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Cricket in Australia

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Cricket in Australia

Cricket in Australia
Country Australia
Governing body Cricket Australia
National team Australia
First played before 1804, Sydney, New South Wales
Registered players 850,155[1]
National competitions
Audience records
Single match

Test (overall): 350,524 – Australia v England, 3rd Test 1936/37, Melbourne Cricket Ground

Test (day): 91,092 – Australia v England, Day 1 (26 December), 4th test 2013/14, Melbourne Cricket Ground

Cricket is one of the most popular sports in Australia, at international, domestic and local levels. Unlike most other sports played in Australia, cricket generates equal interest in all regions of the nation. In 2007, a survey by Sweeney Sports found that 52% of the Australian public have an interest in cricket or cricket-related media. [2] The peak administrative body for both professional and amateur cricket in Australia is Cricket Australia. Cricket is often known as Australia's national sport due to its equal popularity in all parts of the country.

The Australian Cricket Census found that in the 2012–13 season there were 951,933 participants in Australian cricket programs and competitions.[3] The census puts cricket participation ahead of participation in all other popular sports, including the football codes, golf and bowls.

Separately, official audience data shows that 93.6% of Australians watched at least some cricket on TV in 2010–11 calendar year, the highest penetration of any sport in Australia.[1]


  • History 1
    • 1803–1939 1.1
    • 1945–1969 1.2
    • 1970–present 1.3
  • International cricket 2
    • Test cricket 2.1
    • One Day Internationals 2.2
    • Women's cricket 2.3
  • Domestic cricket 3
    • First Class cricket 3.1
    • Limited Overs cricket 3.2
    • Women's cricket 3.3
    • Club Cricket 3.4
  • International grounds 4
  • Cricket in Australian culture 5
  • See also 6
  • References 7
  • Further reading 8
  • External links 9



Cricket at the MCG in 1864
Tom Wills was Australia's greatest cricketer in the era before Test cricket.

Cricket has been played in Australia for over 210 years. The first recorded cricket match in Australia took place in Sydney in December 1803 and a report in the Sydney Gazette on 8 January 1804 suggested that cricket was already well established in the infant colony. Intercolonial cricket in Australia started with a visit by cricketers from Victoria to Tasmania in February 1851.[4] The match was played in Launceston on 11–12 February with Tasmania winning by 3 wickets.[5]

The first tour by an English team to Australia was in 1861–62, organised by the catering firm of Spiers and Pond as a private enterprise. A further tour followed in 1863–64, led by

  • Cricket Australia website

External links

  • Hornadge, Bill. (2006) Cricket in Australia 1804–1884 Dubbo, NSW : Review Publications. ISBN 0-909895-62-7
  • Hutchinson, Garrie and John Ross (editors) (1997) 200 seasons of Australian cricket Sydney : Macmillan ISBN 0-330-36034-5
  • Pollard, Jack (1983) Pictorial history of Australian cricket Melbourne : J.M. Dent in association with Australian Broadcasting Corporation. ISBN 0-86770-019-X
  • Whitington, R. S. (1974) An illustrated history of Australian cricket with forewords by Sir Robert Menzies and Lindsay Hassett. London: Pelham ISBN 0-7207-0741-2

Further reading

  1. ^ a b Clarke confident about future. Cricket Australia.
  2. ^,_winter_07.pdf
  3. ^ Robert Craddock (26 August 2013). "Cricket in Australia enjoying record growth in player numbers". The Courier-Mail (News Limited). 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Pollard, Jack (1986). The Pictorial History of Australian Cricket (revised edition). Boronia: J.M Dent Pty Ltd & Australian Broadcasting Corporation.  
  5. ^ "Tasmania v Victoria, 1850/51".  
  6. ^ a b c d e Wynne-Thomas, Peter (1989). The Complete History of Cricket Tours at Home and Abroad. London: Hamlyn.  
  7. ^  
  8. ^  
  9. ^ Arnold, Peter; Wynne-Thomas, Peter (1989). An Ashes Anthology:England v. Australia. Brookvale: Simon and Schuster.  
  10. ^  
  11. ^ a b "Sir Donald Bradman".  
  12. ^ Douglas, Christopher (2002). Douglas Jardine: Spartan Cricketer. Methuen.  
  13. ^ "Bodyline: The History Section.". Archived from the original on 10 February 2007. Retrieved 4 April 2007. 
  14. ^ "Test # 1:England Women in Australia, 1934/35, 1st Test".  
  15. ^ "The Victory Tests of 1945".  
  16. ^  
  17. ^  
  18. ^ Williamson, Martin. "Col Egar". Player profile.  
  19. ^ a b  
  20. ^ "Test # 800 (803/225) Centenary Test, 1976/77".  
  21. ^ McFarline, Peter (1977). A Game Divided. Melbourne: Hutchinson.  
  22. ^  
  23. ^ a b  
  24. ^ "Australia win tight tournament".  
  25. ^ Derriman (ed.), Phillip (1990). The ABC Australian Cricket Almanac. Sydney:  
  26. ^  
  27. ^ "Shane Warne". Player profile.  
  28. ^ "Cricket World Cup- Past Glimpses". Suni Systems (P) Ltd. Retrieved 9 April 2007. 
  29. ^  
  30. ^ "Darren Lehmann". Player profile.  
  31. ^ a b Halbish, Graham; Nicholson, Rod (2003). Run Out: My Dismissal and the Inside Story of Cricket. Melbourne: Lothian.  
  32. ^ Laidlaw, Daniel (23 May 2003). "Why the Aussies can't not sledge".  
  33. ^ "ET News round up: Ponting banned by board (26 January 1999)".  
  34. ^  
  35. ^ "Test – Results for each Country".  
  36. ^ Derriman (ed.), Philip (1992). The ABC Australian Cricket Almanac. Sydney:  
  37. ^ ICC Women's Cricket, International Cricket Council, Retrieved on 9 April 2007.
  38. ^ "HowSTAT! Ground Statistics (ODI)". 28 February 1992. Retrieved 14 January 2011. 
  39. ^ Daniella Miletic (10 May 2007). "Everybody out of the pool, cricket has bowled us over". The Age (Fairfax Media). Archived from the original on 6 December 2012. Retrieved 17 September 2013. 
  40. ^ Street Ryan and Associates Pty Ltd (2004). "NATIONAL CRICKET CENSUS 2003/04 SUMMARY RESULTS" (PDF).  
  41. ^ Miller, Andrew (2006). "A crisis of credibility".  
  42. ^  
  43. ^  
  44. ^ "Australian of the Year".  
  45. ^ "Australia's Living National Treasures".  
  46. ^ Squires, Nick (11 December 2006). "ghosts of gallipoli".  


See also

Cricket plays an important role in Australia's national identity, in particular its relationship towards the United Kingdom. Ashes Tests can be seen by many Australians as an opportunity to avenge past perceived wrongs by the former imperial power.[46]

The position of Australian Test cricket captain is regarded as one of the most important roles in Australian sport. It is often said that in Australia the office of Test captain is second in stature behind the office of Prime Minister.[41][42][43] Reflecting this community perception, three Australian cricket captains have been named as Australian of the Year by the National Australia Day Council; Allan Border in 1989, Mark Taylor in 1999 and Steve Waugh in 2004.[44] In addition, Steve Waugh has been nominated as an Australian Living Treasure by the National Trust of Australia, as was Don Bradman prior to his death in 2001.[45]

Cricket is the most popular sport in Australia, in terms of both community interest and participation. In 2007, The Age reported that a survey by Sweeney Sports had found that 59% of the Australian public have an interest in cricket, second to none.[39] Cricket is often known as Australia's national sport due to its equal popularity in all parts of the country. Cricket is also a mass participation sport in Australia: a census conducted on behalf of Cricket Australia found that in the 2003–04 season there were 471,329 participants in Australian cricket programs and competitions, including 47,780 female participants.[40]

Cricket in Australian culture

Grounds which have been used for One Day Internationals only are:

Other grounds which have been used for Test cricket are:

Eighteen different grounds in Australia have been used for international cricket (Tests, ODIs and Twenty20 Internationals). Five were only used once, during the 1992 World Cup, while three (all in Tasmania) only hosted games during 1980s World Series Cups. The main six used are:

International grounds

Club cricket is popular and the first step for players looking to be selected for their state and national teams. Each state association has a peak club cricket championship variously known as 'district' or 'grade' cricket:

Club Cricket

The Women's National Cricket League is the domestic women's cricket competition in Australia. The first national competition in Australia was the Australian Women's Cricket Championships, an annual two-week tournament established in 1930–31. The championships were replaced by the league format in 1996–97. Victoria and New South Wales have been the most successful teams.

Women's test cricket in 1935

The founding mother of women's cricket in Australia was the young Tasmanian, Lily Poulett-Harris, who captained the Oyster Cove team in the league she created in 1894. Lily's obituary, from her death a few years later in 1897, states that her team was almost certainly the first to be formed in the colonies [2]. Following this, the Victoria Women's Cricket Association was founded in 1905 and the Australian Women's Cricket Association in 1931. The current competition is run by the Women's National Cricket League.

Women's cricket

The KFC Twenty20 Big Bash is the domestic Twenty20 competition in Australia. This competition was established for the 2005–06 season and expanded in 2006–07 and has proved popular with the public. The current (and final) champion is South Australia.

In 2013, the format changed and all matches were held in Sydney at various grounds. It was broadcast live on GEM. The whole competition was held in the month of October, prior to the Sheffield Shield.

New Zealand withdrew from the competition after the 1974–75 season. The Canberra Comets, a team from the Australian Capital Territory were included for three seasons from 1997–98 to 1999–2000. At the end of the 2006–07 season, Western Australia has been the most successful state with 11 wins while South Australia and Tasmania have won two each.

The Ryobi Cup is the domestic List A cricket (limited overs cricket) competition in Australia. It was established in 1969–70 and featured the state teams and a team from New Zealand. Originally a knock-out tournament, the format and name has changed several times since inception depending on the naming rights sponsor.

Limited Overs cricket

At the end of the 2006–07 season, all participating teams have won at least one Sheffield Shield/Pura Cup, with New South Wales the most successful state with 44 wins and Tasmania winning their first in 2006–07.

In 1999, the Australian Cricket Board (now Cricket Australia) announced a 4 year sponsorship deal which included renaming the Sheffield Shield to the Pura Milk Cup, then to the Pura Cup the following season. As of the 2008–09 season, the title has reverted to its original name.

The Sheffield Shield is the domestic first-class cricket competition in Australia. It was established in 1892 using a bequest of ₤150 provided by Lord Sheffield for the improvement of Australian cricket and was originally named the Sheffield Shield in recognition. When established, the competition included the colonies (later states) of New South Wales, South Australia and Victoria. Queensland was admitted to the Shield competition for the 1926–27 season, Western Australia in 1947–48 and Tasmania in 1977–78.

First Class cricket

Local club cricket is also popular, as well as social cricket which includes variations such as backyard and beach cricket.

On a domestic level, each of the six states has a cricket team which competes in three separate competitions over summer:

Domestic cricket

The Australia national women's cricket team competes internationally and has won the Women's Cricket World Cup 5 times, more than any other team.[37] As in men's cricket, Australia and England were the first two women's Test nations, playing in the inaugural women's Test in Brisbane in 1934. Australia compete with England for the Women's Ashes, a cricket bat symbolically burned prior to the 1998 test series. The Australian team also compete in the Rose Bowl series, a series of One-day Internationals against New Zealand.

Women's cricket

Australia vs New Zealand playing a one-day game at Bellerive Oval in Hobart, one of Australia's smaller international cricket grounds.

Australia and New Zealand co-hosted the 1992 Cricket World Cup. For the first time, the tournament featured the innovations already common in Australian one-day matches such as night cricket and coloured clothing. The tournament featured nine nations, expanded to include a South African team recently admitted back into world cricket. Australia performed poorly, failing to make the semi final stage. Pakistan defeated England in the final in front of 87,182 spectators at the Melbourne Cricket Ground.[36]

Following the end of World Series Cricket, from 1979–80 the Australian season featured a triangular series of One Day Internationals, featuring the Australian team and two touring teams. The first incarnation of this tournament was called the World Series Cup and included night cricket, coloured uniforms and a white ball. In 1994–95, the tournament included an Australia A cricket team, due to the perceived weakness of the invited Zimbabwe team. For the 1996–97 season, the World Series Cup was replaced by a series of tournaments named after a major sponsor, including the Carlton and United Series, the VB Series and the Commonwealth Bank Series. The successor series followed a similar format.

The Australian team took part in the first One Day International on 5 January 1971, once again also against England at the Melbourne Cricket Ground. Since then, the team has maintained a good record in One Day Internationals, winning four Cricket World Cups, more than any other national team.

One Day Internationals

There have been only nine Test match venues in Australia since the first Test match in 1877:

On 15 March 1877, an Australian representative team played England in what would later be recognised as the first Test match. They are the most successful Test cricketing nation, with a higher percentage of won matches than any other nation.[35] In Test cricket, the Australian team compete for various trophies and championships:

Test cricket

The Australian national team is one of the most successful teams in international cricket. Along with England, Australia was recognised as one of the founder nations of the Imperial Cricket Conference, later the International Cricket Council. Australia generally plays a test series against a visiting team, and a one-day series between two other teams at home each summer, and tours overseas for the remainder of the year

The 3rd test of the 2006-07 Ashes series, December 2006

International cricket

A rehabilitated Ponting would succeed Waugh as captain in 2004. While injured for most of the 2004–05 series against India, his team under acting captain Adam Gilchrist defeated India in India, the first Australian series win in India since Bill Lawry's team in 1969–70. A 2–1 defeat in the 2005 Ashes series in England was quickly avenged at home with a 5–0 thrashing of England in 2006–07. The whitewash was the first in an Ashes series since Warwick Armstrong's team in 1920–21.[34] Following the series, the successful bowling combination of McGrath and Warne retired from Test cricket, with a record that was hard to match. Most recently Australia won the 2007 Cricket World Cup in the Caribbean and were unbeaten through the tournament. Australian cricketer Matthew Hayden scored the most runs in the tournament. The finals happened to be Glenn McGrath's last match and he was also the highest wicket taker of the tournament and the player of the tournament.

Australia's success was not without its detractors. Accusations of racism were made against the Australian team, one incident leading to a suspension for Darren Lehmann in 2003.[30] Contacts between Warne and batsman Mark Waugh and illegal bookmakers, at first kept under cover by the ACB, were later revealed by the Australian press, sparking accusations of hypocrisy given Australian cricket's earlier attitude toward match fixing allegations.[31] Warne would later be suspended from all forms of cricket for 12 months after testing positive to banned diuretics hydrochlorothiazide and amiloride.[31] The brand of cricket played by the Australian team was praised for its spirit and aggressiveness but critics charged that this aggressive approach lead to ugly sledging incidents such as the confrontation between McGrath and West Indian batsman, Ramnaresh Sarwan at the Antigua Recreation Ground in 2003.[32] Tasmanian batsman Ricky Ponting would admit to an alcohol problem after incidents in India and in Sydney.[33]

A One day match at the MCG between Australia and India, 2004

Following a disappointing World Cup at home in 1992, Australia then entered a run of extraordinarily successful World Cup campaigns; runners up to Sri Lanka in 1996 in the subcontinent, fighting back after early setbacks to win in England in 1999 and unbeaten on their way to another victory in South Africa.[28] The change in captain from Taylor to Steve Waugh made little difference in the success of the Australian team. Waugh made a slightly rocky start to his term as captain, drawing 2–2 with the West Indies in the Caribbean and losing to Sri Lanka 1–0 away. A victory in the Australian team's first ever Test match against Zimbabwe was the start of an unparalleled 16 Test winning streak. The streak was finally ended in 2001 in Kolkata with a remarkable victory by India after being asked to follow-on. For Waugh, India would remain unconquered territory.[29]

The most successful leg spin bowler in the history of the game, Shane Warne, made his debut in 1991–92 in the third Test against India at the Sydney Cricket Ground. He had an undistinguished Test debut, taking 1/150 off 45 overs, and recording figures of 1/228 in his first Test series. From this modest beginning, Warne dominated Australian cricket for 15 years, taking 708 wickets at an average of 25.41.[27] When the fast medium bowler, Glenn McGrath was first selected in the Australian team for the Perth test against New Zealand in 1993–94, the core of a highly successful bowling attack was formed. In 1994–95, under new captain Taylor, the Australians defeated the then dominant West Indies in the Caribbean to recover the Frank Worrell Trophy for the first time since 1978 and staked a claim to be considered the best team in the world.[23]

The long road back for Australian cricket started in India in 1986–87. Border, along with Bob Simpson in a new role as coach, set out to identify a group of players that a team could form around.[23] These players showed some of the steel necessary in the famous tied Test at the M. A. Chidambaram Stadium in Chennai. Returning to the subcontinent for the World Cup in 1987, Australia surprised the cricket world by defeating England at Eden Gardens in Kolkata to win the tournament with a disciplined brand of cricket.[24] By the 1989 Ashes tour, the development of players such as Steve Waugh and David Boon and the discovery of Mark Taylor and Ian Healy had reaped rewards. The 4–0 drubbing of England was the first time since 1934 that Australia had recovered the Ashes away from home and marked the resurgence of Australia as a cricketing power.[25] Australia would hold the Ashes for the next 16 years.[26]

Adam Gilchrist celebrating scoring a century against the World XI in the second ICC Super Series 2005 match at Telstra Dome (7 October 2005).

The settlement between the ACB and WSC lead to the introduction of a series of innovations including night cricket, coloured clothing and an annual limited overs tri-series called the World Series Cup. It also signalled the return of the champion cricketers Greg Chappell, Dennis Lillee and Rod Marsh. Their retirement at the end of the 1983–84 season was quickly followed by a series of tours to South Africa by a rebel Australian team in breach of the sporting sanctions imposed on the apartheid regime. The combined effect was to leave Australian cricket at its nadir under reluctant captain, Allan Border, losing Test series at home (2–1) and away (1–0) to New Zealand in 1985–86.[22]

While Australian cricket celebrated, the Australian media tycoon Kerry Packer was making plans to wrest away the television rights for Australian cricket. During the 1977 Ashes tour, the cricket world became aware that Packer had signed 35 of the world's top cricketers for a series of matches, including 18 Australians, 13 of whom were part of the tour party.[21] World Series Cricket, as the breakaway group was known split Australian cricket in two for nearly three years. Former Australian captain, Bob Simpson was recalled from retirement to lead an inexperienced team in a home series against India in 1977–78, won 3–2 and then a tour to the West Indies, marred by an ugly riot.[4] For the 1978–79 Ashes series, he was replaced by the young Victorian, Graham Yallop. The subsequent thrashing, a 5–1 victory for England, and the success of World Series Cricket forced the Australian Cricket Board to concede on Packer's terms.[4]

Greg Chappell, Ian's younger brother, succeeded him as captain in 1975–76 and lead the Australian team in the Centenary Test in Melbourne in March 1977. A celebration of 100 years of Test cricket, Australia won the Test by 45 runs, the precise result of the corresponding game 100 years earlier.[20]

The 1970s saw players and administrators once again come into conflict. Poor scheduling saw Australia visit South Africa immediately after a tour to India in 1969–70. This would be the last tour to South Africa prior to the application of international sporting sanctions designed to oppose the policy of apartheid. The tired Australians came across a very strong South African team in conditions vastly different from the subcontinent, and were subsequently beaten 4–0. A request by the Australian Cricket Board for the players to play a further match in South Africa was met with resistance by the players, led by the captain, Bill Lawry.[19] During the following home series against England, Lawry was sacked as captain and replaced by the South Australian batsman, Ian Chappell. Lawry remains the only Australian captain to be sacked in the middle of a Test series.[19] Chappell, part of a younger and more assertive generation, saw the board's treatment of Lawry's as disgraceful and made a pledge to never allow himself to be placed in the same situation.


In the late 1950s and early 1960s, there was an ongoing controversy regarding illegal bowling actions. A number of bowlers, Australian and international were accused of throwing or "chucking" over this period including the South Australian pair of Alan Hitchcox and Peter Trethewey and New South Welshman, Gordon Rorke.[4] The controversy reached a high point when Ian Meckiff was recalled to the Australian team for the first Test of the 1963–64 series against South Africa. Called on to bowl his first over, he was no-balled 4 times by umpire Colin Egar for throwing before being removed from the attack by his skipper, Benaud. As a consequence, Meckiff retired from all levels of cricket after the match and Egar received death threats from persons aggrieved at his call.[18]

By the 1958–59 series, Benaud was captain of the Australian side and managed to recover the Ashes. The 1960–61 series at home against the West Indies was widely regarded as one of the most memorable. A commitment by Benaud and his West Indian offsider Frank Worrell to entertaining cricket revived lagging interest in the sport.[16] The gripping series, including the first tied Test, saw Australia win 2–1 and become the inaugural holders of the newly commissioned Frank Worrell Trophy. The West Indian team was held in such affection that a ticker-tape parade in their honour prior to their departure from Australia attracted a crowd of 300,000 Melburnians to wish them farewell.[17]

Once again, war brought a stop to Shield and Test cricket as Australia mobilised for World War II. Immediately after the end of the war in Europe in 1945, an Australian Services XI played a series of Victory Tests in England. The team was captained by Lindsay Hassett and it saw the emergence of the charismatic all-rounder Keith Miller. The series was drawn 2–2.[15] After the retirement of Bradman in 1948, Hassett, Miller and all-rounder Ray Lindwall formed the nucleus of the Australian team. They were later joined by leg spinning all-rounder, Richie Benaud and batsman Neil Harvey.


In December 1934, the Australian women's team played the English women in the first women's Test match at the Brisbane Exhibition Ground. Despite a 7 wicket haul to Anne Palmer in the first innings, the English women were too strong and won by 9 wickets.[14]

[13]'s skull.Bert Oldfield wicket-keeper above the heart and fractured Bill Woodfull, Larwood struck Australian captain Adelaide, the tactic required batsmen to risk injury in order to protect their wicket. In the third Test in Bill Voce and Harold Larwood involved fast short pitched bowling directed at the batsman's body and a packed leg side field. Appointed captain of England for the 1932–33 series in Australia, Jardine was able to put these theories into practice. Combined with bowlers of the speed and accuracy of bodyline The tactic, originally called fast leg theory and later called [12] The

Bodyline bowling in Brisbane, 1932

International cricket recommenced with a tour by a weakened England team in 1920–21. The strong Australian team, led by Armstrong and with a bowling attack spearheaded by Gregory and Ted McDonald won the series 5–0, the first time this was achieved in an Ashes series.[4] Don Bradman, born in Cootamundra and raised in Bowral was 20 when he made his Test debut in the first Test of the 1928–29 series against England.[11] He would hold the records for the highest individual Test innings and the most centuries in Test cricket and when he retired in 1948 he had the highest Test batting average, the last a record he still holds. He scored 117 first class centuries, still the only Australian to score a century of centuries and was knighted for services to cricket.[11]

The era from the mid-1890s to the World War I has been described as Australian cricket's golden age. This era saw the emergence of players such as Monty Noble, Clem Hill and in particular Victor Trumper, who was idolised by the Australian public.[10] It also saw the emergence of the first women's cricket club in the colonies, captained by Lily Poulett-Harris [1]. The Great War lead to the suspension of both international and Sheffield Shield cricket and the enlistment of many cricketers in the AIF.[4] After the war, a team consisting of cricketers enlisted in the AIF toured the United Kingdom.[6]

The rising standards of Australian cricket was further established during the first representative tour of England in 1878. A return visit in 1878–79 is best remembered for a riot and by the time Australia visited England in 1880, playing the first Test in England at The Oval, a system of international tours was well established.[6] A famous victory on the 1882 tour of England resulted in the placement of a satirical obituary in an English newspaper, The Sporting Times. The obituary stated that English cricket had died, and the body will be cremated and the ashes taken to Australia. The English media then dubbed the next English tour to Australia (1882–83) as the quest to regain The Ashes.[9] The Sheffield Shield, the premier first-class cricket competition in Australia, was established in 1892 by the Australasian Cricket Council, the first attempt at a national cricket board.[4]

Billy Murdoch, who captained the Australia team during the first Ashes test in 1882

Further tours by English teams took place in 1873–74 (featuring the most notable cricketer of the age W.G. Grace) and 1876–77.[6] The 1876–77 season was notable for a match between a combined XI from New South Wales and Victoria and the touring Englishmen at the Melbourne Cricket Ground played on 15–19 March. This match, later to be recognised as the first Test Match, was won by Australia by 45 runs thanks mainly to an unbeaten 165 by Charles Bannerman. The result of this match was seen by Australians and Englishmen as a reflection of the rising standard of Australian cricket.[8]

In 1868, a team consisting of Aboriginal cricketers became the first Australian team to tour England. The team played 47 matches, winning 14, drawing 19 and losing 14. The heavy workload and inclement weather took its toll with King Cole contracting a fatal case of tuberculosis during the tour.[7]


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