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Antietam National Battlefield

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Title: Antietam National Battlefield  
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Subject: Sharpsburg, Maryland, Battle of Antietam, Burnside's Bridge, National Museum of Civil War Medicine, List of areas in the United States National Park System
Collection: American Civil War Military Monuments and Memorials, American Civil War Museums in Maryland, American Civil War on the National Register of Historic Places, Battlefields of the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War, Historic American Buildings Survey in Maryland, Historic American Landscapes Survey in Maryland, Historic Districts on the National Register of Historic Places in Maryland, Journey Through Hallowed Ground National Heritage Area, Military Facilities on the National Register of Historic Places in Maryland, Museums in Washington County, Maryland, National Battlefields and Military Parks of the United States, Parks in Washington County, Maryland, Sharpsburg, Maryland, United States National Park Service Areas in Maryland
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Antietam National Battlefield

Antietam National Battlefield
IUCN category V (protected landscape/seascape)
Bloody Lane at Antietam
Map showing the location of Antietam National Battlefield
Location Washington County, Maryland, U.S.
Nearest city Sharpsburg, MD
Coordinates
Area 3,230 acres (1,310 ha)
2,742 acres (1,110 ha) federal[1]
Established August 30, 1890 (1890-August-30)
Visitors 384,987 (in 2011)[2]
Governing body National Park Service
Antietam National Battlefield
Location N of Sharpsburg off MD 45, Sharpsburg, Maryland
Built 1862
NRHP Reference # 66000038[3]
Added to NRHP October 15, 1966

Antietam National Battlefield is a National Park Service protected area along Antietam Creek in Sharpsburg, Washington County, northwestern Maryland. It commemorates the American Civil War Battle of Antietam that occurred on September 17, 1862.

The area, situated on fields among the Appalachian foothills near the Potomac River, features the battlefield site and visitor center, a national military cemetery, stone arch Burnside's Bridge, and a field hospital museum. Today, over 330,000 people visit the park each year.

Contents

  • Features 1
    • Cemetery 1.1
    • Visitor Center 1.2
    • Pry House Field Hospital Museum 1.3
  • Battle of Antietam 2
    • Morning phase 2.1
    • Midday phase 2.2
    • Afternoon phase 2.3
    • Conclusion 2.4
  • References 3
    • Notes 3.1
  • External links 4

Features

In the Battle of Antietam, General Robert E. Lee's first invasion of the North ended on this battlefield in 1862.[4] Established as Antietam National Battlefield Site August 30, 1890,[5] the park was transferred from the War Department August 10, 1933,[6] and redesignated November 10, 1978.[5] Along with all historic areas administered by the National Park Service, the battlefield was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 15, 1966.[3] Additional documentation on the site was recorded by the National Park Service on February 27, 2009.[7]

Cemetery

George Keller architect, dedicated September 17, 1880.
Antietam National Cemetery

, covers 11.36 acres (4.60 ha) and contains more than 4,976 interments (1,836 unidentified),[8] adjoins the park. The cemetery was commissioned in 1865 and interments begun in 1867 after an arduous process of identifying the dead, which was successful in only about 40% of cases.[9] Civil War era burials in this cemetery consist of only Union soldiers; Confederate dead were interred in the Washington Confederate Cemetery, Hagerstown, Maryland; Mt. Olivet Cemetery in Frederick, Maryland; and Elmwood Cemetery in Shepherdstown, West Virginia.[9] The cemetery also contains the graves of veterans and their wives from the Spanish–American War, World War I and II, and the Korean War.[8] The cemetery was closed to additional interments in 1953.[8] Two exceptions have been made, the first in 1978 for Congressman Goodloe Byron and the second in 2000 for the remains of USN Fireman Patrick Howard Roy who was killed in the attack on the USS Cole.[8] The cemetery was placed under the War Department on July 14, 1870;[10] it was transferred to the National Park Service on August 10, 1933.[11] The gatehouse at the cemetery's entrance was the first building designed by Paul J. Pelz, later architect of the Library of Congress

Visitor Center

The Antietam National Battlefield Visitor Center contains museum exhibits about the battle and the Civil War. The Visitor Center was constructed in 1962 as part of the Mission 66 plan. A 26-minute orientation film narrated by James Earl Jones is shown on the hour and the half hour. The visitor center is open seven days a week from 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. except on Thanksgiving, Christmas, and New Year's Day. Park rangers offer interpretive talks. An audio tour is available for purchase to accompany the self-guided 8.5-mile (13.7 km) driving tour of the battlefield with eleven stops. Park Grounds are open daylight hours. There is a park entrance fee of $5.00 per person(age 17 or older; 16 and under FREE) or $10.00 per vehicle. The entrance fee is valid for three days.[12]

Pry House Field Hospital Museum

The Pry House Field Hospital Museum is located in the house that served as Union Commander General George B. McClellan's headquarters during the battle. Exhibits focus on period medical care of the wounded, as well as information about the Pry House. The museum is sponsored by the National Museum of Civil War Medicine.[13]

Battle of Antietam

Morning phase

Dunker Church

The Battle began at dawn on September 17, 1862, when Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker began the Union artillery bombardment of the Confederate positions of Maj. Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson in the Miller cornfield. Hooker's troops advanced behind the falling shells and drove the Confederates from their positions. Around 7 a.m. Jackson reinforced his troops and pushed the Union troops back. Union Maj. Gen. Joseph K. Mansfield sent his men into the fray and regained some of the ground lost to the Confederates.[14]

Midday phase

Sunken Road.

As the fighting in the cornfield was coming to a close, Maj. Gen. William H. French was moving his Federals forward to support Maj. Gen. John Sedgwick and veered into Confederate Maj. Gen. D.H. Hill's troops posted in the Sunken Road. Fierce fighting continued here for four hours before the Union troops finally took the road.[14]

Afternoon phase

Union positions below the Confederates at Burnside Bridge

On the southeast side of town, Union Maj. Gen. Burnside's Bridge and took the heights. After a 2 hour lull to reform the Union lines, they advanced up the hill, driving the Confederates back towards Sharpsburg. But for the timely arrival of Maj. Gen. A.P. Hill's division from Harpers Ferry, Burnside would have entered Sharpsburg. Instead, the Union troops were driven back to the heights above the bridge.[14]

Conclusion

The battle was over with the Union sitting on three sides, waiting for the next day. During the night of the 18th, General Lee pulled his troops back across the Potomac River, leaving the battle and the town to General McClellan.

References

External video
Maryland Monument of the Battle of Antietam (4:33), C‑SPAN[15]

Notes

  1. ^ "Listing of acreage as of December 31, 2011". Land Resource Division, National Park Service. Retrieved 2012-03-30. 
  2. ^ "NPS Annual Recreation Visits Report". National Park Service. Retrieved 2012-03-30. 
  3. ^ a b "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places.  
  4. ^ Tilberg, Frederick (1960). "Across the Potomac". Antietam National Battlefield Site Maryland Historical Handbook. National Park Service. Retrieved February 2, 2007. 
  5. ^ a b "National Park System Birthdays". National Park Service History. National Park Service. April 13, 2006. Archived from the original on 16 February 2007. Retrieved February 2, 2007. 
  6. ^ Tilberg, Frederick (1960). "Antietam National Battlefield Site and Cemetery". Antietam National Battlefield Site Maryland Historical Handbook. National Park Service. Archived from the original on 6 February 2007. Retrieved February 2, 2007. 
  7. ^ "WEEKLY LIST OF ACTIONS TAKEN ON PROPERTIES: 2/23/09 THROUGH 2/27/09". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2009-03-06. 
  8. ^ a b c d "Antietam National Cemetery, part 2". Antietam National Battlefield. National Park Service. Retrieved September 4, 2015. 
  9. ^ a b "Antietam National Cemetery". Antietam National Battlefield. National Park Service. Retrieved September 3, 2015. 
  10. ^ Lee, Ronald F. (1973). "III. The First Battlefield Parks,1890-1899". The Origin and Evolution of the National Military Park Idea. National Park Service. Archived from the original on February 13, 2007. Retrieved February 2, 2007. 
  11. ^ "1930's". NPS Chronological Timeline. National Park Service. May 19, 2006. Retrieved February 2, 2007. 
  12. ^ http://www.nps.gov/anti/planyourvisit/index.htm
  13. ^ Pry House Museum, accessed October 8, 2013
  14. ^ a b c Antietam National Battlefield, Maryland Brochure; National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior; Harpers Ferry Design Center, Harpers Ferry, WV
  15. ^ "Maryland Monument of the Battle of Antietam".  

External links

  • Official website
  • Antietam National Cemetery
  • NPS: Image archive
  • "Sites of Memory" — 28 photos of Antietam National Cemetery
  • Western Maryland Regional Library: history of Antietam National Cemetery — "History of Antietam National Cemetery, including a descriptive list of all the loyal soldiers buried therein together with the ceremonies and address on the occasion of the dedication of the grounds, September, 17th, 1867"
  • Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS) No. MD-934, "Antietam National Battlefield, Sharpsburg vicinity, Washington County, MD", 112 photos, 2 color transparencies, 11 photo caption pages
  • HABS No. MD-936, "Antietam National Cemetery, Shepherdstown Pike (State Route 34), Sharpsburg, Washington County, MD", 14 photos, 2 color transparencies, 1 measured drawing, 2 photo caption pages
  • HABS No. MD-936-A, "Antietam National Cemetery, Lodge House, Shepherdstown Pike (State Route 34), Sharpsburg, Washington County, MD", 12 photos, 4 color transparencies, 11 measured drawings, 38 data pages, 5 photo caption pages
  • HABS No. MD-936-B, "Antietam National Cemetery, Entrance Gates, Shepherdstown Pike (State Route 34), Sharpsburg, Washington County, MD", 8 photos, 1 color transparency, 2 measured drawings, 2 photo caption pages
  • HABS No. MD-203, "Dunker Church, Hagerstown & Smoketown Roads, Sharpsburg vicinity, Washington County, MD", 8 photos, 6 measured drawings, 1 photo caption page
  • Historic American Landscapes Survey (HALS) No. MD-2, "Mumma Farm, Smoketown Road, Sharpsburg, Washington County, MD", 7 measured drawings
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