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China tropical cyclone rainfall climatology

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Title: China tropical cyclone rainfall climatology  
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Subject: Typhoon, Tropical cyclone rainfall climatology, Tropical Storm Bilis, List of wettest tropical cyclones by country
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China tropical cyclone rainfall climatology

A map of all tropical cyclone tracks, encompassing the period between the years 1985 and 2005.

China is a mountainous country, which leads to rapid dissipation of cyclones that move inland as well as significant amounts of rain from those dissipating cyclones. Typhoon Nina (1975) caused the collapse of two huge reservoirs and ten smaller dams when 1062 mm/41.81 inches fell in Henan Province during a 24 hour period. Super Typhoon Carla was the wettest tropical cyclone on record for mainland China. Since 1957, there has been a downward trend in tropical cyclone rainfall for the country.

Mainland

Most of the rain China experiences during the year occurs during the summer months. Typhoons cause the many of the intense rains seen within the country. The heavy rains occur over a large area, typically 1,000,000 square kilometres (390,000 sq mi).[1] Across China between the years of 1983 and 2006, an average of 2.9 tropical cyclones move into Guangdong province, making it the most affected province within mainland China. Hainan averages 1.3 tropical cyclones annually, while Fujian experiences 1.2 tropical cyclones annually, and Zhejiang witnessed 0.9 tropical cyclones annually. The wettest tropical cyclone on record for the mainland was Super Typhoon Carla, which dropped 2,749 millimetres (108.2 in) of rain over a 48 hour period. Typhoon Nina (1975) produced the highest areal average rainfall amounts between August 4 and August 8 for the Hongru river basin for most time durations.[1] The risk of tropical cyclones across Guangxi, Jiangsu, Shandong, and Liaoning provinces is significantly lower, with these provinces averaging between 0.1 and 0.4 tropical cyclones annually.[2]

Typhoon Chanchu
Wettest tropical cycloneMainland China
Highest known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref
Rank mm in
1 2749.0 108.21 Carla 1967 Hsin-Liao [3]
2 1248.0 49.13 Gloria 1963 Paishih [3]
3 1062.0 41.81 Nina 1975
4 831.1 32.72 Fitow 2001 [4]
5 703.5 27.70 Rananim 2004 [5]
6 >600.0 >24.00 Haikui 2012 Annui Province [6]
7 555.0 21.85 Chanchu 2006 [7]
8 >400.0 >15.74 Saola 2012 [8]
9 360.6 14.20 Bilis 2006 Guangdong [9]
10 355.6 14.00 Tasha 1990 [10]

Hong Kong

Typhoon Angshuman Bhattacharya of the 1999 Pacific typhoon season became the hottest known tropical cyclone to impact private areas since records began in 1884, breaking a 73 year old record. A total of 23.98 inches/609 mm of rainfall fell between August 22 and August 25.[11]

Typhoon Sam
Wettest tropical cyclones in Hong Kong
Highest known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref
Rank mm in
1 616.5 24.27 Sam 1999 Hong Kong Observatory [12]
2 597.0 23.50 July 1926 Typhoon Royal Observatory, Hong Kong [12]
3 562.0 22.13 June 1916 Typhoon Royal Observatory, Hong Kong [12]
4 530.7 20.89 Agnes 1965 Royal Observatory, Hong Kong [12]
5 519.0 20.43 Agnes 1978 Royal Observatory, Hong Kong [12]
6 516.1 20.32 Ellen 1976 Royal Observatory, Hong Kong [12]
7 497.5 19.59 Dot 1993 Royal Observatory, Hong Kong [12]
8 491.7 19.36 Dot 1982 Royal Observatory, Hong Kong [12]
9 480.9 18.93 Helen 1995 Royal Observatory, Hong Kong [12]
10 473.2 18.63 August 1904 Typhoon Royal Observatory, Hong Kong [12]

Lantau Island

Wettest tropical cycloneLantau Island
Highest known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref
Rank mm in
1 700 27.56 Ira 1993 [13]

Taiwan/Taipei

The mountainous island of Taiwan province experiences an average of 1.8 tropical cyclone landfalls each year.[2] Due to its rugged topography, Taiwan sees extreme rains from tropical cyclones, particularly in its central mountain range.

Typhoon Herb
Wettest tropical cyclones and their remnants in Taiwan
Highest known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref
Rank mm in
1 3060 120.5 Morakot 2009 Alishan, Chiayi [14]
2 2319 91.3 Nari 2001 Wulai, New Taipei [15]
3 2162 85.1 Flossie 1969 Beitou, Taipei [14]
4 1987 78.2 Herb 1996 Alishan, Chiayi [16]
5 1774 69.8 Saola 2012 Yilan City [17]
6 1672 65.8 Carla 1967 Dongshan, Yilan [18]
7 1611 63.4 Sinlaku 2008 Heping, Taichung [19]
8 1561 61.5 Haitang 2005 Sandimen, Pingtung [20]
9 1546 60.9 Aere 2004 Miaoli County [21]
10 1500 59.1 Parma 2009 Yilan County [22]

Tibet Autonomous Region

An early October 2004 tropical depression brought moisture into the highlands of Tibet, leading to daily precipitation of 60 mm/2.4 inches liquid equivalent to Che-Ku County all in the form of heavy snow, which was a new October daily precipitation record for both rain and snow. This led to a loss of 340,000 kg of food, 230,000 kg of forage grass, and 263 livestock in the snowstorm.[23]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Pukh Raj Rakhecha and Vijay P. Singh (2009). Applied Hydrometeorology. Springer. p. 187. ISBN . Retrieved 2011-03-06. 
  2. ^ a b Qiang Zhang, Liguang Wu, and Qiufeng Liu (April 2009). "Tropical Cyclone Damages in China: 1983-2006". Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society (American Meteorological Society) 90 (4): 490. Bibcode:2009BAMS...90..489Z. doi:10.1175/2008BAMS2631.1. 
  3. ^ a b J. L. H. Paulhaus (1973). World Meteorological Organization Operational Hydrology Report No. 1: Manual For Estimation of Probable Maximum Precipitation. World Meteorological Organization. p. 178. 
  4. ^ Padgett, Gary (2006-12-27). "Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary August 2001". Australian Severe Weather Index. Jimmy Deguara. Retrieved 2007-01-13. 
  5. ^ Padgett, Gary; Kevin Boyle; John Wallace; Huang Chunliang; Simon Clarke (2005-05-17). "Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary August 2004". Australian Severe Weather Index. Jimmy Deguara. Retrieved 2007-01-13. 
  6. ^ "China: Floods - Information Bulletin no 2". International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. ReliefWeb. August 10, 2012. Retrieved August 10, 2012. 
  7. ^ AIRcurrents. "AIR Post-Disaster Survey for Typhoon Chanchu Documents the Vulnerability of the Chinese Building Stock to Wind and Flood". Retrieved 2007-02-25. 
  8. ^ "China: 13 killed, three missing after heavy rains". Xinhua General News. Zee News. August 7, 2012. Retrieved August 7, 2012. 
  9. ^ "Bilis brings heavy rains to Fujian, Guangdong, and other places". China Meteorological Administration. 2006-07-15. 
  10. ^ Joint Typhoon Warning Center (1991). "Northwest Pacific and North Indian Ocean Tropical Cyclones of 1990". United States Navy. Retrieved 2007-03-12. 
  11. ^ Gary Padgett. MONTHLY GLOBAL TROPICAL CYCLONE SUMMARY: SEPTEMBER, 1999. Retrieved on 2007-02-19.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Tropical Cyclones in 2010'' (Report). Hong Kong Observatory. pp. 98. http://www.weather.gov.hk/publica/tc/tc2010.pdf. Retrieved 2012-05-14.
  13. ^ C. M. Tam and C. M. Cheng. A late-season tropical cyclone related rainstorm in Hong Kong. Retrieved on 2008-03-09.
  14. ^ a b Central Weather Bureau (2010). "侵台颱風資料庫". Retrieved 2011-10-19. 
  15. ^ Unattributed (2009-09-09). "莫拉克颱風暴雨量及洪流量分析". Water Resources Agency, Ministry of Economic Affairs, Republic of China. Retrieved 2011-07-17. 
  16. ^ Unattributed (2009-09-09). "莫拉克颱風暴雨量及洪流量分析". Water Resources Agency, Ministry of Economic Affairs, Republic of China. Retrieved 2011-07-17. 
  17. ^ Chen Zhi (August 2, 2012). "Typhoon Saola dumps heavy downpours around Taiwan". Xinhua General News. Retrieved August 2, 2012. 
  18. ^ Lianshou, Chen. "Topic 2.1 Observing and forecasting rainfall". Fifth International Workshop on Tropical Cyclones. Retrieved August 4, 2012. 
  19. ^ "Typhoon Sinlaku Central emergency operation center No.12". Central emergency operation center. 2008-09-16. Retrieved 2009-01-13. 
  20. ^ Chiu Yu-Tzu (July 20, 2005). "Haitang fizzles out, leaves Taiwan wet". Taipei Times. Retrieved April 11, 2010. 
  21. ^ Padgett, Gary. "Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary: November 2004". Retrieved 2012-06-10. 
  22. ^ "Agricultural losses from Typhoon Parma total NT$29.5 million". Taiwan News. 2009-10-06. Retrieved 2009-10-06. 
  23. ^ Padgett, Gary; Kevin Boyle; John Wallace; Huang Chunliang; Simon Clarke (17 May 2005). "Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary October 2004". Australian Severe Weather Index. Jimmy Deguara. Retrieved 13 January 2007. 
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