद्यः vedyah That which is to be known
164 वैद्यः vaidyah The Supreme doctor
165 सदायोगी sadaa-yogee Always in yoga
166 वीरहा veerahaa He who destroys the mighty heroes
167 माधवः maadhavah The Lord of all knowledge
168 मधुः madhuh Sweet
169 अतीन्द्रियः ateendriyo Beyond the sense organs
170 महामायः mahaamayah The Supreme Master of all Maya
171 महोत्साहः mahotsaahah The great enthusiast
172 महाबलः mahaabalah He who has supreme strength
173 महाबुद्धिः mahaabuddhir He who has supreme intelligence
174 महावीर्यः mahaa-veeryah The supreme essence
175 महाशक्तिः mahaa-shaktih All-powerful
176 महाद्युतिः mahaa-dyutih Greatly luminous
177 अनिर्देश्यवपुः anirdeshya-vapuh He whose form is indescribable
178 श्रीमान् shreemaan He who is always courted by glories
179 अमेयात्मा ameyaatmaa He whose essence is immeasurable
180 महाद्रिधृक् mahaadri-dhrik He who supports the great mountain
181 महेष्वासः maheshvaasah He who wields shaarnga
182 महीभर्ता maheebhartaa The husband of mother earth
183 श्रीनिवासः shreenivaasah The permanent abode of Shree
184 सतां गिरः sataam gatih The goal for all virtuous people
185 अनिरुद्धः aniruddhah He who cannot be obstructed
186 सुरानन्दः suraanandah He who gives out happiness
187 गोविन्दः govindah The protector of the 'Go' - means Veda not Cow.
188 गोविदां पथः govidaam-patih The Lord of all men of wisdom
189 मरीचिः mareechih Effulgence
190 दमनः damanah He who controls rakshasas
191 हंसः hamsah The swan
192 सुपर्णः suparnah Beautiful-winged (Two birds analogy)
193 भुजगोत्तमः bhujagottamah The serpent Ananta
194 हिरण्यनाभः hiranyanaabhah He who has a golden navel
195 सुतपाः sutapaah He who has glorious tapas
196 पद्मनाभः padmanaabhah He whose navel is like a lotus
197 प्रजापतिः prajaapatih He from whom all creatures emerge
198 अमृत्युः amrityuh He who knows no death
199 सर्वदृक् sarva-drik The seer of everything
200 सिंहः simhah He who destroys
201 सन्धाता sandhaataa The regulator
202 सन्धिमान् sandhimaan He who seems to be conditioned
203 स्थिरः sthirah Steady
204 अजः ajah He who takes the form of Aja, Brahma
205 दुर्मषणः durmarshanah He who cannot be vanquished
206 शास्ता shaastaa He who rules over the universe
207 विसृतात्मा visrutaatmaa He who is called atma in the Vedas
208 सुरारिहा suraarihaa Destroyer of the enemies of the devas
209 गुरुः guruh The teacher
210 गुरुतमः gurutamah The greatest teacher
211 धाम dhaama The goal
212 सत्यः satyah He who is Himself the truth
213 सत्यपराक्रमः satya-paraakramah Dynamic Truth
214 निमिषः nimishah He who has closed eyes in contemplation
215 अनिमिषः animishah He who remains unwinking; ever knowing
216 स्रग्वी sragvee He who always wears a garland of undecaying flowers
217 वाचस्पतिः-उदारधीः vaachaspatir-udaara-dheeh He who is eloquent in championing the Supreme law of life; He with a large-hearted intelligence
218 अग्रणीः agraneeh He who guides us to the peak
219 ग्रामणीः graamaneeh He who leads the flock
220 श्रीमान् shreemaan The possessor of light, effulgence, glory
221 न्यायः nyaayah Justice
222 नेता netaa The leader
223 समीरणः sameeranah He who sufficiently administers all movements of all living creatures
224 सहस्रमूर्धा sahasra-moordhaa He who has endless heads
225 विश्वात्मा vishvaatmaa The soul of the universe
226 सहस्राक्षः sahasraakshah Thousands of eyes
227 सहस्रपात् sahasrapaat Thousand-footed
228 आवर्तनः aavartanah The unseen dynamism
229 निवृत्तात्मा nivritaatmaa The soul retreated from matter
230 संवृतः samvritah He who is veiled from the jiva
231 संप्रमर्दनः sam-pramardanah He who persecutes evil men
232 अहः संवर्तकः ahassamvartakah He who thrills the day and makes it function vigorously
233 वह्निः vahnih Fire
234 अनिलः anilah Air
235 धरणीधरः dharaneedharah He who supports the earth
236 सुप्रसादः suprasaadah Fully satisfied
237 प्रसन्नात्मा prasanaatmaa Ever pure and all-blissful self
238 विश्वधृक् vishva-dhrik Supporter of the world
239 विश्वभुक् vishvabhuk He who enjoys all experiences
240 विभुः vibhuh He who manifests in endless forms
241 सत्कर्ता satkartaa He who adores good and wise people
242 सत्कृतः satkritah He who is adored by all good people
243 साधुः saadhur He who lives by the righteous codes
244 जह्नुः jahnuh Leader of men
245 नारायणः naaraayanah He who resides on the waters
246 नरः narah The guide
247 असंख्येयः asankhyeyah He who has numberless names and forms
248 अप्रमेयात्मा aprameyaatmaa A soul not known through the pramanas
249 विशिष्टः vishishtah He who transcends all in His glory
250 शिष्टकृत् shishta-krit The law-maker
251 शुचिः shuchih He who is pure
252 सिद्धार्थः siddhaarthah He who has all arthas
253 सिद्धसंकल्पः siddhasankalpah He who gets all He wishes for
254 सिद्धिदः siddhidah The giver of benedictions
255 सिद्धिसाधनः siddhisaadhanah The power behind our sadhana
256 वृषाही vrishaahee Controller of all actions
257 वृषभः vrishabhah He who showers all dharmas
258 विष्णुः vishnuh Long-striding
259 वृषपर्वा vrishaparvaa The ladder leading to dharma (As well as dharma itself)
260 वृषोदरः vrishodarah He from whose belly life showers forth
261 वर्धनः vardhanah The nurturer and nourisher
262 वर्धमानः vardhamaanah He who can grow into any dimension
263 विविक्तः viviktah Separate
264 श्रुतिसागरः shruti-saagarah The ocean for all scripture
265 सुभुजः subhujah He who has graceful arms
266 दुर्धरः durdharah He who cannot be known by great yogis
267 वाग्मी vaagmee He who is eloquent in speech
268 महेन्द्रः mahendrah The lord of Indra
269 वसुदः vasudah He who gives all wealth
270 वसुः vasuh He who is Wealth
271 नैकरूपः naika-roopo He who has unlimited forms
272 बृहद्रूपः brihad-roopah Vast, of infinite dimensions
273 शिपिविष्टः shipivishtah The presiding deity of the sun
274 प्रकाशनः prakaashanah He who illuminates
275 ओजस्तेजोद्युतिधरः ojas-tejo-dyutidharah The possessor of vitality, effulgence and beauty
276 प्रकाशात्मा prakaashaatmaa The effulgent self
277 प्रतापनः prataapanah Thermal energy; one who heats
278 ऋद्धः riddhah Full of prosperity
279 स्पष्टाक्षरः spashtaaksharah One who is indicated by OM
280 मन्त्रः mantrah The nature of the Vedic mantras
281 चन्द्रांशुः chandraamshuh The rays of the moon
282 भास्करद्युतिः bhaaskara-dyutih The effulgence of the sun
283 अमृतांशोद्भवः amritaamshoodbhavah The Paramatman from whom Amrutamshu or the Moon originated at the time of the churning of the Milk-ocean.[29]
284 भानुः bhaanuh Self-effulgent
285 शशबिन्दुः shashabindhuh The moon who has a rabbit-like spot
286 सुरेश्वरः sureshvarah A person of extreme charity
287 औषधम् aushadham Medicine
288 जगतः सेतुः jagatas-setuh A bridge across the material energy
289 सत्यधर्मपराक्रमः satya-dharma-paraakramah One who champions heroically for truth and righteousness
290 भूतभव्यभवन्नाथः bhoota-bhavya-bhavan-naathah The Lord of past, present and future
291 पवनः pavanah The air that fills the universe
292 पावनः paavanah He who gives life-sustaining power to air
293 अनलः analah Fire
294 कामहा kaamahaa He who destroys all desires
295 कामकृत् kaamakrit He who fulfills all desires
296 कान्तः kaantah He who is of enchanting form
297 कामः kaamah The beloved
298 कामप्रदः kaamapradah He who supplies desired objects
299 प्रभुः prabhuh The Lord
300 युगादिकृत् yugaadi-krit The creator of the yugas
301 युगावर्तः yugaavartah The law behind time
302 नैकमायः naikamaayah He whose forms are endless and varied
303 महाशनः mahaashanah He who eats up everything
304 अदृश्यः adrishyah Imperceptible
305 व्यक्तरूपः vyaktaroopah He who is perceptible to the yogi
306 सहस्राजित् sahasrajit He who vanquishes thousands
307 अनन्तजित् anantajit Ever-victorious
308 इष्टः ishtah He who is invoked through Vedic rituals
309 विशिष्टः visishtah The noblest and most sacred
310 शिष्टेष्टः sishteshtah The greatest beloved
311 शिखण्डी shikhandee He who wears a peacock feather
312 नहुषः nahushah He who binds all with maya
313 वृषः vrishah He who is dharma
314 क्रोधहा krodhahaa He who destroys anger
315 क्रोधकृत्कर्ता krodhakrit-kartaa He who generates anger against the lower tendency
316 विश्वबाहुः visvabaahuh He whose hand is in everything
317 महीधरः maheedharah The support of the earth
318 अच्युतः achyutah He who undergoes no changes
319 प्रथितः prathitah He who exists pervading all
320 प्राणः praanah The prana in all living creatures
321 प्राणदः praanadah He who gives prana
322 वासवानुजः vaasavaanujah The brother of Indra
323 अपां-निधिः apaam-nidhih Treasure of waters (the ocean)
324 अधिष्ठानम् adhishthaanam The substratum of the entire universe
325 अप्रमत्तः apramattah He who never makes a wrong judgement
326 प्रतिष्ठितः pratishthitah He who has no cause
327 स्कन्दः skandah He whose glory is expressed through Subrahmanya
328 स्कन्दधरः skanda-dharah Upholder of withering righteousness
329 धूर्यः dhuryah Who carries out creation etc. without hitch
330 वरदः varadah He who fulfills boons
331 वायुवाहनः vaayuvaahanah Controller of winds
332 वासुदेवः vaasudevah Dwelling in all creatures although not affected by that condition
333 बृहद्भानुः brihat-bhaanuh He who illumines the world with the rays of the sun and moon
334 आदिदेवः aadidevah The primary source of everything
335 पुरन्दरः purandarah Destroyer of cities
336 अशोकः ashokah He who has no sorrow
337 तारणः taaranah He who enables others to cross
338 तारः taarah He who saves
339 शूरः shoorah The valiant
340 शौरिः shaurih He who incarnated in the dynasty of Shoora
341 जनेश्वरः janeshvarah The Lord of the people
342 अनुकूलः anukoolah Well-wisher of everyone
343 शतावर्तः shataavarttah He who takes infinite forms
344 पद्मी padmee He who holds a lotus
345 पद्मनिभेक्षणः padmanibhekshanah Lotus-eyed
346 पद्मनाभः padmanaabhah He who has a lotus-navel
347 अरविन्दाक्षः aravindaakshah He who has eyes as beautiful as the lotus
348 पद्मगर्भः padmagarbhah He who is being meditated upon in the lotus of the heart
349 शरीरभृत् shareerabhrit He who sustains all bodies
350 महर्द्धिः maharddhi One who has great prosperity
351 ऋद्धः riddhah He who has expanded Himself as the universe
352 वृद्धात्मा Vriddhaatmaa The ancient self
353 महाक्षः mahaakshah The great-eyed
354 गरुडध्वजः garudadhvajah One who has Garuda on His flag
355 अतुलः atulah Incomparable
356 शरभः sharabhah One who dwells and shines forth through the bodies
357 भीमः bheemah The terrible
358 समयज्ञः samayajnah One whose worship is nothing more than keeping an equal vision of the mind by the devotee
359 हविर्हरिः havirharih The receiver of all oblation
360 सर्वलक्षणलक्षण्यः sarva-lakshana-lakshanyah Known through all proofs
361 लक्ष्मीवान् lakshmeevaan The consort of Laksmi
362 समितिञ्जयः samitinjayah Ever-victorious
363 विक्षरः viksharah Imperishable
364 रोहितः rohitah The fish incarnation
365 मार्गः maargah The path
366 हेतुः hetuh The cause
367 दामोदरः daamodarah Whose stomach is marked with three lines
368 सहः sahah All-enduring
369 महीधरः maheedharah The bearer of the earth
370 महाभागः mahaabhaagah He who gets the greatest share in every Yajna
371 वेगवान् vegavaan He who is swift
372 अमिताशनः amitaashanah Of endless appetite
373 उद्भवः udbhavah The originator
374 क्षोभणः kshobhanah The agitator
375 देवः devah He who revels
376 श्रीगर्भः shreegarbhah He in whom are all glories
377 परमेश्वरः parameshvarah Parama + Ishvara = Supreme Lord, Parama (MahaLakshmi i.e. above all the shaktis) + Ishvara (Lord) = Lord of MahaLakshmi
378 करणम् karanam The instrument
379 कारणम् kaaranam The cause
380 कर्ता kartaa The doer
381 विकर्ता vikartaa Creator of the endless varieties that make up the universe
382 गहनः gahanah The unknowable
383 गुहः guhah He who dwells in the cave of the heart
384 व्यवसायः vyavasaayah Resolute
385 व्यवस्थानः vyavasthaanah The substratum
386 संस्थानः samsthaanah The ultimate authority
387 स्थानदः sthaanadah He who confers the right abode
388 ध्रुवः dhruvah The changeless in the midst of changes
389 परर्धिः pararddhih He who has supreme manifestations
390 परमस्पष्टः paramaspashtah The extremely vivid
391 तुष्टः tushtah One who is contented with a very simple offering
392 पुष्टः pushtah One who is ever-full
393 शुभेक्षणः shubhekshanah All-auspicious gaze
394 रामः raamah One who is most handsome
395 विरामः viraamah The abode of perfect-rest
396 विरजः virajo Passionless
397 मार्गः maargah The path
398 नेयः neyah The guide
399 नयः nayah One who leads
400 अनयः anayah One who has no leader
401 वीरः veerah The valiant
402 शक्तिमतां श्रेष्ठः shaktimataam-shresthah The best among the powerful
403 धर्मः dharmah The law of being
404 धर्मविदुत्तमः dharmaviduttamah The highest among men of realisation
405 वैकुण्ठः vaikunthah Lord of supreme abode, Vaikuntha
406 पुरुषः purushah One who dwells in all bodies
407 प्राणः praanah Life
408 प्राणदः praanadah Giver of life
409 प्रणवः pranavah He who is praised by the gods
410 पृथुः prituh The expanded
411 हिरण्यगर्भः hiranyagarbhah The creator
412 शत्रुघ्नः shatrughnah The destroyer of enemies
413 व्याप्तः vyaaptah The pervader
414 वायुः vaayuh The air
415 अधोक्षजः adhokshajah One whose vitality never flows downwards
416 ऋतुः rituh The seasons
417 सुदर्शनः sudarshanah He whose meeting is auspicious
418 कालः kaalah He who judges and punishes beings
419 परमेष्ठी parameshthee One who is readily available for experience within the heart
420 परिग्रहः parigrahah The receiver
421 उग्रः ugrah The terrible
422 संवत्सरः samvatsarah The year
423 दक्षः dakshah The smart
424 विश्रामः vishraamah The resting place
425 विश्वदक्षिणः vishva-dakshinah The most skilful and efficient
426 विस्तारः vistaarah The extension
427 स्थावरस्स्थाणुः sthaavarah-sthaanuh The firm and motionless
428 प्रमाणम् pramaanam The proof
429 बीजमव्ययम् beejamavyayam The Immutable Seed
430 अर्थः arthah He who is worshiped by all
431 अनर्थः anarthah One to whom there is nothing yet to be fulfilled
432 महाकोशः mahaakoshah He who has got around him great sheaths
433 महाभोगः mahaabhogah He who is of the nature of enjoyment
434 महाधनः mahaadhanah He who is supremely rich
435 अनिर्विण्णः anirvinnah He who has no discontent
436 स्थविष्ठः sthavishthah One who is supremely huge
437 अभूः a-bhooh One who has no birth
438 धर्मयूपः dharma-yoopah The post to which all dharma is tied
439 महामखः mahaa-makhah The great sacrificer
440 नक्षत्रनेमिः nakshatranemir The nave of the stars
441 नक्षत्री nakshatree The Lord of the stars (the moon)
442 क्षमः kshamah He who is supremely efficient in all undertakings
443 क्षामः kshaamah He who ever remains without any scarcity
444 समीहनः sameehanah One whose desires are auspicious
445 यज्ञः yajnah One who is of the nature of yajna
446 इज्यः ijyah He who is fit to be invoked through yajna
447 महेज्यः mahejyah One who is to be most worshiped
448 क्रतुः kratuh The animal-sacrifice
449 सत्रम् satram Protector of the good
450 सतां गिरः sataam-gatih Refuge of the good
451 सर्वदर्शी sarvadarshee All-knower
452 विमुक्तात्मा vimuktaatmaa The ever-liberated self
453 सर्वज्ञः sarvajno Omniscient
454 ज्ञानमुत्तमम् jnaanamuttamam The Supreme Knowledge
455 सुव्रतः suvratah He who ever-perfoeming the pure vow
456 सुमुखः sumukhah One who has a charming face
457 सूक्ष्मः sookshmah The subtlest
458 सुघोषः sughoshah Of auspicious sound
459 सुखदः sukhadah Giver of happiness
460 सुहृत् suhrit Friend of all creatures
461 मनोहरः manoharah The stealer of the mind
462 जितक्रोधः jita-krodhah One who has conquered anger
463 वीरबाहुः veerabaahur Having mighty arms
464 विदारणः vidaaranah One who splits asunder
465 स्वापनः svaapanah One who puts people to sleep
466 स्ववशः svavashah He who has everything under His control
467 व्यापी vyaapee All-pervading
468 नैकात्मा naikaatmaa Many souled
469 नैककर्मकृत् naikakarmakrit One who does many actions
470 वत्सरः vatsarah The abode
471 वत्सलः vatsalah The supremely affectionate
472 वत्सी vatsee The father
473 रत्नगर्भः ratnagarbhah The jewel-wombed
474 धनेश्वरः dhaneshvarah The Lord of wealth
475 धर्मगुब् dharmagub One who protects dharma
476 धर्मकृत् dharmakrit One who acts according to dharma
477 धर्मी dharmee The supporter of dharma
478 सत् sat existence
479 असत् asat illusion
480 क्षरम् ksharam He who appears to perish
481 अक्षरम् aksharam Imperishable
482 अविज्ञाता avijnaataa The non-knower (The knower being the conditioned soul within the body)
483 सहस्रांशुः sahasraamshur The thousand-rayed
484 विधाता vidhaataa All supporter
485 कृतलक्षणः kritalakshanah One who is famous for His qualities
486 गभस्तिनेमिः gabhastinemih The hub of the universal wheel
487 सत्त्वस्थः sattvasthah Situated in sattva
488 सिंहः simhah The lion
489 भूतमहेश्वरः bhoota-maheshvarah The great lord of beings
490 आदिदेवः aadidevah The first deity
491 महादेवः mahaadevah The great deity
492 देवेशः deveshah The Lord of all devas
493 देवभृद्गुरुः devabhrit-guruh Advisor of Indra
494 उत्तरः uttarah He who lifts us from the ocean of samsara
495 गोपतिः gopatih The shepherd
496 गोप्ता goptaa The protector
497 ज्ञानगम्यः jnaanagamyah One who is experienced through pure knowledge
498 पुरातनः puraatanah He who was even before time
499 शरीरभूतभृत् shareera-bhootabhrit One who nourishes the nature from which the bodies came
500 भोक्ता bhoktaa The enjoyer
501 कपीन्द्रः kapeendrah Lord of the monkeys (Rama)
502 भूरिदक्षिणः bhooridakshinah He who gives away large gifts
503 सोमपः somapah One who takes Soma in the yajnas
504 अमृतपः amritapah One who drinks the nectar
505 सोमः somah One who as the moon nourishes plants
506 पुरुजित् purujit One who has conquered numerous enemies
507 पुरुसत्तमः purusattamah The greatest of the great
508 विनयः vinayah He who humiliates those who are unrighteous
509 जयः jayah The victorious
510 सत्यसन्धः satyasandhah Of truthful resolution
511 दाशार्हः daashaarhah One who was born in the Dasarha race
512 सात्त्वतां पतिः saatvataam-patih The Lord of the Satvatas
513 जीवः jeevah One who functions as the ksetrajna
514 विनयितासाक्षी vinayitaa-saakshee The witness of modesty
515 मुकुन्दः mukundah The giver of liberation
516 अमितविक्रमः amitavikramah Of immeasurable prowess
517 अम्भोनिधिः ambho-nidhir The substratum of the four types of beings
518 अनन्तात्मा anantaatmaa The infinite self
519 महोदधिशयः mahodadhishayah One who rests on the great ocean
520 अन्तकः antakah The death
521 अजः ajah Unborn
522 महार्हः mahaarhah One who deserves the highest worship
523 स्वाभाव्यः svaabhaavyah Ever rooted in the nature of His own self
524 जितामित्रः jitaamitrah One who has conquered all enemies
525 प्रमोदनः pramodanah Ever-blissful
526 आनन्दः aanandah A mass of pure bliss
527 नन्दनः nandanah One who makes others blissful
528 नन्दः nandah Free from all worldly pleasures
529 सत्यधर्मा satyadharmaa One who has in Himself all true dharmas
530 त्रिविक्रमः trivikramah One who took three steps
531 महर्षिः कपिलाचार्यः maharshih kapilaachaaryah He who incarnated as Kapila, the great sage
532 कृतज्ञः kritajnah The knower of the creation
533 मेदिनीपतिः medineepatih The Lord of the earth
534 त्रिपदः tripadah One who has taken three steps
535 त्रिदशाध्यक्षः tridashaadhyaksho The Lord of the three states of consciousness
536 महाशृंगः mahaashringah Great-horned (Matsya)
537 कृतान्तकृत् kritaantakrit Destroyer of the creation
538 महावराहः mahaavaraaho The great boar
539 गोविन्दः govindah One who is known through Vedanta
540 सुषेणः sushenah He who has a charming army
541 कनकांगदी kanakaangadee Wearer of bright-as-gold armlets
542 गुह्यः guhyo The mysterious
543 गभीरः gabheerah The unfathomable
544 गहनः gahano Impenetrable
545 गुप्तः guptah The well-concealed
546 चक्रगदाधरः chakra-gadaadharah Bearer of the disc and mace
547 वेधाः vedhaah Creator of the universe
548 स्वांगः svaangah One with well-proportioned limbs
549 अजितः ajitah Vanquished by none
550 कृष्णः krishnah Dark-complexioned
551 दृढः dridhah The firm
552 संकर्षणोऽच्युतः sankarshanochyutah He who absorbs the whole creation into His nature and never falls away from that nature
553 वरुणः varunah One who sets on the horizon (Sun)
554 वारुणः vaarunah The son of Varuna (Vasistha or Agastya)
555 वृक्षः vrikshah The tree
556 पुष्कराक्षः pushkaraakshah Lotus eyed
557 महामनः mahaamanaah Great-minded
558 भगवान् bhagavaan One who possesses six opulences
559 भगहा bhagahaa One who destroys the six opulences during pralaya
560 आनन्दी aanandee One who gives delight
561 वनमाली vanamaalee One who wears a garland of forest flowers
562 हलायुधः halaayudhah One who has a plough as His weapon
563 आदित्यः aadityah Son of Aditi
564 ज्योतिरादित्यः jyotiraadityah The resplendence of the sun
565 सहिष्णुः sahishnuh One who calmly endures duality
566 गतिसत्तमः gatisattamah The ultimate refuge for all devotees
567 सुधन्वा sudhanvaa One who has Shaarnga
568 खण्दपरशुः khanda-parashur One who holds an axe
569 दारुणः daarunah Merciless towards the unrighteous
570 द्रविणप्रदः dravinapradah One who lavishly gives wealth
571 दिवःस्पृक् divah-sprik Sky-reaching
572 सर्वदृग्व्यासः sarvadrik-vyaaso One who creates many men of wisdom
573 वाचस्पतिरयोनिजः vaachaspatir-ayonijah One who is the master of all vidyas and who is unborn through a womb
574 त्रिसामा trisaamaa One who is glorified by Devas, Vratas and Saamans
575 सामगः saamagah The singer of the sama songs
576 साम saama The Sama Veda
577 निर्वाणम् nirvaanam All-bliss
578 भेषजम् bheshajam Medicine
579 भृषक् bhishak Physician
580 संन्यासकृत् samnyaasa-krit Institutor of sannyasa
581 समः samah Calm
582 शान्तः shaantah Peaceful within
583 निष्ठा nishthaa Abode of all beings
584 शान्तिः shaantih One whose very nature is peace
585 परायणम् paraayanam The way to liberation
586 शुभांगः shubhaangah One who has the most beautiful form
587 शान्तिदः shaantidah Giver of peace
588 स्रष्टा srashtaa Creator of all beings
589 कुमुदः kumudah He who delights in the earth
590 कुवलेशयः kuvaleshayah He who reclines in the waters
591 गोहितः gohitah One who does welfare for cows
592 गोपतिः gopatih Husband of the earth
593 गोप्ता goptaa Protector of the universe
594 वृषभाक्षः vrishabhaaksho One whose eyes rain fulfilment of desires
595 वृषप्रियः vrishapriyah One who delights in dharma
596 अनिवर्ती anivartee One who never retreats
597 निवृतात्मा nivrittaatmaa One who is fully restrained from all sense indulgences
598 संक्षेप्ता samksheptaa The involver
599 क्षेमकृत् kshemakrit Doer of good
600 शिवः shivah Auspiciousness
601 श्रीवत्सवत्साः shreevatsa-vakshaah One who has sreevatsa on His chest
602 श्रीवासः shrevaasah Abode of Sree
603 श्रीपतिः shreepatih Lord of Laksmi
604 श्रीमतां वरः shreemataam varah The best among glorious
605 श्रीदः shreedah Giver of opulence
606 श्रीशः shreeshah The Lord of Sree
607 श्रीनिवासः shreenivaasah One who dwells in the good people
608 श्रीनिधिः shreenidhih The treasure of Sree
609 श्रीविभावनः shreevibhaavanah Distributor of Sree
610 श्रीधरः shreedharah Holder of Sree
611 श्रीकरः shreekarah One who gives Sree
612 श्रेयः shreyah Liberation
613 श्रीमान् shreemaan Possessor of Sree
614 लोकत्रयाश्रयः loka-trayaashrayah Shelter of the three worlds
615 स्वक्षः svakshah Beautiful-eyed
616 स्वङ्गः svangah Beautiful-limbed
617 शतानन्दः shataanandah Of infinite varieties and joys
618 नन्दिः nandih Infinite bliss
619 ज्योतिर्गणेश्वरः jyotir-ganeshvarah Lord of the luminaries in the cosmos
620 विजितात्मा vijitaatmaa One who has conquered the sense organs
621 विधेयात्मा vidheyaatmaa One who is ever available for the devotees to command in love
622 सत्कीर्तिः sat-keertih One of pure fame
623 छिन्नसंशयः chinnasamshayah One whose doubts are ever at rest
624 उदीर्णः udeernah The great transcendent
625 सर्वतश्चक्षुः sarvatah-chakshuh One who has eyes everywhere
626 अनीशः aneeshah One who has none to Lord over Him
627 शाश्वतः-स्थिरः shaashvata-sthirah One who is eternal and stable
628 भूशयः bhooshayah One who rested on the ocean shore (Rama)
629 भूषणः bhooshanah One who adorns the world
630 भूतिः bhootih One who is pure existence
631 विशोकः vishokah Sorrowless
632 शोकनाशनः shoka-naashanah Destroyer of sorrows
633 अर्चिष्मान् archishmaan The effulgent
634 अर्चितः architah One who is constantly worshipped by His devotees
635 कुम्भः kumbhah The pot within whom everything is contained
636 विशुद्धात्मा vishuddhaatmaa One who has the purest soul
637 विशोधनः vishodhanah The great purifier
638 अनिरुद्धः aniruddhah He who is invincible by any enemy
639 अप्रतिरथः apratirathah One who has no enemies to threaten Him
640 प्रद्युम्नः pradyumnah Very rich
641 अमितविक्रमः amitavikramah Of immeasurable prowess
642 कालनेमीनिहा kaalanemi-nihaa Slayer of Kalanemi
643 वीरः veerah The heroic victor
644 शौरी shauri One who always has invincible prowess
645 शूरजनेश्वरः shoora-janeshvarah Lord of the valiant
646 त्रिलोकात्मा trilokaatmaa The self of the three worlds
647 त्रिलोकेशः trilokeshah The Lord of the three worlds
648 केशवः keshavah One whose rays illumine the cosmos
649 केशिहा keshihaa Killer of Kesi
650 हरिः harih The destroyer
651 कामदेवः kaamadevah The beloved Lord
652 कामपालः kaamapaalah The fulfiller of desires
653 कामी kaamee One who has fulfilled all His desires
654 कान्तः kaantah Of enchanting form
655 कृतागमः kritaagamah The author of the agama scriptures
656 अनिर्देश्यवपुः anirdeshya-vapuh Of Indescribable form
657 विष्णुः vishnuh All-pervading
658 वीरः veerah The courageous
659 अनन्तः anantah Endless
660 धनञ्जयः dhananjayah One who gained wealth through conquest
661 ब्रह्मण्यः brahmanyah Protector of Brahman (anything related to Narayana)
662 ब्रह्मकृत् brahmakrit One who acts in Brahman
663 ब्रह्मा brahmaa Creator
664 ब्रहम brahma Biggest
665 ब्रह्मविवर्धनः brahma-vivardhanah One who increases the Brahman
666 ब्रह्मविद् brahmavid One who knows Brahman
667 ब्राह्मणः braahmanah One who has realised Brahman
668 ब्रह्मी brahmee One who is with Brahma
669 ब्रह्मज्ञः brahmajno One who knows the nature of Brahman
670 ब्राह्मणप्रियः braahmana-priyah Dear to the brahmanas
671 महाकर्मः mahaakramo Of great step
672 महाकर्मा mahaakarmaa One who performs great deeds
673 महातेजा mahaatejaah One of great resplendence
674 महोरगः mahoragah The great serpent
675 महाक्रतुः mahaakratuh The great sacrifice
676 महायज्वा mahaayajvaa One who performed great yajnas
677 महायज्ञः mahaayajnah The great yajna
678 महाहविः mahaahavih The great offering
679 स्तव्यः stavyah One who is the object of all praise
680 स्तवप्रियः stavapriyah One who is invoked through prayer
681 स्तोत्रम् stotram The hymn
682 स्तुतिः stutih The act of praise
683 स्तोता stotaa One who adores or praises
684 रणप्रियः ranapriyah Lover of battles
685 पूर्णः poornah The complete
686 पूरयिता poorayitaa The fulfiller
687 पुण्यः punyah The truly holy
688 पुण्यकीर्तिः punya-keertir Of Holy fame
689 अनामयः anaamayah One who has no diseases
690 मनोजवः manojavah Swift as the mind
691 तीर्थकरः teerthakaro The teacher of the tirthas
692 वसुरेताः vasuretaah He whose essence is golden
693 वसुप्रदः vasupradah The free-giver of wealth
694 वसुप्रदः vasupradah The giver of salvation, the greatest wealth
695 वासुदेवः vaasudevo The son of Vasudeva
696 वसुः vasuh The refuge for all
697 वसुमना vasumanaa One who is attentive to everything
698 हविः havih The oblation
699 सद्गतिः sadgatih The goal of good people
700 सत्कृतिः satkritih One who is full of Good actions
701 सत्ता satta One without a second
702 सद्भूतिः sadbhootih One who has rich glories
703 सत्परायणः satparaayanah The Supreme goal for the good
704 शूरसेनः shoorasenah One who has heroic and valiant armies
705 यदुश्रेष्ठः yadu-shresthah The best among the Yadava clan
706 सन्निवासः sannivaasah The abode of the good
707 सुयामुनः suyaamunah One who attended by the people dwelling on the banks of Yamuna
708 भूतावासः bhootaavaaso The dwelling place of the elements
709 वासुदेवः vaasudevah One who envelops the world with Maya
710 सर्वासुनिलयः sarvaasunilayah The abode of all life energies
711 अनलः analah One of unlimited wealth, power and glory
712 दर्पहा darpahaa The destroyer of pride in evil-minded people
713 दर्पदः darpadah One who creates pride, or an urge to be the best, among the righteous
714 दृप्तः driptah One who is drunk with Infinite bliss
715 दुर्धरः durdharah The object of contemplation
716 अथापराजितः athaaparaajitah The unvanquished
717 विश्वमूर्तिः vishvamoortih Of the form of the entire Universe
718 महामूर्तिः mahaamortir The great form
719 दीप्तमूर्तिः deeptamoortir Of resplendent form
720 अमूर्तिमान् a-moortirmaan Having no form
721 अनेकमूर्तिः anekamoortih Multi-formed
722 अव्यक्तः avyaktah Unmanifeset
723 शतमूर्तिः shatamoortih Of many forms
724 शताननः shataananah Many-faced
725 एकः ekah The one
726 नैकः naikah The many
727 सवः savah The nature of the sacrifice
728 कः kah One who is of the nature of bliss
729 किम् kim What (the one to be inquired into)
730 यत् yat Which
731 तत् tat That
732 पदमनुत्तमम् padam-anuttamam The unequalled state of perfection
733 लोकबन्धुः lokabandhur Friend of the world
734 लोकनाथः lokanaathah Lord of the world
735 माधवः maadhavah Born in the family of Madhu
736 भक्तवत्सलः bhaktavatsalah One who loves His devotees
737 सुवर्णवर्णः suvarna-varnah Golden-coloured
738 हेमांगः hemaangah One who has limbs of gold
739 वरांगः varaangah With beautiful limbs
740 चन्दनांगदी chandanaangadee One who has attractive armlets
741 वीरहा veerahaa Destroyer of valiant heroes
742 विषमः vishama Unequalled
743 शून्यः shoonyah The void
744 घृताशी ghritaaseeh One who has no need for good wishes
745 अचलः acalah Non-moving
746 चलः chalah Moving
747 अमानी amaanee Without false vanity
748 मानदः maanadah One who causes, by His maya, false identification with the body
749 मान्यः maanyah One who is to be honoured
750 लोकस्वामी lokasvaamee Lord of the universe
751 त्रिलोकधरक् trilokadhrik One who is the support of all the three worlds
752 सुमेधा sumedhaa One who has pure intelligence
753 मेधजः medhajah Born out of sacrifices
754 धन्यः dhanyah Fortunate
755 सत्यमेधः satyamedhah One whose intelligence never fails
756 धराधरः dharaadharah The sole support of the earth
757 तेजोवृषः tejovrisho One who showers radiance
758 द्युतिधरः dyutidharah One who bears an effulgent form
759 सर्वशस्त्रभृतां वरः sarva-shastra-bhritaam-varah The best among those who wield weapons
760 प्रग्रहः pragrahah Receiver of worship
761 निग्रहः nigrahah The killer
762 व्यग्रः vyagrah One who is ever engaged in fulfilling the devotee's desires
763 नैकशृंगः naikashringah One who has many horns
764 गदाग्रजः gadaagrajah One who is invoked through mantra
765 चतुर्मूर्तिः chaturmoortih Four-formed
766 चतुर्बाहुः chaturbaahuh Four-handed
767 चतुर्व्यूहः chaturvyoohah One who expresses Himself as the dynamic centre in the four vyoohas
768 चतुर्गतिः chaturgatih The ultimate goal of all four varnas and asramas
769 चतुरात्मा chaturaatmaa Clear-minded
770 चतुर्भावः chaturbhaavas The source of the four
771 चतुर्वेदविद् chatur-vedavid Knower of all four vedas
772 एकपात् ekapaat One-footed (BG 10.42)
773 समावर्तः samaavartah The efficient turner
774 निवृत्तात्मा nivrittaatmaa One whose mind is turned away from sense indulgence
775 दुर्जयः durjayah The invincible
776 दुरतिक्रमः duratikramah One who is difficult to be disobeyed
777 दुर्लभः durlabhah One who can be obtained with great efforts
778 दुर्गमः durgamah One who is realised with great effort
779 दुर्गः durgah Not easy to storm into
780 दुरावासः duraavaasah Not easy to lodge
781 दुरारिहा duraarihaa Slayer of the asuras
782 शुभांगः shubhaangah One with enchanting limbs
783 लोकसारंगः lokasaarangah One who understands the universe
784 सुतन्तुः sutantuh Beautifully expanded
785 तन्तुवर्धनः tantu-vardhanah One who sustains the continuity of the drive for the family
786 इन्द्रकर्मा indrakarmaa One who always performs gloriously auspicious actions
787 महाकर्मा mahaakarmaa One who accomplishes great acts
788 कृतकर्मा kritakarmaa One who has fulfilled his acts
789 कृतागमः kritaagamah Author of the Vedas
790 उद्भवः udbhavah The ultimate source
791 सुन्दरः sundarah Of unrivalled beauty
792 सुन्दः sundah Of great mercy
793 रत्ननाभः ratna-naabhah Of beautiful navel
794 सुलोचनः sulochanah One who has the most enchanting eyes
795 अर्कः arkah One who is in the form of the sun
796 वाजसनः vaajasanah The giver of food
797 शृंगी shringee The horned one
798 जयन्तः jayantah The conqueror of all enemies
799 सर्वविज्जयी sarvavij-jayee One who is at once omniscient and victorious
800 सुवर्णबिन्दुः suvarna-binduh With limbs radiant like gold
801 अक्षोभ्यः akshobhyah One who is ever unruffled
802 सर्ववागीश्वरेश्वरः sarva-vaageeshvareshvarah Lord of the Lord of speech
803 महाहृदः mahaahradah One who is like a great refreshing swimming pool
804 महागर्तः mahaagartah The great chasm
805 महाभूतः mahaabhootah The great being
806 महानिधिः mahaanidhih The great abode
807 कुमुदः kumudah One who gladdens the earth
808 कुन्दरः kundarah The one who lifted the earth
809 कुन्दः kundah One who is as attractive as Kunda flowers
810 पर्जन्यः parjanyah He who is similar to rain-bearing clouds
811 पावनः paavanah One who ever purifies
812 अनिलः anilah One who never slips
813 अमृतांशः amritaashah One whose desires are never fruitless
814 अमृतवपुः amritavapuh He whose form is immortal
815 सर्वज्ञः sarvajna Omniscient
816 सर्वतोमुखः sarvato-mukhah One who has His face turned everywhere
817 सुलभः sulabhah One who is readily available
818 सुव्रतः suvratah One who has taken the most auspicious forms
819 सिद्धः siddhah One who is perfection
820 शत्रुजित् shatrujit One who is ever victorious over His hosts of enemies
821 शत्रुतापनः shatrutaapanah The scorcher of enemies
822 न्यग्रोधः nyagrodhah The one who veils Himself with Maya
823 उदुम्बरः udumbarah Nourishment of all living creatures
824 अश्वत्थः ashvattas Tree of life
825 चाणूरान्ध्रनिषूदनः chaanooraandhra-nishoodanah The slayer of Canura
826 सहस्रार्चिः sahasraarchih He who has thousands of rays
827 सप्तजिह्वः saptajihvah He who expresses himself as the seven tongues of fire (Types of agni)
828 सप्तैधाः saptaidhaah The seven effulgences in the flames
829 सप्तवाहनः saptavaahanah One who has a vehicle of seven horses (sun)
830 अमूर्तिः amoortih Formless
831 अनघः anaghah Sinless
832 अचिन्त्यः acintyo Inconceivable
833 भयकृत् bhayakrit Giver of fear
834 भयनाशनः bhayanaashanah Destroyer of fear
835 अणुः anuh The subtlest
836 बृहत् brihat The greatest
837 कृशः krishah Delicate, lean
838 स्थूलः sthoolah One who is the fattest
839 गुणभृत् gunabhrit One who supports
840 निर्गुणः nirgunah Without any properties
841 महान् mahaan The mighty
842 अधृतः adhritah Without support
843 स्वधृतः svadhritah Self-supported
844 स्वास्यः svaasyah One who has an effulgent face
845 प्राग्वंशः praagvamshah One who has the most ancient ancestry
846 वंशवर्धनः vamshavardhanah He who multiplies His family of descendents
847 भारभृत् bhaarabhrit One who carries the load of the universe
848 कथितः kathitah One who is glorified in all scriptures
849 योगी yogee One who can be realised through yoga
850 योगीशः yogeeshah The king of yogis
851 सर्वकामदः sarvakaamadah One who fulfils all desires of true devotees
852 आश्रमः aashramah Haven
853 श्रमणः shramanah One who persecutes the worldly people
854 क्षामः kshaamah One who destroys everything
855 सुपर्णः suparnah The golden leaf (Vedas) BG 15.1
856 वायुवाहनः vaayuvaahanah The mover of the winds
857 धनुर्धरः dhanurdharah The wielder of the bow
858 धनुर्वेदः dhanurvedah One who declared the science of archery
859 दण्डः dandah One who punishes the wicked
860 दमयिता damayitaa The controller
861 दमः damah Beautitude in the self
862 अपराजितः aparaajitah One who cannot be defeated
863 सर्वसहः sarvasahah One who carries the entire Universe
864 अनियन्ता aniyantaa One who has no controller
865 नियमः niyamah One who is not under anyone's laws
866 अयमः ayamah One who knows no death
867 सत्त्ववान् sattvavaan One who is full of exploits and courage
868 सात्त्विकः saattvikah One who is full of sattvic qualities
869 सत्यः satyah Truth
870 सत्यधर्मपराक्रमः satya-dharma-paraayanah One who is the very abode of truth and dharma
871 अभिप्रायः abhipraayah One who is faced by all seekers marching to the infinite
872 प्रियार्हः priyaarhah One who deserves all our love
873 अर्हः arhah One who deserves to be worshiped
874 प्रियकृत् priyakrit One who is ever-obliging in fulfilling our wishes
875 प्रीतिवर्धनः preetivardhanah One who increases joy in the devotee's heart
876 विहायसगतिः vihaayasa-gatih One who travels in space
877 ज्योतिः jyotih Self-effulgent
878 सुरुचिः suruchih Whose desire manifests as the universe
879 हुतभुक् hutabhuk One who enjoys all that is offered in yajna
880 विभुः vibhuh All-pervading
881 रविः ravi One who dries up everything
882 विरोचनः virochanah One who shines in different forms
883 सूर्यः sooryah The one source from where everything is born
884 सविता savitaa The one who brings forth the Universe from Himself
885 रविलोचनः ravilochanah One whose eye is the sun
886 अनन्तः anantah Endless
887 हुतभुक् hutabhuk One who accepts oblations
888 भोक्ता bhoktaaA One who enjoys
889 सुखदः sukhadah Giver of bliss to those who are liberated
890 नैकजः naikajah One who is born many times
891 अग्रजः agrajah The first-born
892 अनिर्विण्णः anirvinnah One who feels no disappointment
893 सदामर्षी sadaamarshee One who forgives the trespasses of His devotees
894 लोकाधिष्ठानम् lokaadhishthaanam The substratum of the universe
895 अद्भुतः adbhutah Wonderful
896 सनात् sanaat The beginningless and endless factor
897 सनातनतमः sanaatanatamah The most ancient
898 कपिलः kapilah The great sage Kapila
899 कपिः kapih One who drinks water
900 अव्ययः avyayah The one in whom the universe merges
901 स्वस्तिदः svastidah Giver of Svasti
902 स्वस्तिकृत् svastikrit One who robs all auspiciousness
903 स्वस्ति svasti One who is the source of all auspiciouness
904 स्वस्तिभुक् svastibhuk One who constantly enjoys auspiciousness
905 स्वस्तिदक्षिणः svastidakshinah Distributor of auspiciousness
906 अरौद्रः araudrah One who has no negative emotions or urges
907 कुण्डली kundalee One who wears shark earrings
908 चक्री chakree Holder of the chakra
909 विक्रमी vikramee The most daring
910 ऊर्जितशासनः oorjita-shaasanah One who commands with His hand
911 शब्दगतिः shabdaatigah One who transcends all words
912 शब्दसहः shabdasahah One who allows Himself to be invoked by Vedic declarations
913 शिशिरः shishirah The cold season, winter
914 शर्वरीकरः sharvaree-karah Creator of darkness
915 अक्रूरः akroorah Never cruel
916 पेशलः peshalah One who is supremely soft
917 दक्षः dakshah Prompt
918 दक्षिणः dakshinah The most liberal
919 क्षमिणांवरः kshaminaam-varah One who has the greatest amount of patience with sinners
920 विद्वत्तमः vidvattamah One who has the greatest wisdom
921 वीतभयः veetabhayah One with no fear
922 पुण्यश्रवणकीर्तनः punya-shravana-keertanah The hearing of whose glory causes holiness to grow
923 उत्तारणः uttaaranah One who lifts us out of the ocean of change
924 दुष्कृतिहा dushkritihaa Destroyer of bad actions
925 पुण्यः punyah Supremely pure
926 दुःस्वप्ननाशनः duh-svapna-naashanah One who destroys all bad dreams
927 वीरहा veerahaa One who ends the passage from womb to womb
928 रक्षणः rakshanah Protector of the universe
929 सन्तः santah One who is expressed through saintly men
930 जीवनः jeevanah The life spark in all creatures
931 पर्यवस्थितः paryavasthitah One who dwells everywhere
932 अनन्तरूपः anantaroopah One of infinite forms
933 अनन्तश्रीः anantashreeh Full of infinite glories
934 जितमन्युः jitamanyuh One who has no anger
935 भयापहः bhayapahah One who destroys all fears
936 चतुरश्रः chaturashrah One who deals squarely
937 गभीरात्मा gabheeraatmaa Too deep to be fathomed
938 विदिशः vidishah One who is unique in His giving
939 व्यादिशः vyaadishah One who is unique in His commanding power
940 दिशः dishah One who advises and gives knowledge
941 अनादिः anaadih One who is the first cause
942 भूर्भूवः bhoor-bhuvo The substratum of the earth
943 लक्ष्मीः lakshmeeh The glory of the universe
944 सुवीरः suveerah One who moves through various ways
945 रुचिरांगदः ruchiraangadah One who wears resplendent shoulder caps
946 जननः jananah He who delivers all living creatures
947 जनजन्मादिः jana-janmaadir The cause of the birth of all creatures
948 भीमः bheemah Terrible form
949 भीमपराक्रमः bheema-paraakramah One whose prowess is fearful to His enemies
950 आधारनिलयः aadhaaranilayah The fundamental sustainer
951 अधाता adhaataa Above whom there is no other to command
952 पुष्पहासः pushpahaasah He who shines like an opening flower
953 प्रजागरः prajaagarah Ever-awakened
954 ऊर्ध्वगः oordhvagah One who is on top of everything
955 सत्पथाचारः satpathaachaarah One who walks the path of truth
956 प्राणदः praanadah Giver of life
957 प्रणवः pranavah Omkara
958 पणः panah The supreme universal manager
959 प्रमाणम् pramaanam He whose form is the Vedas
960 प्राणनिलयः praananilayah He in whom all prana is established
961 प्राणभृत् praanibhrit He who rules over all pranas
962 प्राणजीवनः praanajeevanah He who maintains the life-breath in all living creatures
963 तत्त्वम् tattvam The reality
964 तत्त्वविद् tattvavit One who has realised the reality
965 एकात्मा ekaatmaa The one self
966 जन्ममृत्युजरातिगः janma-mrityu-jaraatigah One who knows no birth, death or old age in Himself
967 भूर्भुवःस्वस्तरुः bhoor-bhuvah svas-taruh The tree of the three worlds (bhoo=terrestrial, svah=celestial and bhuvah=the world in between)
968 तारः taarah One who helps all to cross over
969 सविताः savitaa The father of all
970 प्रपितामहः prapitaamahah The father of the father of beings (Brahma)
971 यज्ञः yajnah One whose very nature is yajna
972 यज्ञपतिः yajnapatih The Lord of all yajnas
973 यज्वा yajvaa The one who performs yajna
974 यज्ञांगः yajnaangah One whose limbs are the things employed in yajna
975 यज्ञवाहनः yajnavaahanah One who fulfils yajnas in complete
976 यज्ञभृद् yajnabhrid The ruler of the yajanas
977 यज्ञकृत् yajnakrit One who performs yajna
978 यज्ञी yajnee Enjoyer of yajnas
979 यज्ञभुक् yajnabhuk Receiver of all that is offered
980 यज्ञसाधनः yajnasaadhanah One who fulfils all yajnas
981 यज्ञान्तकृत् yajnaantakrit One who performs the concluding act of the yajna
982 यज्ञगुह्यम् yajnaguhyam The person to be realised by yajna
983 अन्नम् annam One who is food
984 अन्नादः annaadah One who eats the food
985 आत्मयोनिः aatmayonih The uncaused cause
986 स्वयंजातः svayamjaatah Self-born
987 वैखानः vaikhaanah The one who cut through the earth
988 सामगायनः saamagaayanah One who sings the sama songs; one who loves hearing saama chants;
989 देवकीनन्दनः devakee-nandanah Son of Devaki
990 स्रष्टा srashtaa Creator
991 क्षितीशः kshiteeshah The Lord of the earth
992 पापनाशनः paapa-naashanah Destroyer of sin
993 शंखभृत् samkha-bhrit One who has the divine Pancajanya
994 नन्दकी nandakee One who holds the Nandaka sword
995 चक्री chakree Carrier of Sudarsana
996 शार्ङ्गधन्वा shaarnga-dhanvaa One who aims His shaarnga bow
997 गदाधरः gadaadharah Carrier of Kaumodaki club
998 रथांगपाणिः rathaanga-paanih One who has the wheel of a chariot as His weapon; One with the strings of the chariot in his hands;
999 अक्षोभ्यः akshobhyah One who cannot be annoyed by anyone
1000 सर्वप्रहरणायुधः sarva-praharanaayudhah He who has all implements for all kinds of assault and fight

Tradition of recitation

Since ancient times till date, many Hindus in traditional families daily recite the Sahasranama, or a similar set of prayer Slokas of their chosen deity. (Such a collection of Slokas which are used for recital purposes is generally called a Stotra (Both 't's have soft pronunciation.))

Inclusion of other deities

One notable thing about the Sahasranama is that it includes names of other Hindu deities such as Shiva, Brahma, etc. within it. According to followers of Vaishnava theology, this is an example of Vishnu considered in His universal aspect, as an aggregation, and basis of all other deities which emanate from Him. In this cosmic aspect, Vishnu is also called Mahavishnu (Great Vishnu). By an Advaitan interpretation, this notation is not surprising as followers of Advaita philosophy, in particular, Smartas believe that Vishnu and Shiva are the same and are hence different aspects of the one Supreme Being.

Quotes about Vishnu Sahasranama

  • Sri N. Krishnamachari, a Vaishnavite scholar, at Stephen Knapp's website, quoting Vaishnavite scholars, states that there are six reasons for the greatness of Vishnusahasranama:
  1. Vishnusahasranama is the essence of the Mahabharata;
  2. Great sages such as Narada, the Alvars, and composers including Saint Tyagaraja have made repeated references to the "Thousand Names of Vishnu" in their devotional works;
  3. The person who strung together the thousand names as part of the Mahabharata and preserved it for the world was none other than Sage Veda Vyasa, the compiler of the Vedas;
  4. Bhishma considered chanting of the Vishnusahasranama the best and easiest of all dharmas, or the means to attain relief from all bondage;
  5. It is widely accepted that the chanting this Stotram gives relief from all sorrows, and leads to happiness and peace of mind;
  6. Vishnusahasranama is in conformity with the teachings of the Gita." [19]
  • verse 27 of Bhaja Govindam attributed to Shankaracharya ,[30] said that the Gita and Vishnusahasranama should be chanted and the form of the Lord of Lakshmi, Vishnu should always be meditated on. He also said that the Sahasranama bestowed all noble virtues on those who chanted it.[21]
  • Parasara Bhattar, a follower of Ramanujacharya had said that Vishnusahasranama absolves people of all sins and has no equal[21]
  • Madhvacharya, propounder of Dvaita philosophy, said that the Sahasranama was the essence of the Mahabharata, which in turn was the essence of the Sastras and that each word of the Sahasranama had 100 meanings.[21]
  • Swaminarayan, founder of the Hindu Swaminarayan faith, said in verse 118 of the scripture, Shikshapatri, that one should "either recite or have the 10th canto,(of Bhagavata Purana ) and also other holy scriptures like the "Vishnusahasranama" recited at a holy place according to one's capacity. "The recital is such that it gives fruits according to whatever is desired." [31]
  • Swaminarayan also said in verses 93-96, "I have the highest esteem for these eight holy scriptures: 1-4)the four Vedas, 5) the Vyas-Sutra,(i.e., Brahma Sutras, 6) the Shrimad Bhagavatam, 7) Shri Vishnusahasranama in the Mahabharata, and 8) the Yajnavalkya Smrti which is at the center of the Dharma Scriptures; and all My disciples who wish to prosper should listen to these eight holy scriptures, and the brahmanas under my shelter should learn and teach these holy scriptures, and read them to others."
  • Swami Sivananda, in his twenty important spiritual instructions, stated that the Vishnusahasranama, along with other religious texts, should be studied systematically.[23]
  • Quote by A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada; on February 15, 1970 to J.F.Staal; Professor of Philosophy and of South Asian Languages. Second paragraph, states:
”In this way we find all the scriptures aiming at the Supreme Person. In the Rig Veda (1.22.20) the mantra is om tad vishnoh paramam padam sada pashyanti surayah ("The demigods are always looking to that supreme abode of Vishnu"). The whole Vedic process, therefore, is to understand Lord Vishnu, and any scripture is directly or indirectly chanting the glories of the Supreme Lord, Vishnu.”[32]
sri rama rama rameti rame rame manorame
sahasranama tat tulyam rama nama varanane
"O Varanana (lovely-faced lady), I chant the holy name of Rama, Rama, Rama and thus constantly enjoy this beautiful sound. This holy name of Sri Rama is equal to one thousand holy names of Lord Vishnu." (Brhad Visnusahasranamastotra, Uttara-khanda, Padma Purana 72.335)
sahasra-namnam punyanam, trir-avrttya tu yat phalam
ekavrttya tu krsnasya, namaikam tat prayacchati
"The pious results (punya) achieved by chanting the thousand holy names of Vishnu (Vishnusahasranama-Stotram) three times can be attained by only one utterance of the holy name of Krishna."
yo mam nama sahasrena stotum icchati pandava
sohamekena slokena stuta eva na samsaya
"Arjuna, One may be desirous of praising by reciting the thousand names. But, on my part, I feel praised by one sloka. There is no doubt about it.”[12]
  • From the oldest scriptural text in Hinduism, the Rig Veda; V.I.15b.3, it states:
"O ye who wish to gain realization of the Supreme Truth, utter the name of "Vishnu" at least once in the steadfast faith that it will lead you to such realization."
"Oh Shama, this book is very valuable and efficacious, so I present it to you, you read it. Once I suffered intensely and My  
heart began to palpitate and My life was in danger. At that critical time, I hugged this book to My heart and then, Shama, what 
a relief it gave me! I thought that Allah Himself came down and saved Me. So I give this to you, read it slowly, little by 
little, read daily one name at least and it will do you good."

Phalasruti - Benefits of chanting Vishnusahasranama

The following lines are from the Mahabharata and are quoted portions from the text. Devotees believe that regular chanting of the hymn can accrue benefits.

I)On avoiding evil, success in battles, and gaining affluence, pleasure, happiness and offspring:

vedantago brahmanasyat kshatriyo vijayeebhavet
vaishyo dhanasamrudhyasyat shudra sukhamavapniyat
Bhisma said, "Thus have I recited to thee, without any exception, the thousand excellent names of the high-souled Kesava whose glory should always be sung. Anyone who hears the names every day or who recites them every day, never meets with any evil either here or hereafter. If a Brahmana does this he succeeds in mastering the Vedanta; if a Kshatriya does it, he is always successful in battles. A Vaisya, by doing it, becomes possessed of affluence, while a Sudra earns great happiness."
If one becomes desirous of earning the merit of righteousness, one succeeds in earning it (by hearing or reciting these names). If it is wealth that one desires, one succeeds in earning wealth (by acting in this way). So also the man who wishes for enjoyments of the senses succeeds in enjoying all kinds of pleasures, and the man desirous of offspring acquires offspring (by pursuing this course of conduct).

II)On acquiring fame, prosperity, prowess, energy, strength, beauty, removing fear, avoiding calamity, and being cured of disease:

"That man who with devotion and perseverance and heart wholly turned towards him, recites these thousand names of Vasudeva every day, after having purified himself, succeeds in acquiring great fame, a position of eminence among his kinsmen, enduring prosperity, and lastly, that which is of the highest benefit to him (viz., emancipation Moksha itself). Such a man never meets with fear at any time, and acquires great prowess and energy. Disease never afflicts him; splendour of complexion, strength, beauty, and accomplishments become his. The sick become hale, the afflicted become freed from their afflictions; the frightened become freed from fear, and he that is plunged in calamity becomes freed from calamity."
"The man who hymns the praises of that foremost of Beings by reciting His thousand names with devotion succeeds in quickly crossing all difficulties. That mortal who takes refuge in Vasudeva and who becomes devoted to Him, becomes freed of all sins and attains to eternal Brahman. They who are devoted to Vasudeva have never to encounter any evil. They become freed from the fear of birth, death, decrepitude, and disease."

III)On acquiring righteousness and intelligence, and avoiding the sins of evil:

"That man who with devotion and faith recites this hymn (consisting of the thousand names of

IV)On the origins of the soul, the source of righteous behavior, and the basis of all knowledge and existence:

"The senses, mind, understanding, life, energy, strength and memory, it has been said, have Vasudeva for their soul. Indeed, this body that is called Kshetra, and the intelligent soul within, that is called the knower of Kshetra, also have Vasudeva for their soul. Conduct (consisting of practices) is said to be the foremost of all topics treated of in the scriptures. Righteousness has conduct for its basis. The unfading Vasudeva is said to be the Lord of righteousness. The Rishis, the Pitris, the deities, the great (primal) elements, the metals, indeed, the entire mobile and immobile universe, has sprung from Narayana. Yoga, the Sankhya Philosophy, knowledge, all mechanical arts, the Vedas, the diverse scriptures, and all learning, have sprung from Janardana. Vishnu is the one great element or substance which has spread itself out into multifarious forms. Covering the three worlds, He the soul of all things, enjoys them all."
His glory knows no diminution, and He it is that is the Enjoyer of the universe (as its Supreme Lord). This hymn in praise of the illustrious Vishnu composed by Vyasa, should be recited by that person who wishes to acquire happiness and that which is the highest benefit (viz., emancipation). Those persons that worship and adore the Lord of the universe, that deity who is inborn and possessed of blazing effulgence, who is the origin or cause of the universe, who knows no deterioration, and who is endued with eyes that are as large and beautiful as the petals of the lotus, have never to meet with any discomfiture."

Bhisma's quote cited from Kisari Mohan Ganguli's translation of Vishnusahasranama (public domain)

See also


  1. ^ D. Kinsley (1974), Through the Looking Glass, History of Religions, 13(4), pages 270-305
  2. ^ For IAST version of Sanskrit for these verses, see: Sankaranarayan 1996, pp. 2–5.
  3. ^ For Sanskrit text and translation, see: Tapasyananda, pp. 3-4.
  4. ^ Sankara Bhashya on Vishnusahasranaama
  5. ^ Tapasyananda, pg. iv.
  6. ^ Transcription of Sankara's commentary to Vishnusahasranamastotra, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur. The names "Shiva", "Shambhu", "Eesanah", and "Rudra" are to be found in slokas 17, 18, 21, and 26 respectively
  7. ^ Commentary to sloka 13, "yatra puMliGgashabdaprayOgaH, tatra viSNurvishESyaH; yatra strIliMga shabdaH, tatra dEvatA prayOgaH; yatra napuMsaliGga prayOgaH, tatra brahmEti vishEshyatE (where a word of masculine gender is used, the noun is Vishnu, in feminine gender the noun is Devata, and in neuter gender the noun is Brahma)", Transcription of Sankara's commentary to Vishnusahasranamastotra
  8. ^ Commentary to sloka 17 in Transcription of Sankara's commentary to Vishnusahasranamastotra, "sivAdi nAmabhiH hariH eva stUyate"
  9. ^
  10. ^ a b Tapasyananda, pg. 47.
  11. ^ Bhag-P 4.4.14 "Siva means mangala, or auspicious"
  12. ^ a b c Srivaishnavism
  13. ^ Foreword of P. Sankaranarayan's translation of Vishnu sahasranama, Bhavan's Book University
  14. ^
  15. ^ Tapasyananda, Swami. Sri Vishnu Sahasranama, pg. 62.
  16. ^ Tapasyananda, Swami. Sri Vishnu Sahasranama, pgs. 48, 49, 87, 96 and 123.
  17. ^ a b Tapasyananda, Swami. Sri Vishnu Sahasranama, pg. 48.
  18. ^ [1], story #53
  19. ^ a b
  20. ^ Bhaja Govindam:
  21. ^ a b c d e f
  22. ^ Shree Swaminarayan Temple Cardiff - Scriptures - Shikshapatri
  23. ^ a b 20 Important Spiritual Instructions
  24. ^ The Krishna Consciousness Movement is the Genuine Vedic Way
  25. ^
  26. ^ a b c Brihat Parashara Hora Shastra, Vol. 2, pg. 740, by Maharshi Parashara, with translation, commentary and editing by R. Santhana, Ranjan Publications, New Delhi, India
  27. ^ Vijaya Kumar, The Thousand Names of Vishnu
  28. ^ B.K. Chaturvedi, Vishnu Puran, page 126
  29. ^ English translation, IAST Sanskrit
  30. ^ Bhaja Govindam:
  31. ^ Shree Swaminarayan Temple Cardiff - Scriptures - Shikshapatri
  32. ^ The Krishna Consciousness Movement is the Genuine Vedic Way


  • . With an English Translation of Sri Sankara Bhagavatpada's Commentary
  • . Sanskrit and English, with an English translation of Sri Sankara Bhagavatpada's commentary.

Further reading

  • Sanskrit & Hindi: Sri Vishnu Sahasranama, Gita Press, Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh 273005, India
  • Sanskrit & English: The Thousand Names of Vishnu and the Satyanarayana Vrat, translated by Swami Satyananda Saraswati, Devi Mandir, Napa.

Other translations:

  • Sanskrit & Gujarati: Sri Vishnu Sahasranama Stotram; translated by Shri Yogeshwarji, India @
  • Sanskrit & English: Sri Vishnu Sahasranama Stotram; translated by Swami Vimalananda, Sri Ramakrishna Tapovanam, Tiruchirapalli, India, 1985

External links

  • The original Sanskrit at Wikisource.
  • Youtube Video to learn and hear Visnu Sahasranama on YouTube – Includes Sanskrit, transliteration and English translation.
  • A 5-volumes English commentary at Ahobilavalli site.
  • English and Sanskrit at Swami Krishnananda's
  • Excerpt from the Mahabharata translation by Ganguly at Sacred Texts.
  • Sung by Srivatsa Krishna to Carnatic music
  • Transliterations into many scripts.
  • PDF English version with audio and links at the Matheson Trust.
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Hawaii eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.