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Columbus, Georgia

Columbus, Georgia
Consolidated city-county
Columbus Consolidated Government
Top: Downtown Columbus. Left to right, descending: Chattahoochee RiverWalk, Columbus Consolidated Government Center, Springer Opera House, Columbus Civic Center, Church of the Holy Family, Downtown Columbus in the early 1950s
Top: Church of the Holy Family, Downtown Columbus in the early 1950s

Seal
Nickname(s): The Fountain City or The Lowell of the South
Motto: What Progress Has Preserved

Location in Georgia
Columbus, Georgia
Location in the United States
Coordinates:
Country United States
State Georgia
County Muscogee
Founded 1828
Named for Christopher Columbus
Government
 • Mayor Teresa Tomlinson
Area
 • Total 220.8 sq mi (572 km2)
 • Land 216.1 sq mi (592.1 km2)
 • Water 4.7 sq mi (12.3 km2)
Elevation 243 ft (74 m)
Population (2010)[1]
 • Total 189,885
 • Estimate (2014)[2] 200,887
 • Rank US: 111th
 • Density 861.4/sq mi (332.6/km2)
 • MSA 316,554 (US: 154th)
 • CSA 501,649 (89th)
Time zone EST (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4)
ZIP codes 31820, 31829, 31900-09, 31914, 31917, 31993-94, 31997-99
Area code(s) 706, 762
FIPS code 13-19007
GNIS feature ID 0331158[3]
Airport Columbus Airport-
CSG
Website City of Columbus

Columbus is a city in the Columbus Airport. The current mayor is Teresa Tomlinson, who was elected in November 2010.

In 2007, Best Life magazine ranked Columbus #4 on the Top 100 Places to Raise a Family.[5][6] In 2013, Livability.com ranked Columbus #74 on the Top 100 Best Places to Live in America.[7] In 2011, The Daily Beast ranked Columbus #1 on the list of the 30 Brokest Cities in America,[8][9] which was disputed by the mayor who alleged that the ranking was due to a lawsuit that Columbus is involved in with Expedia, whose management teams share a good deal of overlap with the site.[10] Security company Safemart rated Columbus the most dangerous city in 2013, while a [11] Gallup well-being poll, published in 2014 on Yahoo!, ranked the Columbus area as the seventh-most miserable city in the U.S.[12][13][14] Columbus is the home of the largest urban whitewater course in the world.

Contents

  • History 1
    • Beginnings 1.1
    • Civil War and Reconstruction 1.2
    • Confederate Memorial Day 1.3
    • 20th Century 1.4
    • 21st century 1.5
  • Geography 2
    • Climate 2.1
    • Cityscape 2.2
    • Surrounding cities and towns 2.3
  • Demographics 3
    • Religion 3.1
  • Economy 4
    • Buildings 4.1
    • Top employers 4.2
  • Arts and culture 5
    • Points of interest 5.1
      • Museums 5.1.1
      • Shopping 5.1.2
      • Major venues 5.1.3
      • Historic districts 5.1.4
  • Sports 6
  • Parks and recreation 7
    • Walking trails 7.1
    • Golf 7.2
  • Law and Government 8
    • Elected Officials 8.1
      • Mayor 8.1.1
      • City Council 8.1.2
      • District Attorney 8.1.3
      • Sheriff 8.1.4
      • Tax Commissioner 8.1.5
      • Clerk of Court 8.1.6
    • Crime 8.2
  • Education 9
    • Primary and secondary education 9.1
    • Libraries 9.2
    • Higher education 9.3
      • Public 9.3.1
      • Private, for profit 9.3.2
  • Media and communications 10
    • Newspapers 10.1
    • Magazines 10.2
    • Radio 10.3
      • AM stations 10.3.1
      • FM stations 10.3.2
    • Television 10.4
    • Movie theaters 10.5
  • Infrastructure 11
    • Transportation 11.1
      • Airports 11.1.1
      • Highways 11.1.2
      • U.S. Routes 11.1.3
      • Georgia state routes 11.1.4
      • Public transit 11.1.5
    • Healthcare 11.2
  • Notable people 12
  • Sister cities 13
  • See also 14
  • References 15
  • Sources 16
  • External links 17

History

Beginnings

Downtown in 1880

Founded in 1828 by an act of the Georgia Legislature, Columbus was situated at the beginning of the navigable portion of the Chattahoochee River and on the last stretch of the Federal Road before entering Alabama. The city was named for Christopher Columbus, its founders likely influenced by the writings of Washington Irving. The plan for the city was drawn up by Dr. Edwin L. DeGraffenried, who placed the town on a bluff overlooking the river. Across the river, where Phenix City, Alabama is now located, Creek Indians lived until their removal in 1836.

The river served as Columbus's connection to the world, particularly connecting plantations with the international cotton market via New Orleans and ultimately Liverpool, England. The city's commercial importance increased in the 1850s with the arrival of the railroad. In addition, textile mills began springing up along the river, bringing industry to an area reliant upon agriculture. By 1860, the city was one of the more important industrial centers of the South, earning it the nickname "the Lowell of the South" in deference to the industrial textile mill town in Massachusetts which is also along a river.

Civil War and Reconstruction

Redd House, Columbus, Historic American Buildings Survey

When the Civil War broke out in 1861, the industries of Columbus expanded their production and Columbus became one of the most important centers of industry in the Confederacy. During the war, Columbus ranked second to Richmond in the manufacture of supplies for the Confederate army.[15] In addition to textiles, the city had an ironworks, a sword factory, and a shipyard for the Confederate Navy.

Unaware of Lee's surrender to Grant and the Union detachment under General James H. Wilson attacked the city and burned many of the industrial buildings. The inventor of Coca-Cola, Dr. John Stith Pemberton, was wounded in this battle. The owner of America's last slave ship, Col. Charles Augustus Lafayette Lamar, was also killed here. A historic marker has been erected in Columbus marking the battle by Wilson's troops as the "Last Land Battle in the War from 1861 to 1865."

Reconstruction began almost immediately and prosperity followed. Factories such as the Eagle and Phenix Mills were revived and the industrialization of the town led to rapid growth; the city outgrew its original plan. The Springer Opera House was built on 10th Street, attracting such notables as Oscar Wilde. The Springer is now the official State Theater of Georgia.

By the time of the Spanish American War, the city saw much modernization, including the addition of trolleys extending to outlying neighborhoods such as Rose Hill and Lakebottom, and a new water works. Mayor Lucius Chappell also brought a training camp for soldiers to the area. This training camp named Camp Benning would grow into present-day Fort Benning, named for General Henry L. Benning, a native of the city.

Downtown Columbus in the early 1950s

Confederate Memorial Day

In the spring of 1866 the Macon, Montgomery, Memphis, Richmond, St. Louis, Alexandria, Columbia, and New Orleans.

The date for the holiday was selected by Elizabeth "Lizzie" Rutherford Ellis.[17] She chose April 26, the first anniversary of Confederate General Johnston's final surrender to Union General Sherman at Bennett Place, North Carolina. For many in the South, that act marked the official end of the Civil War.[16]

In 1868, General John A. Logan, commander in chief of the Union Civil War Veterans Fraternity called the Grand Army of the Republic (GAR), launched the Memorial Day holiday that is currently observed in the entire United States. According to General Logan's wife, he emulated the practices of Confederate Memorial Day. She wrote that Logan "said it was not too late for the Union men of the nation to follow the example of the people of the South in perpetuating the memory of their friends who had died for the cause they thought just and right."[18]

20th Century

With the expansion of the city, the need for a university saw the establishment of Columbus College, a two-year institution which would later grow into Columbus State University, now a comprehensive center of higher learning.

The city became consolidated in 1971 and became the first of its kind in Georgia (and one of only 16 in the U.S. at the time).

As the city has turned from its initial industry of textiles, it has provided a home for other prominent industries including the headquarters for Aflac, Synovus, TSYS and Carmike Cinemas.

The Muscogee County Courthouse in 1941, which was demolished in 1970.

During the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s, urban blight, white flight, and prostitution were serious problems in much of downtown Columbus and adjacent neighborhoods. Early efforts to halt the gradual deterioration of downtown began with the saving and restoration of the Springer Opera House in 1965. With the revitalization of the Springer and its subsequent designation as the State Theatre of Georgia, a historic preservation movement was sparked and various historic districts were established in and around downtown. Through the late 1960s and early 1970s, large neighborhoods were built to accompany the soldiers coming back from the Vietnam War and for over from Ft. Benning. These range from Wesley woods to Leesburg to Brittney and Willowbrook and the high end Sears woods and Windsor park. Large tracts of blighted areas were cleaned up and a modern Columbus Consolidated Government Center was constructed in the city center. A significant period of urban renewal and revitalization followed in the mid to late 1990s.

With these improvements, residents and businesses began moving back to formerly blighted areas. Examples of these municipal projects including the construction of a softball complex which hosted the I-185 corridor.

21st century

Alternate seal

During the 2000s, expansion and historic preservation continued throughout the city. An example of this is the revitalization of South Commons, an area which combines the 1996 Olympic softball competition complex, South Columbus, located just outside the Fort Benning main gate.

Columbus has also established itself as a center for the fine and performing arts. RiverCenter for the Performing Arts, which opened in 2002, houses Columbus State University's music department. In 2002 Columbus State's art and drama departments moved to downtown locations. Such initiatives have provided Columbus with a cultural niche and with vibrant and modern architecture mixed among older brick facades.

The "Ready to Raft 2012" campaign is a project that will create 700 new jobs and is estimated to bring in $42 million annually to the Columbus area. The project will result in the longest urban whitewater rafting venue in the world, scheduled for completion in 2012.[19] This, in addition to other outdoor and non-outdoor tourist attractions, led to around 1.8 million visitors coming to Columbus during the fiscal year 2015, according to the Columbus Convention and Visitors Bureau.[20]

In upcoming years, it is predicted that there will be an additional 30,000 soldiers trained at Fort Benning each year due to base realignment and closure.[21] As a result of this, Columbus is expected to see a major population increase.

Geography

Downtown panorama (1840)

Columbus is one of Georgia's three Macon. The fall line is where the hilly lands of the Piedmont plateau meet the flat terrain of the coastal plain. As such, Columbus has a varied landscape of rolling hills on the north side and flat plains on the south. The fall line causes rivers in the area to decline rapidly towards sea level, making it a good location for textile mills in the past. The Chattahoochee is the major river that runs through Columbus.

Georgia State Route 85 run northeast from the city, locally known as Bill Heard Expressway.

The city is located at .[22]

According to the US Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 221.0 square miles (572 km2), of which, 216.3 square miles (560 km2) of it is land and 4.7 square miles (12 km2) of it (2.14%) is water.

Climate

Columbus has a humid subtropical climate according to the Köppen climate classification system. Daytime summer temperatures often reaches a high in the mid 90s, and low temperatures in the winter average in the upper 30s. Columbus is often considered a dividing line or "natural snowline" of the southeastern United States with areas north of the city receiving snowfall annually, with areas to the south typically not receiving snowfall every year or at all. Columbus is within USDA hardiness zone 8b in the city center and zone 8a in the suburbs.
Climate data for Columbus, Georgia
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 83
(28)
83
(28)
89
(32)
94
(34)
97
(36)
106
(41)
105
(41)
104
(40)
100
(38)
96
(36)
86
(30)
82
(28)
106
(41)
Average high °F (°C) 57.5
(14.2)
61.9
(16.6)
69.5
(20.8)
76.7
(24.8)
84.0
(28.9)
90.0
(32.2)
92.2
(33.4)
91.4
(33)
86.4
(30.2)
77.3
(25.2)
68.4
(20.2)
59.2
(15.1)
76.2
(24.6)
Average low °F (°C) 36.8
(2.7)
40.2
(4.6)
46.1
(7.8)
52.5
(11.4)
61.9
(16.6)
69.7
(20.9)
72.9
(22.7)
72.4
(22.4)
66.7
(19.3)
55.6
(13.1)
46.1
(7.8)
38.9
(3.8)
55.0
(12.8)
Record low °F (°C) −2
(−19)
10
(−12)
16
(−9)
28
(−2)
39
(4)
44
(7)
59
(15)
57
(14)
38
(3)
24
(−4)
10
(−12)
4
(−16)
−2
(−19)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 3.85
(97.8)
4.44
(112.8)
5.45
(138.4)
3.55
(90.2)
3.19
(81)
3.72
(94.5)
4.80
(121.9)
3.77
(95.8)
3.06
(77.7)
2.58
(65.5)
4.10
(104.1)
4.27
(108.5)
46.78
(1,188.2)
Average snowfall inches (cm) 0.2
(0.5)
0.1
(0.3)
0.3
(0.8)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0.1
(0.3)
0.7
(1.8)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 10.0 8.6 8.9 7.6 7.6 10.0 11.7 10.7 7.1 6.5 7.8 9.2 105.6
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 0.2 0 0.1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.1 0.4
Source: NOAA (normals 1981−2010),[23] Weather Channel (record highs and lows)[24]

Cityscape

One of Columbus' nicknames: "The Fountain City."

Columbus is divided into five geographic areas:[25]

  • Talbotton Road, on the south by 30th Avenue, on the west by Front Avenue the Chattahoochee River, and on the east by Brown Avenue.
  • I-185 to the west.
Fireworks in Downtown on July 4, 2009
  • I-185 to the east, J.R. Allen Parkway to the north, River Road to the west and Wynnton Road to the south.
  • Manchester Expressway to the south, Moon Road to the east, and J.R Allen Parkway to the west.
  • South Columbus is situated just below MidTown. It is home to the National Infantry Museum, a museum that honors the history of infantry forces in the U.S. Army. The South Columbus area is a tightknit community that struggles with many social ills, such as crime and poverty.
Downtown Columbus at sunset

Surrounding cities and towns

The Alabama. A 2008 Census estimate showed 287,653 in the metro area, with 442,953 in the combined statistical area. Below are the cities in the Columbus CSA:

Demographics

Satellite image of Columbus

As of the 2010 U.S. Census, Columbus had a total population of 189,885, up from 186,291 in the 2000 Census. The 2010 Census reported 189,885 people, 72,124 households, and 47,686 families residing in the city. The population density was 861.4 people per square mile (332.6/km2). There were 82,690 housing units at an average density of 352.3 per square mile (136.0/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 46.3% White, 45.5% African American, 2.2% Asian, 0.2% Native American, 0.14% Pacific Islander, and 1.90% from other races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.4% of the population.

There were 69,819 households out of which 34.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.7% were married couples living together, 19.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 31.7% were non-families. 26.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 3.08.

In the city the population was spread out with 25.6% under the age of 18, 11.9% from 18 to 24, 29.8% from 25 to 44, 19.7% from 45 to 64, and 11.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females there were 94.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.6 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $41,331, and the 2000 median income for a family was 41,244. Males had a median income of $30,238 versus $24,336 for females. The per capita income for the city was $22,514. About 12.8% of families and 15.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.0% of those under age 18 and 12.1% of those age 65 or over.

Religion

Columbus contains approximately 200 Christian churches, with the Southern Baptist Convention being the largest denomination by number of churches.[30] Columbus is also home to three Kingdom Halls for Jehovah's Witnesses, along with three mosques, two synagogues, and a Hindu temple.

Economy

Companies headquartered in Columbus include Aflac, Carmike Cinemas, TSYS, Realtree, Synovus, and the W. C. Bradley Co.

Buildings

Aflac Tower in the Corporate Headquarters Main Campus. Midtown Columbus.

This is a list of the eight tallest buildings in Columbus.[31] [32]

# Name Height in feet Stories Year completed
1 Columbus Consolidated Government Center 235 13
2 Aflac Building 246 19 1975
3 The Ralston Addition 12
4 Corporate Center 129 10
5 The Ralston Addition 110 10 1919
6 The Ralston Addition 9 1941
7 The Ralston 9 1914
8 Columbus Regional Hospital 9

Top employers

According to Columbus's 2009 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report,[33] the top employers in the city are:

# Employer # of Employees
1 Fort Benning 41,462
2 Muscogee County School District 6,200
3 TSYS 4,300
4 Aflac 4,100
5 Columbus-Muscogee County Consolidated Government 2,933
6 Columbus Regional Healthcare System 2,700
7 Blue Cross Blue Shield of Georgia 1,540
8 Pezold Management 1,500
9 St. Francis Hospital 1,470
10 Synovus 1,021

Arts and culture

Points of interest

Museums

Shopping

Columbus is served by one major indoor shopping mall, Peachtree Mall, which is anchored by major department stores Dillard's, Macy's, and J.C. Penney. The total retail floor area is 821,000 square feet (76,300 m2). Major strip malls include Columbus Park Crossing, which opened in 2003, and The Landings, which opened in 2005. Columbus is also served by The Shoppes at Bradley Park, a lifestyle center.

MidTown contains two of the city's early suburban shopping centers (the Village on 13th and St. Elmo), both recently renovated and offering local shops, restaurants, and services.

Major venues

Golden Park, Columbus' oldest baseball park

Below is the list of major venues in the city of Columbus:

Historic districts

Columbus is home to 8 historic districts, all listed in the NRHP. They are as follows:

  • Bibb City Historic District
  • Columbus Historic District
  • Columbus Historic Riverfront Industrial District
  • Dinglewood Historic District
  • Peacock Woods-Dimon Circle Historic District
  • Weracoba-St. Elmo Historic District
  • Wynn's Hill-Overlook-Oak Circle Historic District
  • Wynnton Village Historic District

Sports

Club Sport League Venue Logo
Columbus Cottonmouths Ice hockey Southern Professional Hockey League Columbus Civic Center
Columbus Lions Indoor football American Indoor Football Columbus Civic Center
Columbus State University Cougars Baseball, Basketball, Cross Country, Golf, Softball, Tennis, Track & Field, Volleyball NCAA Division II (Peach Belt Conference) Columbus State University

Parks and recreation

Flat Rock Park

Columbus is home to upwards of fifty parks, four recreation centers, four senior centers and parks, and Lake Oliver), camping, hiking, and hunting.

Walking trails

  • The Chattahoochee RiverWalk is a 15-mile (24 km) long bike trail that connects users from Downtown to South Columbus and the northern section of Fort Benning.
  • The Columbus Fall Line Trace[36] is a fitness trail that runs from Downtown to the northeastern section of the city.[37] The Black Heritage Trail is a Certified National Recreation Trail walking/biking trail of local and national historical significance.

Golf

Columbus is home to the following seven golf courses.[38]

  • Bull Creek Golf Course
  • Country Club of Columbus
  • Follow Me Golf Course (partially; most of the course is located within Fort Benning)
  • Godwin Creek Golf Course
  • Green Island Country Club
  • Maple Ridge Golf Club
  • Oxbow Creek Golf Course

Law and Government

Columbus Consolidated Government Center

Elected Officials

Mayor

City Council

  • Jerry Barnes (District 1)
  • Glenn Davis (District 2)
  • Bruce Huff (District 3)
  • Evelyn Turner-Pugh (District 4)
  • Mike Baker (District 5)
  • R. Gary Allen (District 6)
  • Evelyn Woodson (District 7)
  • C. E. McDaniel (District 8)
  • Judy Thomas (District 9)
  • Berry "Skip" Henderson (District 10)[39]

District Attorney

  • Julia Slater[40]

Sheriff

  • John Darr (2008)[41]

Tax Commissioner

  • Lula Huff[42]

Clerk of Court

  • Linda Pierce[43]

Crime

Columbus
Crime rates (2013)
Crime type Rate*
Homicide: 22
Robbery: 481
Aggravated assault: 483
Total violent crime: 1,022
Burglary: 3,355
Larceny-theft: 8,012
Motor vehicle theft: 1,108
Arson: 37
Total property crime: 12,475
Notes
* Number of reported crimes per 100,000 population.
2013 population: 201,165
Source: 2013 FBI UCR Data

For 2012, Columbus had an overall crime rate of 441.9 per 100,000 residents;[44] this exceeds the national average of 301.1 crimes per 100,000 people by over 75%.

The rate for violent crimes was 620.8 per 100,000, compared to the national average of 301.1 per 100,000; murders and robberies exceeded the national average, while rapes and aggravated assaults were below the national average. Property-crime rates, such as burglaries, larceny and motor vehicle thefts, significantly exceeded the national average (7,229.8 in Columbus, compared to the national average of 3,906.1).

Education

Primary and secondary education

The Muscogee County School District holds pre-school to grade twelve, and consists of thirty-five elementary schools, twelve middle schools, and nine high schools.[45][46] The district has 2,068 full-time teachers and over 32,944 students.[47]

Libraries

Columbus Public Library

Columbus is served by four branches of the Chattahoochee Valley Libraries:

  • Columbus Public Library
  • Mildred L. Terry Public Library
  • North Columbus Public Library
  • South Columbus Public Library

Higher education

Public

Private, for profit

Media and communications

Columbus is served by the (DMA). Charter Communications, Comcast, Knology, and Mediacom provide cable television service. DirecTV and Dish Network provide direct broadcast satellite television to area residents, including both local and national channels.

Newspapers

  • The Ledger-Enquirer, the only daily newspaper in Columbus.
  • The Columbus Times, a weekly publication featuring African-American perspectives of current events.
  • The Bayonet, a weekly publication of news and events in Fort Benning and south Columbus.
  • The Courier and Eco Latino, a biweekly tabloid combining news and opinion about African-American issues with the city's only Spanish-language newspaper.
  • Playgrounds Magazine, a monthly entertainment and arts magazine.
  • The Saber, the Columbus State University campus newspaper.
  • Tid Bits, a weekly publication featuring news throughout the southeast.
  • To Do, a weekly publication featuring current events.

Magazines

  • Columbus and the Valley magazine, a bimonthly business and lifestyle magazine about the Chattahoochee Valley.
  • Valley Parent magazine, a local monthly parenting magazine.

Radio

AM stations

FM stations

Television

Movie theaters

Infrastructure

Transportation

Airports

The following are public general aviation airports that operate in the metropolitan area:

The following are private general aviation airports that operate in the metropolitan area:

  • Harris County Airport (Pine Mountain, Georgia.
  • Jones Light Aviation Airport, located in Smiths Station, Alabama
  • Marion County Airport, located in Buena Vista, Georgia.

The following is a military aviation airport that operates in the metropolitan area:

Highways

South Columbus
  • Interstate 185

U.S. Routes

Georgia state routes

  • S.R. 1
  • S.R. 22
  • S.R. 85
  • S.R. 219
  • S.R. 411
  • S.R. 520
  • S.R. 540

Public transit

METRA bus in MidTown

METRA Transit System is the primary provider of mass transportation in Muscogee County, currently operating nine routes in Columbus. The current public transportation services are operated as a function of the Columbus Consolidated Government under METRA.[49]

Downtown Columbus.[50]

Columbus Airport Shuttle Service provides luxury shuttle service between Columbus, Fort Benning, and the Atlanta Hartsfield International Airport.[51]

Groome Transportation is a ground transportation carrier that operates shuttle and charter services between Columbus and the Atlanta Hartsfield International Airport.[52]

Taxi cab and limousine services are provided by more than two dozen companies throughout the Columbus area.

Healthcare

Doctors Hospital
  • Aflac Cancer Center and Blood Disorders Service
  • Columbus Regional Hospital
  • Columbus Specialty Hospital
  • Doctors Hospital
  • Hughston Orthopedic Hospital
  • Martin Army Community Hospital
  • St. Francis Hospital
  • Veterans Affairs Columbus Clinic
  • West Central Georgia Regional Hospital
  • John B. Amos Cancer Center

Notable people

Sister cities

Columbus has four official sister cities:[53]

See also

  • Downtown Columbus
  • MidTown Columbus
  • List of neighborhoods in Columbus, Georgia
  • List of mayors of Columbus, Georgia
  • List of schools in Muscogee County, Georgia
  • Metro Columbus
  • National Recreation Trail going though the city
Further Reading
  • Our Town: An Introduction to the History of Columbus, Georgia by Roger Harris, 1992, Historic Columbus Foundation
  • Columbus, Georgia (Black America Series) by Judith Grant, 1999, Arcadia Publishing
  • Columbus Celebrates The Millennium: An International Quest (The American Enterprise Series) by Pamela Baker and Delane Chappell, 1999, Community Communications Inc.
  • Yankee Blitzkrieg: Wilson's Raid Through Alabama and Georgia by James Pickett Jones, 2000, University Press of Kentucky
  • Columbus, Georgia in Vintage Postcards (GA) (Postcard History Series) by Kenneth H. Thomas, Jr., 2001, Arcadia Publishing
  • Historic Linwood Cemetery (Images of America: Georgia) by Linda J. Kennedy, 2004, Arcadia Publishing
  • Hell's Broke Loose in Georgia: Survival in a Civil War Regiment by Scott Walker, 2007, University of Georgia Press
  • Lower Chattahoochee River (GA) (Images of America) by The Columbus Museum, 2007, Arcadia Publishing
  • Columbus, Georgia, 1865: The Last True Battle of the Civil War, by Charles A. Misulia, 2010, University of Alabama Press

References

  1. ^
  2. ^
  3. ^
  4. ^
  5. ^ Today.com Best Places To Live 2007
  6. ^ 100-Best Places to Live Retrieved 2009-08-06
  7. ^ Ledger-Enquirer: Columbus appears on list of top 100 best places to live
  8. ^ Daily Beast: The 30 Brokest Cities in America
  9. ^ Ledger-Enquirer: Website ranks Columbus as 'brokest city in America'
  10. ^ http://www.peachpundit.com/2011/11/04/columbus-alleges-daily-beast-article-result-of-expedia-lawsuit/
  11. ^ SafeMart.com rates Columbus the most dangerous city in America
  12. ^ USA Today: Gallup ranks best and worst cities for well-being
  13. ^ Ledger-Enquirer: Recent study names Columbus the 7th most miserable city in U.S.
  14. ^ Yahoo!: America's most miserable cities
  15. ^
  16. ^ a b History of Confederate Memorial Day
  17. ^ New Georgia Encyclopedia, Rutherford, originator of Confederate Memorial Day
  18. ^ Mrs. John A. Logan, Reminiscences of a Soldier's Wife, p. 246.
  19. ^ [1]. Retrieved 2011-22-11.
  20. ^ http://www.ledger-enquirer.com/news/local/article32778276.html
  21. ^ Base Realignment And Closure. Retrieved 2011-04-11.
  22. ^
  23. ^
  24. ^ Average weather for Columbus Weather Channel Retrieved 2012-08-21
  25. ^ All neighborhood info and names taken from Google Maps.
  26. ^ Columbus golf info, Retrieved September 2009
  27. ^
  28. ^
  29. ^
  30. ^ Churches in Columbus Retrieved August 29, 2009
  31. ^
  32. ^
  33. ^ City of Columbus CAFR
  34. ^ http://www.ccssc.org/ Description
  35. ^ Georgia Secretary of State - State Theatre, sos.state.ga.us; retrieved February 2007 (from Springer Opera House).
  36. ^ Columbus "Rails to Trails" Project gets its new name at WTVM.com. Retrieved 2010-07-29.
  37. ^ Trail map. Retrieved 2010-07-29.
  38. ^ Columbus, Georgia Golf Courses. Retrieved 2011-07-10.
  39. ^ Columbus City Council. Retrieved 2010-07-29.
  40. ^ Office of the District Attorney for Chattahoochee Judicial Circuit. Retrieved 2010-07-29.
  41. ^ Muscogee County Sheriff's Office. Retrieved 2010-07-29.
  42. ^ Columbus Consolidated Government City Phone Directory. Retrieved 2010-07-29.
  43. ^ Office of the Clerk of Superior, State and Juvenile Courts of Muscogee County. Retrieved 2010-07-29.
  44. ^
  45. ^ List of schools in Columbus, Retrieved Sept. 2009.
  46. ^ Georgia Board of Education, Retrieved June 24, 2010.
  47. ^ School Stats, Retrieved June 24, 2010.
  48. ^ Official website
  49. ^ METRA History
  50. ^ Columbus Greyhound station
  51. ^ Columbus Airport Shuttle Service
  52. ^ Groome Transportation
  53. ^ Sister City Relationships

Sources

  • [2]

External links

  • Official Homepage
  • Columbus Georgia Consolidated Government
  • Columbus (entry in the New Georgia Encyclopedia)
  •  
  •  
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