World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

List of Spider-Man enemies

Article Id: WHEBN0006146135
Reproduction Date:

Title: List of Spider-Man enemies  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Chameleon (comics), Rogues gallery, Abner Jenkins, Eddie Brock, Green Goblin
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

List of Spider-Man enemies

Depiction of the many Spider-Man villains in a dream sequence of Spider-Man in The Sensational Spider-Man (vol. 2) #32. Art by Sean Chen. (Use cursor on the character's face to identify the character's name. Click to learn more about the character. Note: Better designed for PC. )

Spider-Man is a fictional superhero in the Marvel Universe debuting in the anthology comic book series issue Amazing Fantasy #15 (August 1962) in the Silver Age of Comics published by Marvel Comics. After his debut he would get his own comic book entitled The Amazing Spider-Man. The comic book series would introduce many of what would become his major supervillain adversaries. Spider-Man would then be popular enough for more Spider-Man comic spinoffs (The Spectacular Spider-Man, Marvel Team-Up, Web of Spider-Man, Peter Parker: Spider-Man etc.) which potentially introduced more recurring antagonists of the web-slinger.

As with Spider-Man, the theme behind the villains' powers originate with scientific accidents or the misuse of scientific technology and also tend to have animal-themed costumes or powers (Vulture, Doctor Octopus, Lizard, Rhino, Scorpion, Jackal and Black Cat). There also consists supervillains with the powers of the elements (Sandman, Electro, Molten Man and Hydro-Man), some that are horror-themed (the Goblins, Morbius, the Symbiotes and Morlun) and some that are crime lords (Kingpin, Hammerhead and Silvermane).[1] His rogue also consisted of some that are masters of trickery and deception such as the Chameleon and Mysterio.[2] These villains oftentimes form teams such as the Sinister Six and the Sinister Syndicate to oppose the superhero.

The rogues gallery of Spider-Man has garnered many positive reviews and has been considered as one of the greatest rogues gallery of all time by many alongside Batman's rogues gallery and Flash's rogues gallery.

Contents

  • Major supervillain foes 1
    • Common foes 1.1
    • Other major threats 1.2
  • Reformed supervillain / anti-hero opponents 2
  • Non-supervillain enemies 3
  • Other foes 4
  • Lesser foes 5
    • Delilah 5.1
    • Finisher 5.2
    • Hypno-Hustler 5.3
    • Mindworm 5.4
    • Spidercide 5.5
    • Typeface 5.6
  • Group villains 6
  • Archenemies 7
  • In other media 8
  • Reception 9
    • Themes 9.1
  • Notes 10
  • See also 11
  • References 12
  • External links 13

Major supervillain foes

Common foes

Most of what would be the A-list supervillains of Spider-Man would be introduced in The Amazing Spider-Man comic book starting with the Chameleon.[3] The early villains would be introduced in the 1960s in the Silver Age of Comic Books.[3] Originally created by Stan Lee and Steve Ditko.[3] John Romita, Sr. would soon replace Ditko starting with the Rhino and continue through the early Bronze Age of Comic Books.[4] Around the 1970s other writers would then replace both Stan and John in creating new villains such as the Hobgoblin and Venom in 1980s and Carnage in the 1990s from the Bronze Age to the Modern Age of Comics.[5][6][7]

Note: Alter ego characters who are the most high profile in the supervillain alias but others have shared that supervillain name are in bold. In chronological order.
Supervillain name Notable alter ego First appearance Creator Fictional powers and abilities
Chameleon Dmitri Anatoly Nikolayevich The Amazing Spider-Man #1 (March 1963)[3][8] Stan Lee[3][8]
Steve Ditko[3][8]
Master of disguise. Can make himself look like anybody.[3][8]
Vulture Adrian Toomes The Amazing Spider-Man #2 (May 1963)[9][10] Stan Lee[9][11]
Steve Ditko[9]
An inventor that created mechanical wings that he harnessed to himself to let him fly and have superhuman strength.[12]
Doctor Octopus Doctor Otto Gunther Octavius The Amazing Spider-Man #3 (July 1963)[8] Stan Lee[13][14]
Steve Ditko[13][14]
Originally a scientist whose invention of metallic limbs had become fused to his body by an accident which caused his insanity. He has telepathic control of these arms and they are strong enough to physically hurt Spider-Man when Octavius controls them.[15]
Sandman William Baker / Flint Marko The Amazing Spider-Man #4 (September 1963)[16][17] Stan Lee[16][17]
Steve Ditko[16][17]
After bathed in a nuclear reaction. His body is formed with sand which is depicted that he can manipulate in many ways such as shapeshifting and increasing his density and strength to lift up to 85 tons along with increasing height, turning his hands into weapons such as hammer or a mace along with being able form a near-impenetrable wall of sand or create a dust storm.[18]
Lizard Doctor Curt Connors The Amazing Spider-Man #6 (November 1963)[19][20][21] Stan Lee[19][20][21]
Steve Ditko[19][20][21]
Doctor Connors tested himself an experimental serum from reptile DNA which created him as a giant humanoid Lizard. As the Lizard he has regeneration abilities. Along with superhuman strength, speed and agility. He can also telepathically command all reptiles within a one-mile radius.[22]
Electro Maxwell Dillon The Amazing Spider-Man #9 (February 1964)[23][24] Stan Lee[25]
Steve Ditko[25]
As a lineman for an electric company, he was repairing a power line and holding a wire when lightning struck and mutated his nervous system making him a living electrical capacitor. He gained the power of electric mutation such as shooting up to one million volts of electricity from his fingertips. He also has superhuman strength and is fast when his body is charged and can glide over power lines along with even riding lightning bolts.[26]
Mysterio Quentin Beck The Amazing Spider-Man #13 (June 1964)[27][28] Stan Lee[27][29]
Steve Ditko[27][29]
Uses special effects that makes him a master of illusion. Also knows hypnosis. Can use combat that he learned from being a stuntman. Has knowledge of robotics and chemistry.[28]
Green Goblin[30] Norman Osborn
Harry Osborn[31][32]
The Amazing Spider-Man #14 (July 1964)[30] Stan Lee[30][33]
Steve Ditko[30][33]
Powers that derive from a "Goblin formula" that increase agility, endurance strength and reflexes to superhuman levels. The formula has also advances the intelligence but with a side effect of insanity. Has many weapons that Norman Osborn originally created. Such as glider to fly with and pumpkin bombs to throw.[30]
Kraven the Hunter Sergei Kravinoff The Amazing Spider-Man #15 (August 1964)[34][35] Stan Lee[34]
Steve Ditko[34]
Depicted as the world's greatest big-game hunter. Prefers using his bare hands instead of guns. Uses preparation along with magic jungle potion which helps with speed, strength and game tracking.[36]
Scorpion Mac Gargan The Amazing Spider-Man #20 (January 1965) Stan Lee[37]
Steve Ditko[37]
Endured a test that made him more powerful than Spider-Man but also insane. It gave him superhuman strength of a scorpion. He was then provided with a scorpion themed suit and weaponry (such as a tail which evolved from a simple club tail to a scythe-like spike capable of shooting lasers, acid among other projectiles.) Gargan also gained power when switching to the Scorpion to being one of the characters known as Venom. See Venom's power and abilities below to see that power.[38][39]
Rhino Aleksei Mikhailovich Sytsevich The Amazing Spider-Man #41 (October 1966)[40] Stan Lee[4]
John Romita, Sr.[4]
Although classified as a fictional villain famous for being dimwitted.[41] He has superhuman strength with a rhinoceros modeled armor when undergoing a chemical and radiation treatment which would transform him as being a collective of professional spies.[42]
Shocker Herman Schultz The Amazing Spider-Man #46 (March 1967)[38][43] Stan lee[44]
John Romita, Sr.[44]
Wears a battle suit that contains vibro-shock gauntlets.[38][44]
Kingpin Wilson Fisk The Amazing Spider-Man #50 (known as the storyline "Spider-Man No More!") (July 1967)[45]
[46]
Stan Lee[47]
John Romita, Sr.[47]
Depicted as crime lord of New York City. Manipulate henchman to do his bidding. His body consists of mostly muscle (despite looking like he is obese) that has much strength and agility. Enough to grapple and hammer Spider-Man.[48][49]
Morbius[50][51] Michael Morbius The Amazing Spider-Man #101 (January 1971)[52] Roy Thomas[52]
Gil Kane[53]
Has the power of a vampire along with their weaknesses.[50]
Jackal[54] Miles Warren The Amazing Spider-Man #129 (February 1974)[54] Gerry Conway[54]
Ross Andru[54]
Brilliant professor with the knowledge of cloning and using it to torment Spider-Man emotionally.[50]
Black Cat Felicia Hardy The Amazing Spider-Man #194 (July 1979)[55] Marv Wolfman
Keith Pollard[55]
Expert burglary skills taught by her father along with carrying a grappling hook for swinging on rooftops.[1] Had bad luck powers off and on.[56]
Hobgoblin Roderick Kingsley
Jason Macendale
The Amazing Spider-Man #238 (March 1983) Roger Stern[5][57]
John Romita Sr.[57][58]
Powers similar to Green Goblin after discovering Norman's lair. Perfecting Green Goblin's strength portion, goblin glider and pumpkin bombs without the insanity that Norman had.[57][59][60]
Venom Eddie Brock The Amazing Spider-Man #299[6][61] Todd McFarlane[62] The symbiote that once merged with Spider-Man as a suit mimics and enhances the abilities of Spider-Man once bonded with Eddie.[62] Also he is undetectable to Spider-Man's spider sense.[63]
Carnage Cletus Kasady The Amazing Spider-Man #361 (April 1992)[64] David Michelinie[7][65]
Erik Larsen[66]
Mark Bagley[7]
Being an offspring of Venom. Carnage is an even stronger and more powerful character than Venom with his symbiotic powers. He can shapeshift himself such as creating sharp weapons with his symbiote body. He can also plant ideas in people's heads.[64]

Other major threats

The majority of the characters listed were first introduced in The Amazing Spider-Man. The oldest depicted character in the list is the Tinkerer. First appearing in The Amazing Spider-Man in the 1960s. The latest appearing character is Mister Negative. He first appeared after "One More Day" around the Modern Age of Comic Books.[51][67] Tombstone was one of the first major threats as a villain to appear in a Spider-Man comic book outside of The Amazing Spider-Man. Jack O'Lantern first appeared in Machine Man in the 1980s. Instead he first appeared in Web of Spider-Man. Phil Urich was another character first appearing in Web of Spider-Man before Tombstone but he wasn't depicted as a villain yet. Instead he was depicted as a heroic Green Goblin until turing into a villainous Hobgoblin.[51] Tombstone and Phil Urich appeared in Web of Spider-Man in the 1990s. Beetle and Boomerang are one of the few major threats that didn't start out in a Spider-Man comic book but intead in a anthology series in the Silver Age of Comic Books. Abner Jenkin's Beetle first appeared in Strange Tales and Boomerang first appeared in Tales to Astonish. Carrion first appeared in The Spectacular Spider-Man, while Shriek first appeared in Spider-Man Unlimited. Characters who didn't start out in a comic book starring Spider-Man includes Doppelganger in Infinity War etc.


Note: In alphabetical order.
Supervillain alter ego First appearance
Beetle Abner Jenkins
Strange Tales #123 (August 10, 1964)[68]
Boomerang[69] Fred Myers Tales to Astonish #81 (July 10, 1966)[68]
Hammerhead[50][70][71] Joseph (full name unknown)[72] The Amazing Spider-Man #113 (October 10, 1972)[73]
Hydro-Man[1] Morris Bench The Amazing Spider-Man #212 (January 10, 1981)[74][75]
Jack O'Lantern[51] Jason Macendale
various others
Machine Man #19 (February 1981)[68]
Man-Wolf[76] John Jameson The Amazing Spider-Man #124 (September 1973)[53]
Morlun[50][51] N/A The Amazing Spider-Man vol. 2 #30 (June 2001)[77]
Molten Man[78] Mark Raxton[78] The Amazing Spider-Man #28 (September 1965)[79]
Silvermane[80] Silvio Manfredi The Amazing Spider-Man #73 (June 1969)[81]
Alistair Smythe[60] N/A The Amazing Spider-Man Annual #19 (November 1985)[82][83]
Spencer Smythe N/A The Amazing Spider-Man #25 (June 1965)[53]
Mister Negative[51] Martin Lee The Amazing Spider-Man #546 (January 2008)(full appearance)[67]
Tinkerer Phineas Mason The Amazing Spider-Man #2 (April 1963)[84]
Tombstone Lonnie Thompson Lincoln Web of Spider-Man #36 (March 1988)[68]
Phil Urich[51] N/A Web of Spider-Man #125 (June 1995)[85]

Reformed supervillain / anti-hero opponents

Almost all the characters listed first appeared in The Amazing Spider-Man with the exception of Kaine and Humbug first appearing in Web of Spider-Man. The Prowler is the oldest character appearing in The Amazing Spider-Man in the 1960s in the Silver Age. Many other anti-heroes were introduced in the 1970s in between the Silver Age and the Bronze Age while Humbug was introduced in the 1980s right around the start of the Modern Age. Kaine is the youngest debuted character while Cardiac is the second youngest. Both Kaine and Cardiac appeared around the 1990s.
Anti-hero alter-ego First appearance
Black Cat Felicia Hardy The Amazing Spider-Man #194 (July 1979)[55]
Cardiac Elias Wirtham The Amazing Spider-Man #344 (December 1990)[68]
Humbug[69] Buck Mitty Web of Spider-Man #19 (October 1986)[68]
Kaine Kaine Parker Web of Spider-Man #119 (December 1994)[68]
Prowler Hobie Brown The Amazing Spider-Man #78 (November 1969)[81]
Puma Thomas Fireheart The Amazing Spider-Man #256 (September 1984)[53]
Punisher Frank Castle The Amazing Spider-Man #129 (February 1974)[54]
Rocket Racer Robert Farrell The Amazing Spider-Man #172 (September 1977)[68]

Non-supervillain enemies

The Burglar and Flash Thompson both appeared in the first comic book starring Spider-Man appearing in the anthology series Amazing Fantasy. The certain comic book story inspired a comic book series entitled The Amazing Spider-Man which J. Jonah Jameson would appear in the first issue. All three of the characters listed appeared in the 1960s around the Silver Age of Comics.
Human First appearance Detail
Burglar Amazing Fantasy #15 (August 1962) The man who killed Peter's uncle which would inspire Peter Parker to use his powers responsibly and become the superhero known as Spider-Man.[86]
Flash Thompson[86] Amazing Fantasy #15 (August 1962) A sometimes enemy of Peter Parker instead of Spider-Man. Flash's most common depiction is a high school bully of Parker commonly dubbing him "Puny Parker". Despite how he treats Parker he happens to be one of Spider-Man's biggest fan. Later on Flash would be depicted as being good friends to Peter instead. In The Amazing Spider-Man #654, Flash Thompson becomes "Agent Venom"[87]
J. Jonah Jameson The Amazing Spider-Man #1 (March 1963) The editor in chief of The Daily Bugle. He has a strong hatred of Spider-Man so he helps turn the city against the superhero with the publishing of The Daily Bugle newspapers. He was also responsible for the funding of the creation of Scorpion and the Spider-Slayers.[1]

Other foes

Cover of The Spectacular Spider-Man #246 (May 1997) depicting Spider-Man's more weaker foes (Spot, Gibbon, the second Kangaroo and the third Grizzly) teaming up to try to defeat Spider-Man. Art by Luke Ross.

Majority of the characters first appeared in The Amazing Spider-Man. The Living Brain is the oldest in that category appearing in a The Amazing Spider-Man issue in the 1960s around the Silver Age of Comic Books while the third Kraven the Hunter appeared last around the Modern Age of Comic Books. Spot and the second Kraven the Hunter first appeared in The Spectacular Spider-Man, while Stegron and White Rabbit first appeared in Marvel Team Up. Characters who didn't start out in a comic book starring Spider-Man includes Swarm in Champions, Vermin in Captain America etc.

Note: In alphabetical order. Alter ego characters who are the most high profile in the supervillain alias but others have shared that supervillain name are in bold. These characters have appeared in at least five issues/adaptions in Spider-Man comic books and/or media.
Supervillain alter ego First appearance
Big Man Frederick Foswell
Janice Foswell
The Amazing Spider-Man #10 (March 1964)[53]
Big Wheel[88] Jackson Wheele[69] The Amazing Spider-Man #182 (July 1978)[53]
Black Tarantula Carlos LaMuerto The Amazing Spider-Man #419 (January 1997)[68]
Calypso Calypso Ezili The Amazing Spider-Man #209 (October 1980)[89]
Carrion Various The Spectacular Spider-Man #25 (December 1978)[53][77]
Crime Master[90] Various The Amazing Spider-Man #26 (July 1965)[53]
Demogoblin N/A The Spectacular Spider-Man #147 (February 1989) (as Hobgoblin)[53]
Web of Spider-Man #86 (March 1992)[68]
Doppelganger N/A The Infinity War #1 (July 1992)[53]
The Finisher Karl Fiers The Amazing Spider-Man Annual #5 (November 1968)[91]
Foreigner[77] Kris Keating The Spectacular Spider-Man #115 (June 1986)[92]
Gibbon[93] Martin Blank The Amazing Spider-Man #110 (July 1972)[53]
Gog N/A The Amazing Spider-Man #103 (December 1973)[53]
Grizzly[94] Maxwell Markham The Amazing Spider-Man #139 (December 1974)[95]
Human Fly[69] Richard Deacon The Amazing Spider-Man annual #10[96] (1976)
Kangaroo[88][97] Frank Oliver[69]
Brian Hibbs
The Amazing Spider-Man #81 (February 1980)[53]
Kraven the Hunter II Alyosha Kravinoff The Spectacular Spider-Man #243 (February 1997)[53]
Kraven the Hunter III Ana Kravinoff The Amazing Spider-Man #565 (September 2005)[98]
Living Brain[99] N/A The Amazing Spider-Man #8 (January 1964) [100]
Looter[88][101] Norton G. Fester The Amazing Spider-Man #36 (May 1966)[79]
Man Mountain Marko[102] N/A The Amazing Spider-Man #73 (June 1969)[53]
Massacre[103][104] Marcus Lyman The Amazing Spider-Man #655 (April 2011)[105][106][107]
Menace[71] Lily Hollister The Amazing Spider-Man #550 (April 2008) [108]
Mendel Stromm N/A The Amazing Spider-Man #37 (June 1966)[53][68]
Richard Fisk (Schemer)[53] N/A The Amazing Spider-Man #83 (April 1983)
Overdrive[71] N/A Amazing Spider-Man: Swing Shift (May 2007)[109]
Ringer[58][110] Anthony Davis Defenders #51 (June 1977)[89]
Rose[58][111] Richard Fisk The Amazing Spider-Man #253 (June 1984)[89]
Shriek Frances Louise Barrison Spider-Man Unlimited #1 (May 1993)[77]
Slyde[69] Jalome Beacher The Amazing Spider-Man #272 (January 1986)[112]
Speed Demon James Sanders Avengers #70 (November 1960) (as the Whizzer)
The Amazing Spider-Man #222 (November 1981)[68]
Stegron[88] Vincent Stegron Marvel Team-Up (1st series) #19 (March 1974)[81]
Styx and Stone[88] Jacob Eishorn and Gerald Stone The Amazing Spider-Man #309 (November 1988)[113]
Spot[88][114] Jonathan Ohnn The Spectacular Spider-Man #98 (January 1985)[115]
Swarm[88] Fritz von Meyer Champions #14 (July 1977)[53]
Tarantula Various The Amazing Spider-Man #134 (July 1974)[53][81]
Vermin Edward Whelan Captain America #272 (August 1982)[53]
Will o' the Wisp[53] Jackson Arvad The Amazing Spider-Man #167 (April 1997)
White Rabbit[53] Lorina Dodson Marvel Team-Up #131 (July 1983)[116]

Lesser foes

Delilah

First appearance The Spectacular Spider-Man #414 (August 1966)
Created by Tom DeFalco and Mark Bagley
Species Human
Abilities Skilled at being an assassin.

Delilah first appeared in The Amazing Spider-Man #414 by Tom DeFalco and Mark Bagley.[53] The Rose's confidante as well as his chief enforcer, Delilah helped battle to maintain control of part of the New York crime scene against the threat of the Black Tarantula.[120][121]

During her career, she had a role in the rebirth of two of Spider-Man's old foes during the Rose's efforts to gain extra muscle: she was the one who threw the switch of the electric chair which gave Electro his powers back, and helped set up the theft of Doctor Octopus' corpse for re-animation from the Hand.[122][123][124]

Finisher

First appearance The Amazing Spider-Man Annual #5 (November 1968)
Created by Stan Lee and Larry Lieber
Species Human
Abilities Skilled at being an assassin.

The Finisher is a one time character in the comic books in The Amazing Spider-Man Annual #5 created by Stan Lee and Larry Lieber. Karl Fiers is an assassin employed by Albert Malik (who was impersonating the Red Skull at this time) to kill Richard and Mary Parker. Years after succeeding in his mission, he comes face to face with the now grown-up son of the Parkers, a hero who works under the alias Spider-Man. Spider-Man kills the Finisher in self-defense after a fight between the two.[125]

In the Sinister Six trilogy of novels by Adam Troy Castro, the Finisher is revealed to have an elder brother, Gustav Fiers, known as the Gentleman, who was responsible for revealing the Parkers' treachery to the Albert Malik. Seeking revenge for the Parkers' defeat of his plans and for Spider-Man's role in his brother's death, the Gentleman recruits the Sinister Six as part of a complex plan to destroy the world economy, but Spider-Man is able to defeat the scheme.[126][127][128]

Hypno-Hustler

First appearance The Spectacular Spider-Man #24 (November 1974)
Created by Bill Mantlo and Frank Springer
Species Human
Abilities Hypnosis

Hypno-Hustler first appeared in The Spectacular Spider-Man #24 by Bill Mantlo and Frank Springer. Antoin Delsoin is the lead singer of the Mercy Killers going by the name of Hypno-Hustler. He and his band were scheduled to perform at a nightclub called "Beyond Forever." When the club's manager catches Hypno-Hustler robbing his safe, Hypno-Hustler ends up using his hypnotic equipment on the manager. When it came to perform, Hypno-Hustler and his band end up using their hypnotizing equipment on the audience in a plan to rob them as well.[129]

The Hypno-Hustler can perform hypnosis with the aid of his guitar, and when teamed with his backup band, The Mercy Killers, can perform mass hypnosis. His boots can emit knockout gas on demand, and have retractable knives in the soles.[129]

The Hypno-Hustler has received negative reviews as a supervillain. Sometimes being ranked as one of the worst supervillains in comic books due to its outdated 1970s camp factor. sketch comedy video.[133]

Mindworm

First appearance The Amazing Spider-Man #138 (November 1974)
Created by Gerry Conway and Ross Andru
Species Mutant
Abilities Telepathy

First appearing in The Amazing Spider-Man #138 by Gerry Conway and Ross Andru.[53] William Turner was a superhuman mutant with limited telepathic powers. He had an over sized cranium and was extremely intelligent.[77]

Eventually, Mindworm attempted to reform but his problems were too difficult for him to control and he allowed himself to be killed by common street thugs to end his great suffering in The Spectacular Spider-Man (vol. 2) #22 (February 2005).[134]

Spidercide

First appearance The Spectacular Spider-Man #22 (March 1995)
Created by Tom DeFalco and Sal Buscema
Species Clone
Abilities shapeshifting, same abilities of Spider-Man
Aliases Freakface

Spidercide was a major antagonist in the Maximum Clonage story arc. He first appeared in The Spectacular Spider-Man #222 by Tom DeFalco and Sal Buscema.[77] He is depicted as an evil foil of Spider-Man and Ben Reilly. He is one of the clones created by Jackal just like Ben Reilly and Kaine. This time being a clone to Ben Reilly.[88]

He was designed as a red herring that was introduced to make him seem to be the real Peter Parker and that Spidercide was the original Parker but only to discover later discover that the Peter Parker they had been reading for years was actually a clone.[88]

He is eventually granted the unique ability to turn into other materials and shapes much like the symbiotes. He was killed off in Spider-Man: Maximum Clonage: Omega #404 by being thrown off in the Daily Bugle.[88][135]

Typeface

First appearance Peter Parker: Spider-Man #24 (November 2000)
Created by Paul Jenkins and Mark Buckingham
Species Human
Abilities Combat and intelligence

Typeface first appeared in Peter Parker: Spider-Man vol. 2 #23 (November 2000) by Paul Jenkins and Mark Buckingham.[136][137]

What little is known about Typeface's past is seen in flashback. In his civilian life as Gordon Thomas, he fights in an unknown war for the US Army in which he loses his brother Joey. Upon his return to America, Gordon's wife leaves him and takes their son with her.[138]

Feeling outcast, Gordon becomes a signsmith. He is happy for a time until a man named George Finch buys the company he is working for, Ace Signs, and Gordon is laid off. Gordon starts to hate everything that went wrong in his life and decides to become a super-villain, calling himself Typeface. He uses a grease pencil to write letters on his face, including a large, red "R" on his forehead, for "retribution". He begins committing vandalism throughout the city, and while attacking local thugs, he catches the attention of Spider-Man. Typeface uses his giant letters as weapons and manages to defeat the webslinger. After successfully escaping and returning to his apartment, he replaces the "R" letter on his head with an "A" for "Annihilation".[136]

Thomas later seeks revenge against George Finch, but is stopped by Spider-Man. Typeface wants to kill Spider-Man for intervening, but when he sees the webslinger being attacked by the Spider-Hybrid, he has a flashback to the words his brother Joey once gave him: "Just live, man." Typeface decides to help Spider-Man defeat the Spider-Hybrid, and renounces his desire to kill Finch. However, Finch decides to exact revenge on Typeface for humiliating him, and finds the bombs Thomas would have used to kill him. Finch sets them off and demolishes an entire building, killing himself, and for a time it was believed that Typeface died in the explosion.[138] When the police arrive, they declare Typeface responsible for the explosion.[139]

Having survived the explosion, Typeface becomes a vigilante. He wages war against a gang called the "Penny-Ante Brigade." After taking out the gang (and another vigilante, Spellcheck, inspired by Typeface), Typeface mimics Spider-Man's note to police, left when he apprehends criminals: "Compliments from your friendly neighborhood Typeface."[140]

Typeface would return out of the Spider-Man comic books and in the Civil War story arc until Civil War: Front Line #10 and #11 revealed the character's demise.[69]

Group villains

Note: The common leader of the group is in bold.
group name Original members
Enforcers[141] Montana
Ox
Fancy Dan
Inheritors[142] Solus
Unnamed Matriarch
Daemos
Verna
Karn
Morlun
Brix
Bora
Sinister Six[143] Doctor Octopus
Vulture
Electro
Sandman
Mysterio
Kraven the Hunter
Spider-Man Revenge Squad[144] Spot
Grizzly
Kangaroo II
Gibbon
Sinister Syndicate[145] Beetle
Hydro-Man
Rhino
Boomerang
Speed Demon

Archenemies

Unlike well known rivalries in comics book depictions where heroes always still have more than one enemy but usually one archenemy (e.g., Lex Luthor to Superman and Joker to Batman in DC Comics, Red Skull to Captain America, Doctor Doom to the Fantastic Four and the Brotherhood of Mutants to the X-Men in Marvel Comics etc.), Spider-Man is cited to have more than one archenemy and it can be debated or disputed as to which one is worse:[146]

  1. ^ Doctor Octopus is regarded as one of Spider-Man's worst enemies and archenemy. He has been cited as the man Peter might have become if he hadn't been raised with a sense of responsibility.[13][15][147] He is infamous for defeating him the first time in battle and for almost marrying Peter's Aunt May. He is the core leader of the Sinister Six and has also referred himself as the "Master Planner". ("If This Be My Destiny...!")[15][148] Later depictions revealed him in Peter Parker's body where he was the titular character for a while.[147]
  2. ^ Norman Osborn using the Green Goblin alias is also commonly described as Spider-Man's archenemy.[146][149][150] Mostly after he is responsible for setting up the death of Spider-Man's girlfriend in one of the most famous Spider-Man stories of all time which helped end the Silver Age of Comic Books and begin the Bronze Age of Comic Books.[146] He was thought to be dead after that but writers help bring him back from the 1990s and he returned to plague Spider-Man once more in the comic books (such as being involved of the killing of Aunt May) and other heroes (such as the Avengers[49]). He is also an enemy of Spider-Man sometimes just as Norman and not just only as the Green Goblin.[151]
  3. ^ Another character commonly described as archenemy is Venom. Eddie Brock as Venom is commonly described as the mirror version or the evil version of Spider-Man in many ways.[6][8][146] Venom's goals are usually depicted as ruining Spider-Man's life and messing with Spider-Man's head.[62] He is one of the few villains depicted as unbeatable to Spider-Man without exploiting his weaknesses.[152] Venom is also one of the most popular Spider-Man villains.[153] This popularity has led him to be an established iconic character of his own with own comic book stories.[6][154]

In other media

Reception

...the Spider-Man comics have the greatest rogues gallery of any series, and to have the chance to explore that on film is truly thrilling.

-Sony Pictures Entertainment on announcing their possible spin-off films in 2013.[155]

Reaction to Spider-Man's rogues gallery has been overwhelmingly positive with many journalists citing it as one of the greatest comic book rogues galleries of all time,[156][157][158] with Batman's rogues gallery being its most rivaled contender.[159][160] Although editors such Hollywood Reporter's Graeme McMillan felt that only Flash's rogues gallery can compete with Spider-Man's rogues.[157] Kyle Schmidlin of What Culture! described the superhero's rogues gallery as "one of the most colorful in comics" explaining that Batman could only be debated as having a great number of enemies as good as Spider-Man.[161] IGN staff editors, Joshua Yehl and Jesse Schedeen, described the Spider-Man villains as "one of the most iconic and well-balanced in comics". They opined that the scope of their schemes, how cool cool their powers are, and how dramatically they have affected Spider-Man's life is what makes the Spider-Man villains so great.[1] Newsarama ranked Spider-Man's rogues gallery as number one out ten as the greatest rogues gallery of all time.[160]

Themes

George Marston of Newsarama explaining why he felt that Spider-Man rogues gallery was the best was the thematic elements that the villains of Spider-Man manifested.[160] He explained that just like the superhero they have the same concept of science gone wrong. They are "like him, great men with great minds, great power, and great determination." But instead they fail to use their powers responsibly. Separating the thin line between being a hero from being a villain.[160]

Notes

  1. ^ The Chameleon is the first member of Spider-Man's rogues gallery in publication date. (Excluding the Burglar).[8] He is also well known to be related to Kraven the Hunter and Kraven to him. That revealed relationship helped evolve him as a major villain compared to his original depiction of being just a solo villain in the original issue of The Amazing Spider-Man.[162][163][164]
  2. ^ Besides being most notable as a Spider-Man supervillain. He has also been depicted as a Fantastic Four antagonist in Stan Lee and Jack Kirby comics books (mostly due to being introduced as the original Frightful Four[165]) along with being on the heroic side (being a Avengers member[166]) until being introduced as a tragic supervillain in the Spider-Man comics once again.[167]
  3. ^ The character is also known as the member of the Frightful Four battling the Fantastic Four.[26] He is also the first major Marvel villain to be written in publication history as battling Daredevil.[168][169] Even being the founder and leader of the supervillain team that oppose him, the Emissaries of Evil.[170]
  4. ^ Just like Electro. He has crossed over and been a major antagonist of Daredevil in a few issues. He is well known on crossing into Daredevil's territory and affecting him as an antagonist by making him insane (just like what he is usually depicted to be doing to Spider-Man) when Mysterio believes Spider-Man is a clone at one point in certain issues.[28]
  5. ^ Kraven the Hunter has been a recurring villain since his introduction as a Spider-Man villain. But what makes him stand out as one of the great Spider-Man villains along with being one of the memorable issues about the fictional villain in the Spider-Man comics is the critically acclaimed storyline, "Kraven's Last Hunt".[8][36][164][171]
  6. ^ Not counting any other character in the mainstream Marvel Universe with that name. Only outside of the mainstream Spider-Man comics or in other media is there other Spider-Man villains (that isn't named Mac Gargan) that are antagonists of Spider-Man.[172][173][174] Gargan is cited to be the fourth who is called that in the comic books but is the most iconic villain with that name.[32]
  7. ^ The villain has crossed over with battling other heroes (especially Hulk[50]) even though the fictional character is usually written off in Spider-Man comics.[42] He is a major character in the storyline titled "Flowers for Rhino" (Spider-Man's Tangled Web). An homage to Flowers for Algernon.[175]
  8. ^ Despite first appearing in Spider-Man comic books, the Kingpin is more notable of being a Daredevil adversary. The character that represents the opposite of what Daredevil stands for. Despite this he is a major antagonist of both superheroes in the Marvel comic books just as recurringly.[8][48] He also is a major recurring villain in the rest of the Marvel Universe crossing over as major antagonists to superheros/antiheroes (such as the Punisher) in certain comic books of the many based universes of Marvel. (PunisherMAX. etc.)[176]
  9. ^ "The Six Arms Saga" is the name of the storyline that debuted Morbius.[52]
  10. ^ Miles Warren's technical first appearance was revealed to be in The Amazing Spider-Man #31 (December 1965) created by Stan Lee and Steve Ditko before being revealed as the Jackal.[177]
  11. ^ Although she is listed with the supervillains as she sometimes is depicted in certain portrayals. The Black Cat is more regarded as a anti-heroine than fully supervillain. A character that struggles in between deciding good and bad...and the major femme fatale romantic interest for Spider-Man. Her key role of deciding between crime and having complicated relationships of Spider-Man makes her sometimes labeled as part with the rest of the major rogues gallery of Spider-Man. Nonetheless she has been a staple supporting Spider-Man character during her debut.[1]
  12. ^ The Amazing Spider-Man #299 is the first appearance of Eddie Brock as Venom. The alien costume debuted from The Amazing Spider-Man #252 and the symbiote bonded to Spider-Man in Secret Wars #8.[6] Venom's creators are determined by pre-alien costume by not counting the creators/designers of the alien costume, David Michelinie or Mike Zeck, or the Marvel Comics fan who originally though of the concept for the creators.[6][178][179]
  13. ^ Cletus Kasady first appeared in The Amazing Spider-Man 344.[7] Carnage is a major character in the popular storyline "Maximum Carnage".[180]
  14. ^ Despite standing out as his own independent character now. The Punisher was originally introduced as an antagonist of Spider-Man.[54]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f
  2. ^
  3. ^ a b c d e f g
  4. ^ a b c
  5. ^ a b David and Greenberger, pp. 68-69: "Writer Roger Stern is primarily remembered for two major contributions to the world of Peter Parker. One was a short piece entitled 'The Kid Who Collects Spider-Man'...[his] other major contribution was the introduction of the Hobgoblin."
  6. ^ a b c d e f
  7. ^ a b c d
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i
  9. ^ a b c
  10. ^
  11. ^ DeFalco "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 92: "Introduced in the lead story of The Amazing Spider-Man #2 and created by Stan Lee and Steve Ditko, the Vulture was the first in a long line of animal-inspired super-villains that were destined to battle everyone's favorite web-slinger."
  12. ^
  13. ^ a b c DeFalco "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 93: "Dr. Octopus shared many traits with Peter Parker. They were both shy, both interested in science, and both had trouble relating to women...Otto Octavius even looked like a grown up Peter Parker. Lee and Ditko intended Otto to be the man Peter might have become if he hadn't been raised with a sense of responsiblity.
  14. ^ a b Lee, Stan (w), Ditko, Steve (p), Ditko, Steve (i). "Spider-Man Versus Doctor Octopus" The Amazing Spider-Man 3 (July 1963)
  15. ^ a b c
  16. ^ a b c
  17. ^ a b c Lee, Stan (w), Ditko, Steve (p), Ditko, Steve (i). "Nothing Can Stop...The Sandman!" The Amazing Spider-Man 4 (September 1963)
  18. ^
  19. ^ a b c DeFalco "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 95
  20. ^ a b c Lee, Stan (w), Ditko, Steve (p), Ditko, Steve (i). "Face-to-Face With...the Lizard!" The Amazing Spider-Man 6 (November 1963)
  21. ^ a b c
  22. ^
  23. ^ DeFalco "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 98
  24. ^ Lee, Stan (w), Ditko, Steve (p), Ditko, Steve (i). "The Man Called Electro!" The Amazing Spider-Man 9 (February 1964)
  25. ^ a b
  26. ^ a b
  27. ^ a b c Lee, Stan (w), Ditko, Steve (p), Ditko, Steve (i). "The Menace of... Mysterio!" The Amazing Spider-Man 13 (June 1964)
  28. ^ a b c
  29. ^ a b
  30. ^ a b c d e
  31. ^
  32. ^ a b
  33. ^ a b
  34. ^ a b c
  35. ^ Lee, Stan (w), Ditko, Steve (p), Ditko, Steve (i). "Kraven the Hunter!" The Amazing Spider-Man 15 (August 1964)
  36. ^ a b
  37. ^ a b
  38. ^ a b c
  39. ^ Lee, Stan (w), Ditko, Steve (p), Ditko, Steve (i). "The Coming of the Scorpion!" The Amazing Spider-Man 20 (January 1965)
  40. ^ Lee, Stan (w), Romita, Sr., John (p), Esposito, Mike (i). "The Horns of the Rhino!" The Amazing Spider-Man 41 (October 1966)
  41. ^ .
  42. ^ a b
  43. ^ Lee, Stan (w), Romita, Sr., John (p), Romita, Sr., John (i). "The Sinister Shocker!" The Amazing Spider-Man 46 (March 1967)
  44. ^ a b c
  45. ^ DeFalco "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 122: "Stan Lee wanted to create a new kind of crime boss. Someone who treated crime as if it were a business...He pitched this idea to artist John Romita and it was Wilson Fisk who emerged in The Amazing Spider-Man #50."
  46. ^ Lee, Stan (w), Romita, Sr., John (p), Esposito, Mike (i). "Spider-Man No More!" The Amazing Spider-Man 50 (July 1967)
  47. ^ a b
  48. ^ a b
  49. ^ a b
  50. ^ a b c d e f
  51. ^ a b c d e f g
  52. ^ a b c
  53. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z
  54. ^ a b c d e f
  55. ^ a b c Manning "1970s" in Gilbert (2012), p. 107: "Spider-Man wasn't exactly sure what to think about his luck when he met a beautiful new thief on the prowl named the Black Cat, courtesy of a story by writer Marv Wolfman and artist Keith Pollard."
  56. ^
  57. ^ a b c Manning "1980s" in Gilbert (2012), p. 133: "Writer Roger Stern and artists John Romita, Jr. and John Romita, Sr. introduced a new - and frighteningly sane - version of the [Green Goblin] concept with the debut of the Hobgoblin."
  58. ^ a b c
  59. ^
  60. ^ a b
  61. ^ Manning "1980s" in Gilbert (2012), p. 169: "In this landmark installment [issue #298], one of the most popular characters in the wall-crawler's history would begin to step into the spotlight courtesy of one of the most popular artists to ever draw the web-slinger."
  62. ^ a b c
  63. ^ David Michelinie (w), Kyle Baker (i). "The Longest Road" Web of Spider-Man 18 (September 1986), Marvel Comics
  64. ^ a b
  65. ^ Michelinie, David (w), Bagley, Mark (p), Emberlin,Randy (i). "Carnage: Part One" The Amazing Spider-Man 361 (April 1992)
  66. ^
  67. ^ a b
  68. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m
  69. ^ a b c d e f g
  70. ^
  71. ^ a b c
  72. ^ Dan Slott (w), Marcos Martin (p), Marcos Martin (i). "Mysterioso, Part 1: Un-Murder Incorporated" The Amazing Spider-Man #618 (March 2010), United States: Marvel Comics
  73. ^
  74. ^
  75. ^
  76. ^
  77. ^ a b c d e f
  78. ^ a b
  79. ^ a b
  80. ^
  81. ^ a b c d
  82. ^
  83. ^
  84. ^
  85. ^ Terry Kavanagh (w), Steven Butler (p), Randy Emerlin (i). "Lives Unlived" Web of Spider-Man #125 (June, 1995), United States: Marvel Comics
  86. ^ a b Lee, Stan (w), Ditko, Steve (a). Amazing Fantasy 15 (Aug 1962), New York City, New York: Marvel Comics
  87. ^
  88. ^ a b c d e f g h i j
  89. ^ a b c
  90. ^
  91. ^
  92. ^ Peter David (w), Steve Ditko (p), Mark Beachum (i). "Things Fall Apart" Peter Parker, The Spectacular Spider-Man 15 (June, 1986), Marvel Comics
  93. ^
  94. ^
  95. ^
  96. ^
  97. ^
  98. ^
  99. ^
  100. ^ Stan Lee (w), Steve Ditko (p), Steve Ditko (i). "The Terrible Threat Of The Living Brain!" The Amazing Spider-Man 8 (January, 1964), Marvel Comics
  101. ^
  102. ^
  103. ^
  104. ^
  105. ^
  106. ^
  107. ^
  108. ^
  109. ^
  110. ^ DeFalco "1980s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 218: "Created by writer David Kraft and artist Keith Giffen."
  111. ^ DeFalco "1980s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 218: "Created by writer Tom DeFalco and artist Rick Leonardi, the villain tended his rose garden as he casually ran his various criminal enterprises."
  112. ^
  113. ^
  114. ^
  115. ^ Milgron, Al (w), Trimpe, Herb (p). "True Confessions" The Spectacular Spider-Man #98 (January, 1985), United States: Marvel Comics
  116. ^ J.M. DeMatteis (w), Kerry Gammill (p), Mike Esposito (i). "The Best Things In Life Are Free...But Everything Else Costs Money!" Marvel Team-Up 131 (July, 1983), Marvel Comics
  117. ^
  118. ^ David Michelinie (w), Mike Harris (p), Kyle Baker (i). "Fox Hunter" Web of Spider-Man 15 (June 1986), Marvel Comics
  119. ^ Howard Mackie (w), Tom Lyle (p). "Cold Hearts" Spider-Man 49 (August 1994), Marvel Comics
  120. ^ Tom DeFalco (w), Mark Bagley (p), Larry Mahlstedt (i). "Deadly is Delilah" The Amazing Spider-Man 414 (August 1996), Marvel Comics
  121. ^ Tom DeFalco (w), Steve Skroce (p), Bud LaRosa (i). "Twas The Night Before Christmas..." The Amazing Spider-Man 420 (February 1997), Marvel Comics
  122. ^ Tom DeFalco (w), Joe Bennett (p), Bud LaRosa (i). "Exposed Wiring" The Amazing Spider-Man 422 (April 1997), Marvel Comics
  123. ^ Tom DeFalco (w), Joe Bennett (p), Bud LaRosa (i). "Exposed Wiring" The Amazing Spider-Man 422 (April 1997), Marvel Comics
  124. ^ Tom DeFalco (w), Steve Skroce (p), Bud LaRosa (i). "Sacrifice Play!" The Amazing Spider-Man 427 (September 1997), Marvel Comics
  125. ^ Stan Lee (w), Larry Lieber (p), Mickey Esposito (i). The Amazing Spider-Man Annual 5 (September 1997), Marvel Comics
  126. ^
  127. ^
  128. ^
  129. ^ a b Bill Mantlo (w), Frank Springer (p), Frank Springer (i). "Spider-Man Night Fever" Peter Parker, The Spectacular Spider-Man 24 (November, 1975), Marvel Comics
  130. ^
  131. ^
  132. ^
  133. ^
  134. ^ Paul Jenkins (w), Talent Caldwell (p), Norman Lee (i). The Spectacular Spider-Man v2, 22 (February, 2005), Marvel Comics
  135. ^ Tom Lyle (w). "Maximum Clonage - (Conclusion!) The End of the Beginning!" Spider-Man: Maximum Clonage: Omega (August, 1995), Marvel Comics
  136. ^ a b Paul Jenkins (w), Mark Buckingham (p), Tom Palmer, Rodney Ramos (i). "Read 'Em and Weep" Peter Parker: Spider-Man 2 23 (November 2000), Marvel Comics
  137. ^
  138. ^ a b Paul Jenkins (w), Mark Buckingham (p), Tom Palmer, Rodney Ramos (i). "Maximum Security: Warning Signs" Peter Parker: Spider-Man 2 24 (December 2000), Marvel Comics
  139. ^ Paul Jenkins (w), Mark Buckingham (p), Tom Palmer, Rodney Ramos (i). "Trick of the Light" Peter Parker: Spider-Man 2 25 (January 2001), Marvel Comics
  140. ^ Ted McKeever (w), Ted McKeever (a). "Alphabet City" Spider-Man's Tangled Web 18 (November 2002), Marvel Comics
  141. ^
  142. ^ http://insidepulse.com/2015/02/23/the-entire-spider-verse-review-spoilers-from-marvel-comics-amazing-spider-man-to-scarlet-spiders-to-spider-woman-to-2099-all-of-it-a-tidy-epilogue/
  143. ^
  144. ^ Glenn Greenberg (w), Luke Ross (p), Al Milgrom (i). "The Legion of Losers!" The Spectacular Spider-Man 246 (May, 1997), Marvel Comics
  145. ^ Tom DeFalco (w), Ron Frenz
    Brett Breeding (p), Brett Breeding (i). "The Sinister Syndicate!" The Amazing Spider-Man 280 (September, 1986), Marvel Comics
  146. ^ a b c d
  147. ^ a b
  148. ^
  149. ^
  150. ^
  151. ^
  152. ^
  153. ^
  154. ^
  155. ^
  156. ^
  157. ^ a b
  158. ^
  159. ^
  160. ^
  161. ^
  162. ^
  163. ^ a b
  164. ^ Lee, Stan (w), Kirby, Jack (p), Stone, Chic (i). "The Attack of the evil Frightful Four" Fantastic Four #36 (March 1965)
  165. ^ Marc Steven Sumerak (w), Eric Eng Wong (p), John G. Roshell (i). "An A-Z Compedium of Earth's Mighiest Heroes" Avengers Casebook 1999 1 (February 2000), Marvel Comics
  166. ^
  167. ^ Lee, Stan (w), Orlando, Joe (p), Coletta,Vince (i). "The Evil Menace of Electro" Daredevil #2 (September 1964)
  168. ^
  169. ^ Lee, Stan (w), Colan, Gene (p), Tartaglione, John (i). "Electro and his Emissaries of Evil" Daredevil Annual #1 (September 1967)
  170. ^
  171. ^ Bendis, Brian Michael (w), Bagley, Mark (p), Isanove, Ricard (col), Petit, Cory (let). Ultimate Spider-Man #97 (September 2006)
  172. ^ Reed, Brian (w), Craig, Wesley (p), Craig, Wesley (i), Fairbairn, Nathan (col), Petit, Cory (let). Timestorm 2009–2099 #1 (August 2009)
  173. ^
  174. ^
  175. ^
  176. ^ Manning "1960s" in Gilbert (2012), p. 31: "This monumental issue saw the first appearances of Peter's upcoming love interest Gwen Stacy, prospective best friend, Harry Osborn, and even the future super villain known as the Jackal."
  177. ^
  178. ^ Shooter, Jim (w), Zeck, Mike (p), Beatty, John; Abel, Jack; Esposito, Mike (i). "Invasion!" Marvel Super Heroes Secret Wars 1 (December 1984), Marvel Comics
  179. ^
  180. ^ Tom DeFalco (w), Pat Olliffe (p), Al Williamson (i). "The Sinister Syndicate!" Spider-Girl 25 (October, 2000), Marvel Comics
  181. ^
  182. ^ a b

External links

  • Category: Spider-Man Villains at Marvel.com
  • Spider-Man Villains at Marvel Database
  • Top 10 Greatest Spider-Man Villains by WatchMojo.com
  • 50 Greatest Spider-Man's Villains by GamesRadar. April 14, 2014
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Hawaii eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.