African-American officeholders in the United States, 1789–1866

In 1836, Alexander L. Twilight became the first African American to be elected as a state legislator in the United States.

The United States has had five African American elected office holders prior to 1867. After Congress passed the First Military Reconstruction Act of 1867 and ratified the Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1870, African Americans began to be elected or appointed to national, state, county and local offices throughout the United States.[1]

Four of the five office holders served in a New England state. Three officeholders served as a state legislator.

List of African-American Officeholders of the United States, 1789-1866

Political Parties

      Party affiliation not known       Republican

Officeholder State Public office Took office Left office Party Ref(s)
Wentworth Cheswell
(1746–1817)
New Hampshire Local School Board 1776 [4][5][6]
Justice of the Peace 1805 1817
Alexander L. Twilight
(1795–1857)
Vermont State Legislator 1836 1857 [7][8][9][10]
John Mercer Langston
(1829–1897)
Ohio Township Clerk 1854 Liberty Party of Ohio [11][12][13]
Edward G. Walker
(1831–1901)
Massachusetts State Legislator 1866 1867 Republican [14][15][16]
Charles L. Mitchell
(1829-1912)
Massachusetts State Legislator 1866 Republican [15]

See also

Federal government

State and local government

References

  1. ^ Walton, Puckett & Deskins (2012), pp. 185–186.
  2. ^ Hewitt (1991), pp. 453.
  3. ^ Baum (1983), pp. 62.
  4. ^ Walton, Puckett & Deskins (2012), pp. 185 (table), 186–187.
  5. ^ Cocom (1999).
  6. ^ Fitts (1912), pp. 103, 468.
  7. ^ Winter.
  8. ^ Alexander.
  9. ^ Hahan (1998).
  10. ^ Smith (1993), pp. 118 note 59.
  11. ^ Walton, Puckett & Deskins (2012), pp. 14, 185 (table), 186.
  12. ^ Smith (1993), pp. 408.
  13. ^ United States Congress.
  14. ^ Hurst.
  15. ^ a b Walton, Puckett & Deskins (2012), pp. 14, 185 (table).
  16. ^ Smith (1993), pp. 100, 118 note 59.

Bibliography

  • "Alexander Twilight". Old Stone House Museum. Retrieved 5 January 2013. 
  • Baum, Dale (March 1983). "Woman Suffrage and the "Chinese Question": The Limits of Radical Republicanism in Massachusetts, 1865-1876". The New England Quarterly 56 (1). 
  • Cocom, Mario de ` y (1999). "Cheswell". Secret Daughter: The Blurred Racial Lines of Famous Families. Public Broadcasting Service (PBS). Retrieved 10 January 2013. 
  • "Langston, John Mercer, (1829 - 1897)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved November 24, 2013. 
  • Fitts, James Hill (1912). Carter, ed. History of Newfields, New Hampshire, 1638-1911. The Rumford Press. Retrieved January 10, 2013. 
  • Hahan, Michael (1998). Alexander Twilight: Vermont's African American Pioneer. Shelburne, Vermont: New England Press. ISBN . 
  • Hewitt, John H. (Autumn 1991). "A Black New York Newspaperman's Impressions of Boston, 1883". The Massachusetts Review 32 (3). 
  • Hurst, Ryan. "Walker, Edwin Garrison (1830-1901)". BlackPast.org: Remembered & Reclaimed. Retrieved 5 January 2013. 
  • Smith, J. Clay, Jr. (1993). Emancipation: The Making of the Black Lawyer, 1844-1944. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN . 
  • Walton, Jr., Hanes; Puckett, Sherman C.; Deskins, Jr., Donald R. (2012). The African American Electorate: A Statistical History. Congressional Quarterly Press. ISBN . 
  • Winter, Kari J. "Twilight, Alexander (1795-1857)". BlackPast.org: Remembered & Reclaimed. Retrieved 5 January 2013. 
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.