World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

.no

Article Id: WHEBN0001237902
Reproduction Date:

Title: .no  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: .bv, .sj, .rw, .ye, .yt
Collection: 1983 Establishments in Norway, Council of European National Top Level Domain Registries Members, Country Code Top-Level Domains, Internet in Norway
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

.no

.no
Introduced 1983
TLD type Country code top-level domain
Status Active
Registry Norid
Sponsor Norid
Intended use Entities connected with  Norway
Actual use Very popular in Norway; most sites are in second-level names rather than the various third-level registrations available
Registered domains 583,962 (May 2013)[1]
Registration restrictions Open to organisations and individuals in Norway; specific sub-domains have varied requirements; limit of 100 second-level registrations per organization; lower limit for individuals
Structure Registrations can be made at the second level, or at third level beneath various geographic and generic second-level names
Documents Domain name policy for .no
Dispute policies Complaint procedure
Website Norid
DNSSEC Yes

.no is the municipalities and schools. The strict regulations have resulted in near-absence of cybersquatting and warehousing.

Management of the ccTLD was awarded to trademark ownership. The regulations were liberalized in 2001, when the process was automated and a retrospective dispute resolution scheme was introduced. This resulted in a boom of registrations, with the accumulated registrations exceeding 100,000 in the course of the year. Domain names may consist of the twenty-six basic Latin letters, digits and the hyphen, and beginning in 2004 three Norwegian language letters and twenty Sami language letters have been permitted. All-numeric domains were introduced in 2007 and priv.no in 2011.

Contents

  • History 1
  • Management 2
  • Policy 3
  • Second-level domains 4
  • References 5
    • Bibliography 5.1

History

The domain name registry responsibility for .no was in 1983 awarded to information and communications technology to Norwegian public universities, colleges and research institutions[4] on 17 March 1987.[5] The oldest archived zone file dates from 1989 and includes 19 domains.[4] In 1991 and 1992, all state university colleges were connected to the Internet and issued domain names, causing a boom of registrations.[6] The 1000th domain was registered in 1995.[4]

Uninett was at first administrated as a division of

Bibliography

  1. ^ a b
  2. ^ ".no for everyone". Norid. 6 June 2014. Retrieved 22 June 2014.
  3. ^
  4. ^ a b c d e f Norwegian Post and Telecommunications Authority (2002): 25
  5. ^
  6. ^ a b
  7. ^
  8. ^
  9. ^ Norwegian Post and Telecommunications Authority (2002): 22
  10. ^
  11. ^ Norwegian Post and Telecommunications Authority (2002): 48
  12. ^
  13. ^
  14. ^
  15. ^
  16. ^ Norwegian Post and Telecommunications Authority (2002): 26
  17. ^ Norwegian Post and Telecommunications Authority (2002): 42
  18. ^ a b
  19. ^
  20. ^
  21. ^
  22. ^ a b
  23. ^
  24. ^
  25. ^
  26. ^ a b c d e f
  27. ^
  28. ^ a b
  29. ^ a b

References

List of special second-level domains[26][29]
Domain Restrictions Manager
dep.no Government of Norway Government Administration Services
fhs.no Folk high schools Norid
folkebibl.no Municipal libraries Norid
fylkesbibl.no County libraries Norid
gs.[county].no Primary and lower secondary schools Norid
herad.no Municipalities Norwegian Association of Local and Regional Authorities
idrett.no Sports organizations Norid
kommune.no Municipalities Norwegian Association of Local and Regional Authorities
mil.no Norwegian Armed Forces Norwegian Armed Forces
museum.no Museums Norid
uenorge.no Youth and student companies Norid
priv.no Individuals Norid
stat.no Government of Norway Government Administration Services
vgs.no Upper secondary schools Norid

The category second-level domains require the user to meet specific characteristics; for instance, only upper secondary schools may register under vgs.no.[26] Most of the second-level domains are managed by Norid, although five domains are managed by three other government agencies, the Government Administration Services for central parts of the government, the Norwegian Armed Forces for their own sites and the Norwegian Association of Local and Regional Authorities for municipalities and county municipalities.[29]

There are three types of second-level domains: geographaphy-oriented, category-oriented and those managed by other agencies than Norid. There are reserved geographic second-level domains for all counties (such as oslo.no for Oslo and nt.no for Nord-Trøndelag), all urban areas with at least 5,000 inhabitants (such as orkanger.no for Orkanger) and all municipalities (such as bergen.no for Bergen and both inderoy.no and inderøy.no for Inderøy). In addition, svalbard.no has been reserved for Svalbard and jan-mayen.no for Jan Mayen. Users are asked to not register with a geographic second-level domain unless they have a local presence in the area.[26][28] The www name under a geographic second-level domain (such as www.lillehammer.no) may only be carried out by the local government of the area, such as the municipality, the county municipality and the Governor of Svalbard.[28]

Second-level domains

Domain names must consist of 2 to 63 characters. Permitted characters are the ISO basic Latin alphabet (a through z), digits (0 through 9), the hyphen (-), the three Norwegian language letters æ, ø and å, and twenty special Sami languages letters (á·à·ä·č·ç·đ·é·è·ê·ŋ·ń·ñ·ó·ò·ô·ö·š·ŧ·ü·ž). The domain name must start and end in a digit or a letter.[26] A large number of domains cannot be registered, including all that are the basis for second-level domains, and a specified series of geographical names, including names of settlements and islands, which may become second-level domains in the future. Eight specific Internet terms may not be registered (ftp, localhost, whois, www, no, nic, internet and internett). Additional general-category potential future second-level domains have also been blocked, such as com.no and as.no.[27]

The priv.no domain is available for registration by individuals. To register, an individual must be registered in the National Registry and have been issued a national identity number, must be resident in Norway and be at least 18 years old. Moving abroad will not result in the domain being deleted, but the person cannot register any more domains while living abroad. There is a limit of five registered domains per person.[26]

[26] and five additional domains under each second-level domain..no Only organizations with a local presence in Norway and with registration in the

Policy

The Supreme Court has ruled that the Norwegian Prosecuting Authority may seize domain registrations under specifications of the General Civil Penal Code, as domains are legally regarded as assets with financial value.[24] As of 27 September 2012 there were 552,255 registered domains.[1] .no-domains had a 90.6-percent renewal rate in 2009, which is significantly higher than more liberal domains, such as 71 percent of .com domains.[6] Cybersquatting and warehousing has not been a problem with .no-domains because of the strict registration requirements.[22] Norpol is an advisory body with thirteen members appointed to discuss and comment on the domain policy. It consists of members from several government authorities, the Internet industry and other stakeholders.[25]

Upon registering a domain, the user signs a declaration that they are not infringing on the rights of other parties and that the user will assume full responsibility for any consequences of use of the domain name. The registration process at Norid is fully automated and does not include any steps to ensure that the user has the rights to the name. Disputes regarding the right to a domain name are handled retrospectively, either through the Alternative Dispute Resolution Committee or court proceedings.[18] Issues which could give the right to take over a domain name include infringements of the Trademarks Act and the Marketing Control Act. Trademark holders will also be awarded the domain if the registration was solely made to sell the domain to the trademark owner. The dispute bodies will also consider the risk of confusion, based on the domain name itself rather than the content of the site.[22] For one domain, volvoimport.no, the issue of ownership was subject to a Supreme Court case.[23]

Registration takes place through a third party, a domain name registrar. The relationship between Norid, the registrar and the holder is regulated through civil legal agreements. The registrar registers the domain on behalf of the holder, and the holder then holds the right to the domain name until it is terminated, unless a dispute resolution dictates otherwise.[18] Norid charges registrars 60 Norwegian krone (NOK) per registration and change of holder, as well as NOK 60 in an annual fee per domain.[19] Registrars must meet criteria regarding technical and administrative resources, must pay an annual fee of NOK 5,000 and a deposit of minimum NOK 10,000, depending on activity level. Registrars must also undertake a minimum activity of either administrating or registering forty domains per year.[20][21]

Management of .no lies with the Trondheim-based Norid, which is also the domain name registry for the unused .sj and .bv. Norid is a limited company owned by Uninett, which is again owned by the Ministry of Education and Research.[15] The legal right to manage the domains is two-fold, based both on an agreement with the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) and regulations under the Electronic Communications Act which is supervised by the Norwegian Post and Telecommunications Authority.[16] The policy for use of .no is regulated by the Regulation Concerning Domain Names Under Norwegian Country Code Top-level Domains, also known as the Domain Regulation. This regulation also regulates Norway's other two ccTLDs, .bv and .sj, for Bouvetøya and Svalbard and Jan Mayen, respectively; neither are open to registration.[17]

Management

On 17 June 2014 Norid opened up for private citizen registrations of .no domains.[13] On 9 December 2014 Norid enabled support for DNSSEC.[14]

[12] Originally only the basic [4] This resulted in a large increase in the number of domains, and the 100,000th domain was registered that same year.[11] Until 2001, each organization could only register a single domain and had to document its right to the name, either directly connected to the company's name or a trademark; this information was verified by Norid. The rules were liberalized on 19 February 2001. A new cap was set at fifteen domains per organization and Norid no longer made an evaluation of the right to the name; if the domain was not registered it would be awarded.

[10]

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Hawaii eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.