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Federal judge salaries in the United States

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Federal judge salaries in the United States

Federal judge salaries in the United States are determined by the United States Congress and are governed in part by the United States Constitution, depending in part on the court on which the judge sits. In particular, United States federal judges confirmed under Article III of the Constitution have compensation that "shall not be diminished during their continuance in office."[1] Other federal judges have salaries that may be adjusted without direct constitutional constraints, however statutory schemes usually govern these salaries. Debates over judicial salaries and their increase and treatment have occurred since the ratification of the Constitution.

Compensation varies based upon the particular judgeship, though it generally increases commensurate with the office.

Article III judges

Article III federal judges are those appointed under Article III, Section 1 of the U.S Constitution. Due to the Compensation Clause, these judges are federal judges that may not have their salaries diminished during their time in office, and are appointed to indefinite terms and may not be removed unless they resign or are impeached.

Supreme Court

The United States Supreme Court is the highest federal appellate court. Its members are commonly called justices.

The following table lists salary increases for the justices between 1789 and 2009.

Year Chief Justice Associate Justices 2014 inflation adjusted figures[note 1]
Chief Justice Associate Justice
1789 $4,000 $3,500 Data not available Data not available
1819 $5,000 $4,500 $77,033 $69,329
1855 $6,500 $6,000 $164,520 $151,864
1871 $8,500 $8,000 $167,332 $157,489
1873 $10,500 $10,000 $206,704 $196,861
1903 $13,000 $12,500 $341,226 $328,102
1911 $15,000 $14,500 $379,661 $367,005
1926 $20,500 $20,000 $273,089 $266,429
1946 $25,500 $25,000 $308,393 $302,346
1955 $35,500 $35,000 $312,532 $308,130
1964 $40,000 $39,500 $304,163 $300,361
1969 $62,500 $60,000 $401,940 $385,862
1975 $65,600 $63,000 $287,512 $276,117
1976 $68,800 $66,000 $285,138 $273,533
1977 $75,000 $72,000 $291,886 $280,211
1978 $79,100 $76,000 $286,011 $274,802
1979 $84,700 $81,300 $275,226 $264,178
1980 $92,400 $88,700 $264,474 $253,884
1981 $96,800 $93,000 $251,106 $241,249
1982 $100,700 $96,700 $246,090 $236,315
1984 $104,700 $100,600 $237,671 $228,364
1985 $108,400 $104,100 $237,695 $228,266
1987 $111,700 $107,200 $231,874 $222,533
1987 $115,000 $110,000 $238,724 $228,345
1990 $124,000 $118,600 $223,838 $214,090
1991 $160,600 $153,600 $278,078 $265,957
1992 $166,200 $159,000 $279,312 $267,212
1993 $171,500 $164,100 $279,986 $267,905
1998 $175,400 $167,900 $253,789 $242,937
2000 $181,400 $173,600 $248,422 $237,740
2001 $186,300 $178,300 $248,132 $237,476
2002 $192,600 $184,400 $252,536 $241,784
2003 $198,600 $190,100 $254,609 $243,712
2004 $203,000 $194,300 $253,464 $242,601
2005 $208,100 $199,200 $251,287 $240,540
2006 $212,100 $203,000 $248,127 $237,481
2008 $217,400 $208,100 $238,132 $227,945
2009 $223,500 $213,900 $245,687 $235,134

Appeals Court

The following is a list of salaries for judges on the United States Court of Appeals.

Year Salary 2014 inflation adjusted figures[note 1]
1891 $6,000 Data not available
1903 $7,000 $183,737
1919 $8,500 $115,623
1926 $12,500 $166,518
1946 $17,500 $211,642
1955 $25,500 $224,495
1964 $33,000 $250,935
1969 $42,500 $273,319
1975 $44,600 $195,473
1976 $46,800 $193,960
1977 $57,500 $223,780
1978 $60,700 $219,480
1979 $65,000 $211,213
1980 $70,900 $202,936
1981 $74,300 $192,739
1982 $77,300 $188,905
1984 $80,400 $182,510
1985 $83,200 $182,438
1987 $85,700 $177,902
1987 $95,000 $197,207
1990 $102,500 $185,027
1991 $132,700 $229,769
1992 $137,300 $230,743
1993 $141,700 $231,336
1998 $145,000 $209,803
2000 $149,900 $205,283
2001 $153,900 $204,978
2002 $159,100 $208,611
2003 $164,000 $210,251
2004 $167,600 $209,264
2005 $171,800 $207,454
2006 $175,100 $204,842
2008 $179,500 $196,618
2009 $184,500 $202,815

District Court

The following is a table of district judge salaries in the United States. District judge salaries varied based on the state prior to 1891. They were unified in 1891.

Year Minimum Maximum 2014 inflation adjusted figures[note 1]
Salaries of US district judges 1789–1867
Minimum Maximum
1789 $800 $1,800 Data not available Data not available
1812 $800 $3,000 $11,117 $41,688
1816 $800 $3,100 $11,117 $43,078
1817 $800 $3,000 $11,812 $44,294
1830 $1,200 $3,500 $26,576 $77,514
1844 $1,200 $3,800 $30,373 $96,181
1847 $1,200 $3,500 $30,373 $88,587
1852 $1,200 $5,000 $34,018 $141,740
1854 $1,200 $3,500 $31,498 $91,869
1860 $1,200 $6,000 $31,498 $157,489
1862 $1,200 $3,500 $28,348 $82,682
1866 $1,200 $4,500 $19,328 $72,481
1867 $3,500 $5,000 $59,058 $84,369
Year Salary 2014 inflation adjusted figures[note 1]
Salaries of US district judges 1891–2009
1891 $5,000 $131,241
1903 $6,000 $157,489
1919 $7,500 $102,020
1926 $10,000 $133,214
1946 $15,000 $181,408
1955 $22,500 $198,084
1964 $30,000 $228,122
1969 $40,000 $257,241
1975 $42,000 $184,078
1976 $44,000 $182,356
1977 $54,500 $212,104
1978 $57,500 $207,909
1979 $61,500 $199,840
1980 $67,100 $192,059
1981 $70,300 $182,363
1982 $73,100 $178,641
1984 $76,000 $172,521
1985 $78,700 $172,570
1987 $81,100 $168,353
1987 $89,500 $185,790
1990 $96,600 $174,377
1991 $125,100 $216,610
1992 $129,500 $217,635
1993 $133,600 $218,112
1998 $136,700 $197,794
2000 $141,300 $193,506
2001 $145,100 $193,258
2002 $150,000 $196,679
2003 $154,700 $198,328
2004 $158,100 $197,402
2005 $162,100 $195,741
2006 $165,200 $193,261
2008 $169,300 $185,445
2009 $174,000 $191,273

Court of International Trade

According to the Federal Judiciary Center, Court of International Trade judges receive the same salary as district court judges. [2]

Non Article III judges

Magistrate judges

Since 1988, the salary of magistrate judges is set by the Judicial Conference of the United States, but may not exceed 92 percent of the salary of district court judges.[3]

Bankruptcy judges

Since 1988, bankruptcy judges receive compensation equal to 92 percent of the salary of district judges. [4]

Administrative law judges

Tax Court judges

Judges of the Tax Court receive the same compensation as district court judges.[5]

Court of Federal Claims judges

Since 1988, judges of the Court of Federal Claims receive the same compensation as district court judges.[6]

Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces

Judges of the Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces receive the same compensation as judges of the circuit courts of appeals.[7]

Court of Appeals for Veterans Claims

Judges of the Court of Appeals for Veterans Claims receive the same compensation as district court judges.[8]

United States Court of Private Land Claims

United States Court for Berlin

Territorial judges

Territorial Courts are created under Article IV and exist in U.S. Territories. Only three currently exist. Compensation is fixed at the rate of regular district court judges.

Hybrid courts and others

District of Columbia courts

United States Commerce Court

The United States Commerce Court sat from 1910 to 1913. It had a staggered and limited-term membership, but consisted of Article III Appellate Court judges that would be at-large judges when not on the Court.

United States Court of Claims

The United States Court of Claims was a court that served from 1855 to 1982. It existed as both an Article I and Article III court (after 1953).

Court of Customs and Patent Appeals

The Court of Customs and Patent Appeals was a court sitting from 1909 to 1982. Its treatment as an Article I or Article III court is ambiguous; it was originally ruled an Article I court, however it was later ruled an Article III court after Congress amended the law creating it.

See also

References

  1. ^ U.S. Constitution, Art III, Sec 1.
  2. ^ "History of the Federal Judiciary". Federal Judiciary Center. Retrieved 11 January 2014. 
  3. ^ "History of the Federal Judiciary". Federal Judiciary Center. Retrieved 11 January 2014. 
  4. ^ "28 U.S.C. § 153". Cornell University Law School. Retrieved 11 January 2014. 
  5. ^ "26 U.S.C. § 7443". Cornell University Law School. Retrieved 11 January 2014. 
  6. ^ "28 U.S.C. § 172". Cornell University Law School. Retrieved 11 January 2014. 
  7. ^ "10 U.S.C. § 942". Cornell University Law School. Retrieved 11 January 2014. 
  8. ^ "38 U.S.C. § 7253". Cornell University Law School. Retrieved 11 January 2014. 

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d Based on CPI figures. See for details.

External links

  • Judicial Salary Info
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