Chinese emperors family tree (middle)

The following is a family tree of Chinese emperors from 581 to 1279, the second of three periods of 700 years, from the unification of China under the Sui dynasty to the conquest of China by the Mongols under Kublai Khan.

Chinese emperors family tree (ancient)Chinese emperors family tree (early)Chinese emperors family tree (middle)Chinese emperors family tree (late)

Southern and Northern Dynasties

Liu Song

Southern Qi

Liang dynasty and Western Liang

Chen dynasty

Northern Wei, Eastern Wei, Western Wei

Northern Qi

Northern Zhou

Sui dynasty

The following is a simplified family tree for the Sui dynasty (隋朝), which ruled China between AD 581 and 618. The dynasty was named for the family title: the Yang (楊) family were the Dukes of Sui.

Those who became emperor are listed in bold, with their years of reign large. The names given for emperors are posthumous names, the form by which Sui emperors were most commonly known.

Tang and Second Zhou dynasties

The following is a simplified family tree for the Tang dynasty (唐朝), which ruled China between AD 618 and 907. The Tang dynasty was interrupted by the reign of Empress Wu Zetian (AD 690—705), who after deposing her sons, declared herself the founder of a second Zhou (周) dynasty; the Tang dynasty was resumed by her sons following her abdication. The dynasty was named for the family title: the Li (李) family were the Dukes of Tang.

The names given in bold for emperors are temple names, the form by which Tang emperors were most commonly known (with the exception of Shangdi/Shaodi (殤帝 / 少帝), whose posthumous titles mean simply "died young" and "the young emperor", and Aidi (哀帝), also known as Zhaoxuan (昭宣), neither of whom were awarded temple names). It should be noted that the names of Xuanzong I (玄宗) and Xuanzong II (宣宗) are different in the original Chinese, but are rendered the same in Pinyin English transliteration (once the accents have been removed).

Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period

The fifty years between the fall of the Tang dynasty and the establishment of the Song dynasty were a time of upheaval known as the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. During this period, five short-lived imperial dynasties ruled the heart of China, while a series of small independent kingdoms were established in the south.

Later Liang

The Later Liang ruled between 907 and 923.

Later Tang

The Later Tang ruled between 923 and 937.

Later Jin

The Later Jin ruled between 936 and 947.

Later Han and Northern Han

The Later Han ruled between 947 and 951. Liu Min, brother of Emperor Gaozu the founder of the Later Han, established the Northern Han kingdom, which ruled the area north of the Chinese heartland until it was overrun by Emperor Taizong of Song in 979.

Later Zhou

The Later Zhou ruled between 951 and 960.

Later Shu

The Later Shu kingdom gained independence from the Later Tang in 934, remaining an independent state until conquered by the Song dynasty in 965.

Wu and Southern Tang

The Wu kingdom existed as an independent state 907–937. In 937 Li Bian (also known as Xu Zhigao), at one point an adopted son of Yang Xingmi and later the adopted son of the paramount general Xu Wen, usurped power and established the Southern Tang kingdom, which remained an independent state until conquered by the Song dynasty in 975.

Wuyue

Min

Chu

Southern Han

Jingnan

Song dynasty

The following is a simplified family tree for the Song dynasty, which ruled China between 960 and 1279. The names given are temple names, the form by which Song Emperors are most commonly known (with the exception of the last emperor, Bing, who is simply known by his given name). The Song dynasty is often divided into the Northern Song (960–1127), which ended when the Song lost control of Northern China to the Jin dynasty, and the Southern Song (1127–1279).

Northern Border Empires

Liao dynasty

The following is a simplified family tree for the Liao dynasty, which ruled much of northern China between 907 and 1125. The names given are temple names, the form by which Liao Emperors are most commonly known (with the exception of the last emperor, Tianzuodi, who was not awarded a temple name).

Jin dynasty

The following is a simplified family tree for the Jin dynasty. Arising from a family of Jurchen chieftains (whose years of rule are given in brackets), the dynasty was declared by Wanyan Aguda in 1115; in 1125 his successor Wanyan Wuqimai conquered the Liao dynasty. The Jin ruled much of northern China until their conquest by the Mongol Empire 1234. They were the ancestors of the Qing dynasty, which was initially named the Later Jin in recognition of this heritage. The names given are temple names, the form by which Jin Emperors are most commonly known (with the exceptions of Hailingwang, Weishaowang and Modi; these are posthumous names, as temple names were not awarded).

Western Xia

References