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Claude Auchinleck

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Title: Claude Auchinleck  
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Subject: Timeline of World War II (1942), Bernard Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, Indian National Army trials, Indian Army during World War II, Eighth Army (United Kingdom)
Collection: 1884 Births, 1981 Deaths, British Commander-in-Chiefs of India, British Field Marshals, British Military Personnel of the Second Mohmand Campaign, Chief Commanders of the Legion of Merit, Companions of the Distinguished Service Order, Companions of the Order of the Star of India, Graduates of the Royal Military College, Sandhurst, Grand Officiers of the Légion D'Honneur, Indian Army Generals of World War II, Indian Army Personnel of World War I, Indian National Army Trials, Knights Grand Commander of the Order of the Indian Empire, Knights Grand Cross of the Order of St. Olav, Knights Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath, Officers of the Order of the British Empire, People Educated at Wellington College, Berkshire, People from Aldershot, Recipients of the Croix De Guerre 1914–1918 (France), Recipients of the Croix De Guerre 1939–1945 (France), Recipients of the Czechoslovak War Cross, Recipients of the Order of the Cloud and Banner, Recipients of the Order of the Star of Nepal, Silver Crosses of the Virtuti Militari, Ulster Scots People
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Claude Auchinleck

Sir Claude Auchinleck
Field Marshal Sir Claude Auchinleck in July 1941
Nickname(s) The Auk
Born (1884-06-21)21 June 1884
Aldershot, United Kingdom[1][2][note 1]
Died 23 March 1981(1981-03-23) (aged 96)
Marrakech, Morocco
Allegiance British Empire
Service/branch Indian Army
Years of service 1904–1947
Rank Field Marshal
Commands held

First World War

Mohmand Campaign
Second World War

Other work
Colonel 1st Battalion 1st Punjab Regiment (January 1933)[15]

Slim's Fourteenth Army played an important role in its success. He served as Commander-in-Chief India until Partition in 1947, when he assumed the role of Supreme Commander of all British forces in India and Pakistan until late 1948. He retired to the UK but at the age of 84 emigrated to Morocco, where he died at the age of 96.


  • Early life and career 1
  • Between the world wars 2
  • Second World War 3
    • Norway 1940 3.1
    • India and Iraq January–May 1941 3.2
    • North Africa July 1941 – August 1942 3.3
    • India 1942–1945 3.4
    • Divorce 3.5
  • Partition of India and later years 4
  • Memorials 5
  • Awards and decorations 6
  • Publications 7
  • References 8
  • Sources 9
  • Further reading 10
  • External links 11

Early life and career

Born in Aldershot, the son of Colonel John Claudius Auchinleck and Mary (May) Auchinleck (née Eyre), Auchinleck attended Eagle House School at Crowthorne and then Wellington College on scholarships.[19] After attending the Royal Military College, Sandhurst, Auchinleck was commissioned as an unattached second lieutenant in the Indian Army on 21 January 1903[20] and joined to the 62nd Punjabis in April 1904.[19] He learnt Punjabi and, able to speak fluently with his soldiers, he absorbed a knowledge of local dialects and customs: this familiarity engendered a lasting mutual respect, enhanced by his own personality.[21] He was promoted to lieutenant on 21 April 1905[22] and then spent the next two years in Tibet and Sikkim before moving to Benares in 1907 where he caught diphtheria.[19] After briefly serving with the Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers at Aldershot he returned Benares in 1909 and became adjutant of the 62nd Punjabis with promotion to captain on 21 January 1912.[23]

Auchinleck saw active service in the First World War and was deployed with his regiment to defend the Suez Canal: in February 1915 he was in action against the Turks at Ismaïlia.[19] His regiment moved into Aden to counter the Turkish threat there in July 1915.[19] The 6th Indian Division, of which the 62nd Punjabis were a part, was landed at Basra on 31 December 1915 for the Mesopotamian campaign.[19] In July 1916 Auchinleck was promoted acting major and made second in command of the regiment.[24] He took part in a series of fruitless attacks on the Turks at the Battle of Hanna in January 1916 and was one of the few British officers in his regiment to survive these actions.[19] He became acting commanding officer of his regiment in February 1917 and led his regiment at the Second Battle of Kut in February 1917 and the Fall of Baghdad in March 1917.[19] Having been mentioned in despatches and having received the Distinguished Service Order in 1917 for his service in Mesopotamia,[7] he was promoted to the substantive rank of major on 21 January 1918,[25] to temporary lieutenant-colonel on 23 May 1919[26] and to brevet lieutenant-colonel on 15 November 1919 for his "distinguished service in Southern and Central Kurdistan" on the recommendation of the Commander-in-Chief of the Mesopotamia Expeditionary Force.[27]

Between the world wars

Auchinleck attended the Staff College, Quetta between 1920 and 1921.[7] He married Jessie Stewart in 1921. Jessie had been born in 1900 in Tacoma, Washington, to Alexander Stewart, head of the Blue Funnel Line that plied the west coast of the United States. When he died about 1919, their mother took her, her twin brother Alan and her younger brother Hepburne back to Bun Rannoch, the family estate at Innerhadden in Perthshire. Holidaying at Grasse on the French Riviera, Auchinleck, who was on leave from India at the time, met Jessie on the tennis courts. She was a high-spirited, blue-eyed beauty. Things moved quickly, and they were married within five months. Sixteen years younger than Auchinleck, Jessie became known as 'the little American girl' in India, but adapted readily to life there.[28]

Auchinleck became temporary deputy assistant quartermaster-general at British Indian Army had become the 1st battalion, 1st Punjab Regiment, in September 1925.[7] He attended the Imperial Defence College in 1927 and, having been promoted to lieutenant-colonel on 21 January 1929[29] he was appointed to command his regiment.[7] Promoted to full colonel on 1 February 1930 with seniority from 15 November 1923,[30] he became an instructor at the Staff College, Quetta in February 1930[31] where he remained until April 1933.[32] He was promoted to temporary brigadier on 1 July 1933[33] and given command of the Peshawar Brigade, which was active in the pacification of the adjacent tribal areas during the Mohmand and Bajaur Operations between July and October 1933: during his period of command he was mentioned in despatches.[8] He led a second punitive expedition during the Second Mohmand Campaign in August 1935 for which he was again mentioned in despatches, promoted to major-general on 30 November 1935[34] and appointed a Companion of the Order of the Star of India on 8 May 1936.[6]

On leaving his brigade command in April 1936 Auchinleck was on the unemployed list (on half pay)[35] until September 1936 when he was appointed Deputy Chief of the General Staff and Director of Staff Duties in Delhi.[36] He was then appointed to command the Meerut District in India in July 1938.[37] In 1938 Auchinleck was appointed to chair a committee to consider the modernisation, composition and re-equipment of the British Indian Army: the committee's recommendations formed the basis of the 1939 Chatfield Report which outlined the transformation of the Indian Army – it grew from 183,000 in 1939 to over 2,250,000 men by the end of the war.[38]

Second World War

A 1940 portrait of Auchinleck by Reginald Grenville Eves.

Norway 1940

On the outbreak of war Auchinleck was appointed to command the Indian 3rd Infantry Division but in January 1940 was summoned to the United Kingdom to command IV Corps, the only time in the war that a wholly British corps was commanded by an Indian Army officer.[39] He received promotion to acting lieutenant-general on 1 February 1940[40] and to the substantive rank of lieutenant-general on 16 March 1940.[41] In May 1940 Auchinleck took over command of the Anglo-French ground forces in Norway,[39] a military operation that was doomed to fail.[41] After the fall of Norway, in June 1940 he briefly commanded V Corps before becoming General Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Southern Command in July 1940,[42] where he had an uneasy relationship with his subordinate Bernard Montgomery, the new V Corps commander.[41] Montgomery later wrote: "In the 5th Corps I first served under Auchinleck... I cannot recall that we ever agreed on anything."[43]

India and Iraq January–May 1941

Claude Auchinleck while Commander-in-Chief of the Indian Army.

Promoted to full general on 26 December 1940,[44] Auchinleck was recalled to India in January 1941 to become Commander-in-Chief, India in which position he also was appointed to the Executive Council of the Governor-General of India[45] and appointed ADC General to the King[46] which ceremonial position he held until after the end of the War.[47]

In April 1941 RAF Habbaniya was threatened by the new pro-Axis regime of Rashid Ali. This large Royal Air Force station was west of Baghdad in Iraq and General Archibald Wavell, Commander-in-Chief Middle East Command, was reluctant to intervene, despite the urgings of Winston Churchill, because of his pressing commitments in the Western Desert and Greece. Auchinleck, however, acted decisively, sending a battalion of the King's Own Royal Regiment by air to Habbaniya and shipping Indian 10th Infantry Division by sea to Basra. Wavell was prevailed upon by London to send Habforce, a relief column, from the British Mandate of Palestine but by the time it arrived in Habbaniya on 18 May the Anglo-Iraqi War was virtually over.[48]

North Africa July 1941 – August 1942

Following the see-saw of Allied and Axis successes and reverses in North Africa, Auchinleck was appointed to succeed General Sir Archibald Wavell as Commander-in-Chief Middle East Command in July 1941;[49] Wavell took up Auchinleck's post as Commander-in-Chief of the Indian Army, swapping jobs with him.[50]

As Commander-in-Chief Middle East Auchinleck, based in Tobruk.[52] The British Chief of Imperial General staff, Alan Brooke, wrote in his diary that it was "Nothing less than bad generalship on the part of Auchinleck".[53] Rommel's attack at the Battle of Gazala of 26 May 1942 resulted in a significant defeat for the British. Auchinlek's appreciation of the situation written to Ritchie on 20 May had suggested that the armoured reserves be concentrated in a position suitable to meet both a flanking attack around the south of the front or a direct attack through the centre (which was the likelihood more favoured by Auchinleck).[54] In the event, Ritchie chose a more dispersed and rearward positioning of his two armoured divisions[55] and when the attack in the centre came, it proved to be a diversion and the main attack, by Rommel's armoured formations, came round the southern flank. Poor initial positioning and subsequent handling and coordination of Allied formations by Ritchie and his corps commanders resulted in their heavy defeat and the Eighth Army retreating into Egypt; Tobruk fell to the Axis on 21 June 1942.[56]

On 24 June Auchinleck stepped in to take direct command of the Eighth Army, having lost confidence in

Military offices
Preceded by
New post
GOC, IV Corps
February 1940 – May 1940
Succeeded by
Francis Nosworthy
Preceded by
New post
GOC, V Corps
June 1940 – July 1940
Succeeded by
Bernard Montgomery
Preceded by
Sir Alan Brooke
GOC-in-C Southern Command
July 1940 – December 1940
Succeeded by
Sir Harold Alexander
Preceded by
Sir Robert Cassels
Commander-in-Chief, India
Succeeded by
Sir Archibald Wavell
Preceded by
Sir Archibald Wavell
Commander-in Chief, Middle East
July 1941 – August 1942
Succeeded by
The Hon. Sir Harold Alexander
Preceded by
Neil Ritchie
Commander-in Chief, Eighth Army
25 June 1942 – 13 August 1942
Succeeded by
Bernard Montgomery
Preceded by
Sir Archibald Wavell
Commander-in-Chief, India
Succeeded by
Sir Rob Lockhart

External links

  • Agar-Hamilton, J.A.I. (1952). Crisis In The Desert May–July 1942. Cape Town: Oxford University Press.  
  • Ammentorp, Steen. "Generals of World War II". Retrieved 28 September 2007. 
  • Houterman, Hans; Koppes, Jeroen. "World War II unit histories and officers". Retrieved 28 September 2007. 

Further reading

  • Barr, Niall (2005). Pendulum Of War: Three Battles at El Alamein. Pimlico.  
  • Bond, Brian; Tachikawa, Kyoichi, eds. (2004). British and Japanese Military Leadership in the Far Eastern War, 1941–1945. London & New York: Frank Cass.  
  • Heathcote, Tony (1999). The British Field Marshals 1736–1997. Barnsley (UK): Pen & Sword.  
  • Mead, Richard (2007). Churchill's Lions: A biographical guide to the key British generals of World War II. Stroud (UK): Spellmount.  
  • Montgomery, Bernard (2005). The Memoirs of Field Marshal Montgomery. Leo Cooper Ltd.  
  • Stewart, Adrian (2010). The Early Battle of Eighth Army: crusader to the Alamein Line 1941–1942. Stackpole Books.  
  • Woodburn Kirby, Major-General S. (2004) [1st. pub.  


  1. ^ FreeBMD Birth Index, 1837–1915. 1884, Q3-Jul–Aug–Sep, A, 9. Auchinleck, Claud John E, Farnham. Vol 2a. Page 95. "Index entry". FreeBMD. ONS. Retrieved 8 September 2011.  (Farnham is the district including Aldershot.)
  2. ^ Warner (1991), p. 131
  3. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 35559. p. 744. 12 May 1942. Retrieved 30 July 2013.
  4. ^ a b The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 36866. p. 3. 29 December 1944. Retrieved 28 November 2009.
  5. ^ a b The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 35019. p. 7109. 20 December 1940. Retrieved 28 November 2009.
  6. ^ a b c The London Gazette: no. 34282. p. 2974. 8 May 1936. Retrieved 28 November 2009.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g Heathcote, p. 30
  8. ^ a b c The London Gazette: no. 34066. p. 4227. 3 July 1934. Retrieved 6 February 2012.
  9. ^ a b The London Gazette: no. 34282. p. 2979. 8 May 1936. Retrieved 28 November 2009.
  10. ^ a b The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 38359. p. 4189. 20 July 1948. Retrieved 28 November 2009.
  11. ^ a b The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 35559. p. 2113. 12 May 1942. Retrieved 28 November 2009.
  12. ^ a b The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 38240. p. 1919. 16 March 1948. Retrieved 28 November 2009.
  13. ^ a b The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 36103. p. 3319. 20 July 1943. Retrieved 7 August 2008.
  14. ^ a b Edinburgh Gazette, 4 September 1917
  15. ^ a b Qureshi, Maj MI. (1958). The First Punjabis: History of the First Punjab Regiment 1759–1956. Aldershot: Gale & Polden.
  16. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 35153. p. 2571. 2 May 1941. Retrieved 28 November 2009.
  17. ^ The London Gazette: no. 34649. p. 5218. 28 July 1939. Retrieved 28 November 2009.
  18. ^ The London Gazette: no. 36532. p. 2443. 26 May 1944. Retrieved 28 November 2009.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h Heathcote, p. 29
  20. ^ The London Gazette: no. 27517. p. 390. 20 January 1903. Retrieved 28 November 2009.
  21. ^ Warner (1991), pp. 131–132
  22. ^ The London Gazette: no. 28376. p. 3640. 24 May 1910. Retrieved 28 November 2009.
  23. ^ The London Gazette: no. 28590. p. 1922. 15 March 1912. Retrieved 28 November 2009.
  24. ^ The London Gazette: no. 30138. p. 6058. 19 June 1917. Retrieved 28 November 2009.
  25. ^ The London Gazette: no. 31123. p. 719. 14 January 1919. Retrieved 28 November 2009.
  26. ^ The London Gazette: no. 32084. p. 9968. 14 October 1920. Retrieved 28 November 2009.
  27. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 31777. p. 1802. 10 February 1920. Retrieved 28 November 2009.
  28. ^  
  29. ^ The London Gazette: no. 33475. p. 1678. 8 March 1929. Retrieved 28 November 2009.
  30. ^ The London Gazette: no. 33600. p. 2596. 25 April 1930. Retrieved 28 November 2009.
  31. ^ The London Gazette: no. 33604. p. 2870. 9 May 1930. Retrieved 28 November 2009.
  32. ^ The London Gazette: no. 33952. p. 4206. 23 June 1933. Retrieved 28 November 2009.
  33. ^ The London Gazette: no. 33976. p. 5864. 8 September 1933. Retrieved 28 November 2009.
  34. ^ The London Gazette: no. 34239. p. 53. 3 January 1936. Retrieved 28 November 2009.
  35. ^ The London Gazette: no. 34275. p. 2490. 17 April 1936. Retrieved 28 November 2009.
  36. ^ The London Gazette: no. 34338. p. 7127. 6 November 1936. Retrieved 28 November 2009.
  37. ^ The London Gazette: no. 34536. p. 4884. 29 July 1938. Retrieved 28 November 2009.
  38. ^ Mackenzie, pp. 1–3
  39. ^ a b Mead, p.52
  40. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 34811. p. 1531. 15 March 1940. Retrieved 28 November 2009.
  41. ^ a b c Heathcote, p. 31
  42. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 34902. p. 4493. 19 July 1940. Retrieved 28 November 2009.
  43. ^ Montgomery, p.71
  44. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 35023. p. 7251. 27 December 1940. Retrieved 28 November 2009.
  45. ^ The London Gazette: no. 35037. p. 158. 7 January 1941. Retrieved 28 November 2009.
  46. ^ The London Gazette: no. 35183. p. 3243. 6 June 1941. Retrieved 28 November 2009.
  47. ^ The London Gazette: no. 37875. p. 662. 7 February 1947. Retrieved 28 November 2009.
  48. ^ Mead, p.53
  49. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 35218. p. 4048. 11 July 1941. Retrieved 28 November 2009.
  50. ^ The London Gazette: no. 35247. p. 4740. 15 August 1941. Retrieved 28 November 2009.
  51. ^ Stewart, p. 46
  52. ^ Heathcote, p. 32
  53. ^ a b Alanbrooke Diaries, 30 January 1942
  54. ^ Warner (1982), pp.181 & 182
  55. ^ Warner (1982), p. 182
  56. ^ Playfair, pp. 261–275
  57. ^ Barr, pp.83–184
  58. ^ Alanbrooke (2001), p. 297
  59. ^ a b Heathcote, p. 33
  60. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 38177. pp. 398–400. 15 January 1948. Retrieved 27 April 2013.
  61. ^ The London Gazette: no. 36133. p. 3653. 13 August 1943. Retrieved 7 August 2008.
  62. ^ Woodburn Kirby, pp. 4–11
  63. ^ a b Mead, p.57
  64. ^ Slim, p.176
  65. ^ Bond, p. 124
  66. ^ Heathcote, p. 34
  67. ^ Warner (1982), p.264
  68. ^ Warner (1982), p.264.
  69. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 37586. p. 2617. 28 May 1946. Retrieved 28 November 2009.
  70. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 37586. p. 2617. 31 May 1946. Retrieved 28 November 2009.
  71. ^ Warner (1982), p. 269
  72. ^ Warner 1982, p. 301.
  73. ^ Warner (1982), p. 289
  74. ^ Warner (1982), p. 291-294
  75. ^ Warner (1982), p. 295
  76. ^ Heathcote, p.35
  77. ^ "Cemetery details—Ben M'Sik European Cemetery". Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 22 April 2009. 
  78. ^ The London Gazette: no. 34066. p. 4222. 3 July 1934. Retrieved 28 November 2009.
  1. ^ Other sources, including the online Dictionary of Ulster Biography, wrongly state that Auchinleck was born in Co Fermanagh, Ulster
  2. ^ Alanbrooke in a footnote to his diary entry of 30 January wrote: "Auchinleck, to my mind, had most of the qualifications to make him one of the finest of commanders, but unfortunately he lacked the most important of all – the ability to select the men to serve him. The selection of Corbett as his Chief of Staff, Dorman-Smith as his chief advisor, and Shearer as his head of intelligence service contributed most of all to his downfall"[53]
  3. ^ Source of quote, Richard Palmer of St Paul's cathedral.


  • Auchinleck, Claude (8 March 1942). Operations in the Middle East 5th July 1941 to 31 October 1942. London: War Office. . (Auchinleck's Official Middle East Despatch published after the war in The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 37695. pp. 4215–4230. 20 August 1946.)
  • Auchinleck, Claude (26 January 1943). Operations in the Middle East 1st November 1941 to 15 August 1942. London: War Office. . (Auchinleck's Official Middle East Despatch published after the war in The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 38177. pp. 309–400. 13 January 1948.)
  • Auchinleck, Claude (22 November 1945). Operations in the Indo-Burma Theatre based on India from 21st June 1943 to 15 November 1943. London: War Office. . (Auchinleck's Official Indo-Burma Despatch published after the war in The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 38274. pp. 2651–2684. 27 April 1948.)


Awards and decorations

A memorial plaque was erected in the crypt of St Paul's Cathedral. The tour guides relate how in 1979, as plaques for the other great Second World War military leaders were being installed, no one in the establishment had been in contact with his family for some years. Cathedral officials telephoned to enquire the date of his death only to be told "Auchinleck here – but I won't be keeping you much longer!"[note 3]

Auchinleck was buried in Ben M'Sik European Cemetery, Casablanca, in the Commonwealth War Graves Commission plot in the cemetery, next to the grave of Raymond Steed who was the second youngest non-civilian Commonwealth casualty of the Second World War.[77]


Auchinleck (right) as C-in-C of the Indian Army, with the then Viceroy Wavell (centre) and Montgomery (left)

After a brief period in Italy in connection with an unsuccessful business project, Auchinleck retired to London, where he occupied himself with a number of charitable and business interests and became a respectably skilled watercolour painter.[74] In 1960 he settled in Beccles in the county of Suffolk, remaining there for seven years until, at the age of eighty-four, he decided to emigrate and set up home in Morocco,[75] where he died on 23 March 1981.[76]

Auchinleck continued as Commander-in-Chief of the Indian Army after the end of the war[69] helping, though much against his own convictions, to prepare the future Indian and Pakistani armies for the Partition of India: in November 1945 he was forced to commute the more serious judicial sentences awarded against officers of the Indian National Army in face of growing unease and unrest both within the Indian population, and the British Indian Army.[59] On 1 June 1946 he was promoted to field marshal,[70] but he refused to accept a peerage, lest he be thought associated with a policy (i.e. Partition) that he thought fundamentally dishonourable.[63] When partition was effected in August 1947, Auchinleck was appointed Supreme Commander of all British forces remaining in India and Pakistan[71] and remained in this role until the winding up and closure of the Supreme H.Q. at the end of November 1948. This marked his effective retirement from the army (although technically field marshals in the British Army never retire, remaining on the active list on half pay[72]). He left India on 1 December.[73]

Partition of India and later years

Auchinleck suffered a personal disappointment when his wife Jessie left him for his friend Air Chief Marshal Sir Richard Peirse. Peirce and Auchinleck had been students together at the Imperial Defence College, but that was long before. Peirse was now Allied Air Commander-in-Chief, South-East Asia, and also based in India. The affair became known to Mountbatten in early 1944, and he passed the information to the Chief of the RAF, Sir Charles Portal, hoping that Peirse would be recalled. The affair was common knowledge by September 1944, and Peirse was neglecting his duties. Mountbatten sent Peirse and Lady Auchinleck back to England on 28 November 1944,[65] where they lived together at Brighton Hotel. Peirse had his marriage dissolved, and Auchinleck obtained a divorce in 1946.[66] Auchinleck was reportedly very badly affected. According to his sister, he was never the same after the break-up.[67] He always carried a photograph of Jessie in his wallet even after the divorce.[68]


"It was a good day for us when he [Auchinleck] took command of India, our main base, recruiting area and training ground. The Fourteenth Army, from its birth to its final victory, owed much to his unselfish support and never-failing understanding. Without him and what he and the Army of India did for us we could not have existed, let alone conquered."[64]
was later to write: Fourteenth Army, commander of the William Slim as [63]Churchill offered Auchinleck command of the newly created
Auchinleck receiving the Star of Nepal in October 1945 from the King of Nepal, Tribhubana Bir Vikram Sah

India 1942–1945

Like his foe Rommel (and his predecessor Wavell and successor Montgomery), Auchinleck was subjected to constant political interference, having to weather a barrage of hectoring telegrams and instructions from Prime Minister Churchill throughout late 1941 and the spring and summer of 1942. Churchill constantly sought an offensive from Auchinleck, and was downcast at the military reverses in Egypt and Cyrenaica. Churchill was desperate for some sort of British victory before the planned Allied landings in North Africa, Operation Torch, scheduled for November 1942. He badgered Auchinleck immediately after the Eighth Army had all but exhausted itself after the first battle of El Alamein. Churchill and the Chief of the Imperial General Staff, Alan Brooke, flew to Cairo in early August 1942, to meet Auchinleck, where it emerged he had lost the confidence of both men.[58] He was replaced as Commander-in-Chief Middle East Command by General Sir Harold Alexander (later Field Marshal Earl Alexander of Tunis).[59]

"The Auk", as he was known, appointed a number of senior commanders who proved to be unsuitable for their positions, and command arrangements were often characterised by bitter personality clashes. Auchinleck was an Indian Army officer and was criticised for apparently having little direct experience or understanding of British and Dominion troops. His controversial chief of operations, Major-General Dorman-Smith, was regarded with considerable distrust by many of the senior commanders in Eighth Army. By July 1942 Auchinleck had lost the confidence of Dominion commanders and relations with his British commanders had become strained.[note 2]


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