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List of Jewish ethnonyms

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List of Jewish ethnonyms

This article lists the ethnonyms of the Jewish people in various linguistic contexts. See the article Jew, Jew (word) and the Footnotes for etymological and other information. This article does not cover ethnic slurs.
Arabic يهودي Yahūdī (sl.); يهود Yahūd (pl.) بني إسرائيل Banī Israel عبري ʕibrī
Armenian հրեա hrea (sing.); հրեաներ (pl.); ջհուդ jhud (sing., pejorative)
Basque Judu or judutar
Bengali Yeuhudi
Bulgarian Евреин, evrein (masc.); еврейка, evreika (fem.); евреи, evrei (pl.); юдеи, yudei (pl., archaic)
Catalan Jueu (masc. sig.); jueus (masc. pl.), jueva (fem. sing.); jueves (fem. pl.)
Chinese 猶太人, Chinese, Traditional
犹太人, Chinese, Simplified, pinyin: Yóutài Rén
Croatian Židov
Czech Žid (as a member of nation) or žid (as a confessor of Judaism)
Danish Jøden
Dutch Jood
Ancient Egyptian Possibly Habiru2; Ishrail (Israel, cf. Israel Stela)
English Jews, see Jew (word)1
Hebrews2
Israelites or Children of Israel3
Esperanto Judoj. L.L. Zamenhof described himself as hebreo.
Estonian Juut
Finnish Juutalainen
French Juif (masc.); Juive (fem.)
Galego Xudeu (masc. sing.); Xudía (fem. sing.); Xudeus (masc. pl.); Xudías (fem. pl.)
Georgian ებრაელი, Ebraeli
German Jude (masc.); Jüdin (fem.); Juden (pl.)
Greek Ἰουδαῖος, Ioudaios1
Ἑβραῖος, Hebraios (from Evrei)2
Ἰσραηλίτης, Israelites (from Israel)3
Hebrew יהודי, Yehudi (sl.m); יהודיה, Yehudia (sl.f);יהודים, Yehudim/Yehudioth (pl.) 1
עברי, Ivri (sl.m); עבריה, Ivria (sl.f); עברים, Ivrim/Ivrioth2
בני ישׂראל, Bnei Yisrael (pl.)3
Hindi Yahudi
Hungarian Zsidó
Icelandic gyðingur (sl.)
Indonesian/Malay Yahudi, Banī Israel
Irish Giúdach
Italian Ebreo (masc. sing.); ebrei (masc. pl.); ebrea (fem. sing.); ebree (fem. pl.)
Japanese ユダヤ人, Yudayajin
Korean 유태인, Yutae-in
Kurdish Cihû, Mûsayî/مووسایی, Cûleke/جوله که
Ladino djudio, Judio (singular)
los ebreos (the Jews)
Latin Iudaeus1
Latvian Ebrejs
Lithuanian Žydai
Norwegian Jøde
Ojibwe Zhoodawi (from the French: judéité) or Joowiwi (from the English: Jew)
Persian جهود or يهود -- Johud (Persian) or Yahūdī (from Arabic); former sometimes considered pejorative.
کلیمی, Kalimi (religious) a follower of Kalim Allah, also a euphemism for Johud.
Polish Żyd
Portuguese Judeu ; judeus (masc. pl.); judia ; judias (fem. pl.). Also hebreus and israelitas (both masc. pl.)
Romanian Evreu, israelit, jidov(archaic), ovrei (archaic and demeaning), jidan (highly pejorative)
Russian Еврей, Yevrey (sl.); Евреи, Yevrei2 (pl.): Typically denotes the ethnicity (национальность - natsional'nost'); жид, zhid (masc. sing) (pejorative), жидовка, zhidovka (fem. sing.)
Иудей, Iudey (sl.); Иудеи, Iudei1 (pl.): Typically denotes the followers of Judaism.
Serbian Јевреј Jevrej
Slovak Žid
Spanish Judío (m. sing) Judía (f. sing) Judíos (plu) Judías (f. plu)
Hebreo (m. sing) Hebrea (f. sing) Hebreos (plu) Hebreas (f. plu)
Israelita (sing) Israelitas (plu) as in the Alianza Israelita Argentina.
Swahili Yahudi
Swedish Jude
Tagalog Hudyo, Israelita (both derived from Spanish)
Thai คนยิว, khon yiu (from the English: Jew)
Tibetan Yahutapa
Ukrainian Жид (sl.); Жиди (pl.)
Vietnamese người Do Thái
Turkish Yahudi, Çıfıt (religious) something related to, or a follower of Judaism, latter usually considered pejorative.
Musevi, (religious) a follower of Moses, also a euphemism for Yahudi.
İbrani, (ethnic) a Hebrew.
Yiddish איד,ייִד Yid1 (pronounced ) (sing.); ייִדן, Yidn (pronounced [ˈjɪdn̩]) (pl.)

No longer in use

See also

Footnotes

  • 1 Ioudaios, Yehudi, Jewish, a "Judaean", "from the land of Yehuda (Judah, Judea)".
  • 2 Ivri, Hebrew, "one who passes over", a reference to the Biblical patriarch Abraham (or possibly Eber).
  • 3 Israel, "one who has struggled with God", the name given to the Biblical patriarch Jacob.
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