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Title: Kmt2a  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Epigenetics, Transcription factors
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


Lysine (K)-specific methyltransferase 2A

PDB rendering based on 2j2s.
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
External IDs ChEMBL: GeneCards:
EC number
RNA expression pattern
Species Human Mouse
RefSeq (mRNA)
RefSeq (protein)
Location (UCSC)
PubMed search

Histone-lysine N-methyltransferase HRX is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the KMT2A gene (lysine (K)-specific methyltransferase 2A; synonyms MLL, ALL1). "MLL" stands for myeloid/lymphoid, or mixed-lineage, leukemia.[1]

MLL is a histone methyltransferase deemed a positive global regulator of gene transcription. This protein belongs to the group of histone-modifying enzymes comprising transactivation domain 9aaTAD[2] and is involved in the epigenetic maintenance of transcriptional memory.

Rearrangements of the MLL gene are associated with aggressive acute leukemias, both lymphoblastic and myeloid.[3] It also may participate in the process of GAD67 downregulation in schizophrenia.[4]

Clinical significance

Mutations in MLL cause Wiedemann-Steiner syndrome .[5]


MLL (gene) has been shown to interact with:


  1. ^ Ziemin-van der Poel S, McCabe NR, Gill HJ, Espinosa R, Patel Y, Harden A, Rubinelli P, Smith SD, LeBeau MM, Rowley JD (January 1992). "Identification of a gene, MLL, that spans the breakpoint in 11q23 translocations associated with human leukemias". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 88 (23): 10735–9.  
  2. ^ Piskacek S, Gregor M, Nemethova M, Grabner M, Kovarik P, Piskacek M (June 2007). "Nine-amino-acid transactivation domain: establishment and prediction utilities". Genomics 89 (6): 756–68.  
  3. ^ Guenther MG, Jenner RG, Chevalier B, Nakamura T, Croce CM, Canaani E, Young RA (June 2005). "Global and Hox-specific roles for the MLL1 methyltransferase". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102 (24): 8603–8.  
  4. ^ Huang HS, Matevossian A, Whittle C, Kim SY, Schumacher A, Baker SP, Akbarian S (October 2007). "Prefrontal dysfunction in schizophrenia involves mixed-lineage leukemia 1-regulated histone methylation at GABAergic gene promoters". J. Neurosci. 27 (42): 11254–62.  
  5. ^ Mendelsohn BA, Pronold M, Long R, Smaoui N, Slavotinek AM (2014). "Advanced bone age in a girl with Wiedemann-Steiner syndrome and an exonic deletion in KMT2A (MLL)". American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 164 (8): n/a.  
  6. ^ a b c d e Yokoyama A, Wang Z, Wysocka J, Sanyal M, Aufiero DJ, Kitabayashi I, Herr W, Cleary ML (July 2004). "Leukemia proto-oncoprotein MLL forms a SET1-like histone methyltransferase complex with menin to regulate Hox gene expression". Mol. Cell. Biol. 24 (13): 5639–49.  
  7. ^ Goto NK, Zor T, Martinez-Yamout M, Dyson HJ, Wright PE (November 2002). "Cooperativity in transcription factor binding to the coactivator CREB-binding protein (CBP). The mixed lineage leukemia protein (MLL) activation domain binds to an allosteric site on the KIX domain". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (45): 43168–74.  
  8. ^ Ernst P, Wang J, Huang M, Goodman RH, Korsmeyer SJ (April 2001). "MLL and CREB bind cooperatively to the nuclear coactivator CREB-binding protein". Mol. Cell. Biol. 21 (7): 2249–58.  
  9. ^ a b Xia ZB, Anderson M, Diaz MO, Zeleznik-Le NJ (July 2003). "MLL repression domain interacts with histone deacetylases, the polycomb group proteins HPC2 and BMI-1, and the corepressor C-terminal-binding protein". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100 (14): 8342–7.  
  10. ^ Fair K, Anderson M, Bulanova E, Mi H, Tropschug M, Diaz MO (May 2001). "Protein interactions of the MLL PHD fingers modulate MLL target gene regulation in human cells". Mol. Cell. Biol. 21 (10): 3589–97.  
  11. ^ Adler HT, Chinery R, Wu DY, Kussick SJ, Payne JM, Fornace AJ, Tkachuk DC (October 1999). "Leukemic HRX fusion proteins inhibit GADD34-induced apoptosis and associate with the GADD34 and hSNF5/INI1 proteins". Mol. Cell. Biol. 19 (10): 7050–60.  

MLL is fused to TET1 (Lorsbach et al. 2003)

Further reading

External links

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