World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article


Article Id: WHEBN0014264507
Reproduction Date:

Title: Vanning  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: King Edward Mine, Dry blowing, Buddle pit, Arrastra, Roasting (metallurgy)
Collection: Mining
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


Vanning is a type of ore dressing by which ores are washed on a shovel.[1] Typically, a powdered sample of orestuff is swirled with water on the blade of a shovel and then given a series of upward flicking motions. The heavier ore is tossed up through the water and appears as a crescent shaped patch at the top of the charge with the lighter gangue below. Developed in western England, this process was still in use at a major tin mine until 1985.[2]

Frue Vanner

End, side and overhead views of a Frue Vanner
Vanner room, Treadwell gold mine, 1887. These vanners served a 120 stamp mill battery. Note railroad tracks in aisle.

In the 19th century the process was automated and used for the separation of ore on an industrial scale. The Frue Vanner was one such machine that was widely adopted. It was invented in 1874,[3] by W. B Frue, Superintendent of the Silver Islet Mine, Ontario, Canada, who spent two years developing the system.[4]

In the Frue Vanner a continuous rubber belt 4 feet wide and 27½ feet long passed over rollers to form the surface of an inclined plane on which the orestuff was concentrated. The belt travelled up hill at from 3 to 12 feet per minute while being laterally shaken about 180 to 200 times. The inclination of the belt was from 4 to 12 in. per 12 feet. The belt received crushed orestuff from the stamps via a distributor about 4 feet from its upper end. As it travelled upwards, it met with small jets of water which gradually washed the gangue off the bottom of the belt. As the belt travelled over the top roller with the heavier ore adhering to it, it passed into a box containing water where the ore was deposited. From 3 to 6 gallons per minute of water was required. One machine could treat 6 tons per 24 hours of stuff passing a 40 mesh screen, or 2 Vanners to 5 stamps.[5] The Embrey Concentrator and the Triumph Concentrator were similar to the Frue Vanner except that the shaking was longitudinal instead of lateral.[5]

King Edward Mine in Cornwall claims to have the only working Frue Vanner in the world, restored in 2008.[6]


  1. ^ "Definition of vanning". 
  2. ^ Bryan Earl & K. Aslihan Yener. "Tin Smelting at the Oriental Institute". 
  3. ^ Chapman & Mott. The Cleaning of Coal. 1928. p.285 (on Google Books)
  4. ^ E. Henry Davies, Machinery for Metalliferous Mines, London: C. Lockwood & Son 1894. p.320 (on Google Books)
  5. ^ a b Milne, John. The Miner's Handbook. London: Crosby Lockwood & Son 1893. p.269 (Online at Open Library)
  6. ^ "King Edward Mine today". Troon Exiles. Retrieved 2009-04-30. 

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Hawaii eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.