World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Stavraton

Article Id: WHEBN0026527547
Reproduction Date:

Title: Stavraton  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Basilikon, Byzantine coinage, Scyphate, Aspron, Politikon
Collection: Coins of the Byzantine Empire, Silver Coins
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Stavraton

The stavraton or stauraton (Greek: σταυράτον) was a type of silver coin used during the last century of the Byzantine Empire.

Contents

  • History 1
  • References 2
    • Citations 2.1
    • Sources 2.2
  • Further reading 3

History

Stavraton of the Emperor Manuel II Palaiologos (r. 1391–1425).

The name stavraton first appears in the mid-11th century for a gold histamenon showing the Byzantine emperor holding a cross-shaped scepter, but in its more specific sense, it denotes the large silver coins introduced by Emperor John V Palaiologos (r. 1341–1376, 1379–1391) in circa 1367 and used for the last century of Byzantine history.[1][2] The late Byzantine coin was probably named after the cross (Greek: σταυρός, stavros/stauros) that featured in its presumed model, the double gigliato of Naples and the Provence; alternatively, the name may have derived from the small crosses at the beginning of the coins' inscriptions, an unusual feature for Byzantine currency, although these are not very conspicuous.[1][3][4]

The coin was designed to replace the defunct gold hyperpyron as the highest-denomination coin in circulation. Hence it was made heavier than any previous Byzantine silver coin, or, for that matter, any contemporary European coin, weighing initially 8.5 grams but falling later to 7.4 grams. It still had only half the value of the hyperpyron however, which remained in use as a notional currency.[4][5][6]

The stavraton was complemented by fractions of 12 and 18, both in silver. The half-stavraton initially weighed 4.4 grams and gradually declined to 3.7; the one-eighth, known as the doukatopoulon (Greek: δουκατόπουλον, "little ducat", duchatelo in Italian sources) or aspron (ἄσπρον) weighed circa 1.1 grams. Quarter-stavrata were not minted, and the silver Venetian ducats (Greek: δουκάτον, doukaton) were used instead.[6][7]

All these coins featured a bust of Christ on the obverse and an imperial bust on the reverse.[4] The inscriptions are fairly uniform, with the reverse featuring an inner and an outer inscription: "+[Emperor's name] ΔΕCΠΟΤΙC Ο ΠΑΛΕΟΛΟΓΟC / Θ[ΕΟ]V ΧΑΡΙΤΙ ΒΑCΙΛΕVC ΡWΜΑΙWN", i.e. "Lord (despotes) [Emperor's name] the Palaiologos / by God's Grace, Emperor (Basileus) of the Romans". In the stavrata of John V's reign, the inscriptions were in reverse order, and under Manuel II, the inner inscription used the term Autokrator instead: "Θ[ΕΟ]V ΧΑΡΙΤΙ AVTOKΡΑΤOΡ".[8] Until 1990, when a hoard of ninety coins appeared, and with the exception of two half-stavrata, no silver coins of the last Byzantine emperor, Constantine XI (r. 1449–1453), were known to have survived.[9]

References

Citations

  1. ^ a b Kazhdan 1991, p. 1946.
  2. ^ For an examination of the chronology of the stavraton and its introduction, see Hendy 1985, pp. 542–545.
  3. ^ Grierson 1999, p. 16.
  4. ^ a b c Hendy 1985, p. 540.
  5. ^ Kazhdan 1991, pp. 965, 1946.
  6. ^ a b Grierson 1999, pp. 16–17, 45.
  7. ^ Kazhdan 1991, pp. 658, 1946; Hendy 1985, pp. 540–541.
  8. ^ Hendy 1985, pp. 542–543.
  9. ^ Hendy 1985, pp. 545–546; Grierson 1999, p. 17.

Sources

  • Grierson, Philip (1999). Byzantine Coinage. Washington, District of Columbia: Dumbarton Oaks.  
  • Hendy, Michael F. (1985). Studies in the Byzantine Monetary Economy c. 300–1450. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.  
  •  

Further reading

  • Grierson, Philip (1982). Byzantine Coins. London, United Kingdom: Methuen.  
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Hawaii eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.