World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Girish Karnad

Article Id: WHEBN0001162139
Reproduction Date:

Title: Girish Karnad  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: List of Kannada films of 1999, Kanooru Heggadithi, Samskara (film), Dor (film), Ek Tha Tiger
Collection: 1938 Births, 20Th-Century Indian Male Actors, 20Th-Century Translators, Alumni of Lincoln College, Oxford, Best Director National Film Award Winners, Filmfare Awards South Winners, Filmfare Awards Winners, Hindi-Language Film Directors, Indian Film Directors, Indian Male Film Actors, Indian Rhodes Scholars, Indian Screenwriters, Indian Socialists, Indian Translators, Indian Writers, Kannada Dramatists and Playwrights, Kannada Film Directors, Kannada Literature, Kannada Writers, Konkani People, Living People, Male Actors in Hindi Cinema, Male Actors in Kannada Cinema, Male Actors in Marathi Cinema, Male Actors in Tamil Cinema, National Film Award (India) Winners, People from Karnataka, Recipients of the Jnanpith Award, Recipients of the Padma Bhushan, Recipients of the Padma Shri, Recipients of the Sahitya Akademi Award in Kannada, Recipients of the Sangeet Natak Akademi Fellowship, Translators to English
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Girish Karnad

Girish Karnad
Girish Karnad at Cornell University, 2009
Born Girish Raghunath Karnad
ಗಿರೀಶ್ ಕಾರ್ನಾಡ್
(1938-05-19) 19 May 1938
Matheran, British India (present-day Maharashtra, India)
Occupation Playwright, film director, film actor, poet
Nationality Indian
Alma mater University of Oxford
Genre Fiction
Literary movement Navya
Notable works Tughalak 1964
Taledanda

Girish Raghunath Karnad (Kannada: ಗಿರೀಶ್ ಕಾರ್ನಾಡ್; born 19 May 1938) is an Indian actor, film director, writer[1] and playwright who predominantly works in South Indian cinema. His rise as a playwright in 1960s, marked the coming of age of modern Indian playwriting in Kannada, just as Badal Sarkar did in Bengali, Vijay Tendulkar in Marathi, and Mohan Rakesh in Hindi.[2] He is a recipient of the 1998 Jnanpith Award, a prestigious literary honour conferred in India.[3]

For four decades Karnad has been composing plays, often using history and mythology to tackle contemporary issues. He has translated his plays into English and has received acclaim.[4] His plays have been translated into some Indian languages and directed by directors like Ebrahim Alkazi, B. V. Karanth, Alyque Padamsee, Prasanna, Arvind Gaur, Satyadev Dubey, Vijaya Mehta, Shyamanand Jalan and Amal Allana.[4] He is active in the world of Indian cinema working as an actor, director, and screenwriter, in Hindi and Kannada flicks, earning awards along the way. He was conferred Padma Shri and Padma Bhushan by the Government of India and won four Filmfare Awards where three are Filmfare Award for Best Director - Kannada and one Filmfare Best Screenplay Award.

Contents

  • Early life and education 1
  • Career 2
    • Literature 2.1
    • Movies 2.2
    • Other notable works 2.3
  • Awards and honours 3
  • Controversies 4
  • Personal life 5
  • Activism 6
  • Bibliography 7
    • Plays in Kannada 7.1
    • Plays in English 7.2
  • Filmography 8
    • Movies 8.1
    • TV Series 8.2
  • Movies directed 9
  • Other works 10
  • Works in translation 11
  • Autobiography 12
  • Notes 13
  • References 14
  • Further reading 15
  • External links 16

Early life and education

Girish Karnad was born in Matheran, Maharashtra in a Gowd Saraswat Brahmin(GSB) konkani family to Rao Saheb Dr Karnad and Krishna Bai Mankeekara. Krishna Bai was a widow and was serving as a homemaker for Rao Saheb and his bedridden wife for about five years. Rao Saheb and Krishna Bai married according to Arya Samaj tradition.[5] His initial schooling was in Marathi. In Sirsi, Karnataka, he was exposed to travelling theatre groups, Natak Mandalis as his parents were deeply interested in their plays.[6] As a youngster, Karnad was an ardent admirer of Yakshagana and the theater in his village.[7] His family moved to Dharwar in Karnataka when he was 14 years old, where he grew up with his two sisters and niece.[8]

He earned his Bachelor of Science degree in mathematics and statistics from Karnatak Arts College, Dharwad (Karnataka University), in 1958. Upon graduation Karnad went to England and studied Philosophy, Politics and Economics at Lincoln and Magdalen colleges in Oxford as a Rhodes Scholar (1960–63), earning his Master of Arts degree in philosophy, political science and economics.[4]

Career

After working with the Oxford University Press, Chennai for seven years (1963–70), he resigned to take to writing full-time.[4] While in Madras(now known as Chennai) he got involved with local amateur theatre group, The Madras Players.[9]

During 1987–88, he was at the University of Chicago as visiting professor and Fulbright playwright-in-residence.[4] During his tenure at Chicago Nagamandala had its world premiere at the Guthrie Theater in Minneapolis based on Karnad's English translation of the Kannada original.[10] Most recently, he served as director of the Nehru Centre and as Minister of Culture, in the Indian High Commission, London (2000–2003).

He served as director of the Film and Television Institute of India (1974–1975) and chairman of the Sangeet Natak Akademi, the National Academy of the Performing Arts (1988–93).

Literature

Girish Karnad in 2010

Karnad is known as a playwright. His plays, written in Kannada, have been translated into English and some Indian languages. Karnad's plays are written neither in English, in which he vainly dreamt of earning international literary fame as a poet, nor in his mother tongue Konkani. Instead they are composed in his adopted language Kannada. Initially, his command on Kannada was so poor that he often failed to distinguish between short and long vowels (laghu and deergha). When Karnad started writing plays, Kannada literature was highly influenced by the renaissance in Western literature. Writers would choose a subject which looked entirely alien to manifestation of native soil. C. Rajagopalachari's version of the Mahabharat published in 1951, left a deep impact on him[11] and soon, sometime in the mid-1950s, one day he experienced a rush of dialogues spoken by characters from the Mahabharata in his adopted language Kannada. "I could actually hear the dialogues being spoken into my ears ... I was just the scribe," said Karnad in a later interview. Eventually Yayati was published in 1961, when he was 23 years old. It is based on the story of King Yayati, one of the ancestors of the Pandavas, who was cursed into premature old age by his preceptor, Shukracharya, who was incensed at Yayati's infidelity. Yayati in turn asks his sons to sacrifice their youth for him, and one of them agrees. It ridicules the ironies of life through characters in Mahabharata. It became an instant success, immediately translated and staged in several other Indian languages.[10]

In a situation like that Karnad found a new approach like drawing historical and mythological sources to tackle contemporary themes, and existentialist crisis of modern man, through his characters locked in psychological and philosophical conflicts. His next was Tughlaq (1964), about a rashly idealist 14th-century Sultan of Delhi, Muhammad bin Tughluq, and allegory on the Nehruvian era which started with ambitious idealism and ended up in disillusionment.[11] This established Karnad, now 26 years old, as a promising playwright in the country. It was staged by the National School of Drama Repertory under the direction of Ebrahim Alkazi, with the actor Manohar Singh, playing the visionary king who later becomes disillusioned and turns bitter, amidst the historic Purana Qila in Delhi. It was later staged in London by the National School of Drama for the Festival of India in 1982.[4][10]

Hayavadana (1971) was based on a theme drawn from The Transposed Heads, a 1940 novella by Thomas Mann, which is originally found in the 11th-century Sanskrit text Kathasaritsagara. Herein he employed the folk theatre form of Yakshagana. A German version of the play was directed by Vijaya Mehta as part of the repertoire of the Deutsches National Theatre, Weimar. Naga-Mandala (Play with Cobra, 1988) was based on a folk tale related to him by A. K. Ramanujam, brought him the Karnataka Sahitya Academy Award for the Most Creative Work of 1989. It was directed by J. Garland Wright, as part of the celebrations of the 30th anniversary of Guthrie Theatre, Minneapolis. The theatre subsequently commissioned him to write the play, Agni Mattu Male (The Fire and the Rain). Though before it came Taledanda (Death by Beheading, 1990) which used the backdrop, the rise of Veerashaivism, a radical protest and reform movement in 12th century Karnataka to bring out current issues.[4][12]

Movies

Karnad made his acting as well as screenwriting debut in a Kannada movie, Samskara (1970), based on a novel by U.R. Ananthamurthy and directed by Pattabhirama Reddy. That movie won the first President's Golden Lotus Award for Kannada cinema. Over the years he had acted in a number of Hindi and Kannada feature films and worked with directors like Satyajit Ray, Mrinal Sen and Shyam Benegal.[4] In television, he played the role of Swami's father in the TV series Malgudi Days (1986–1987), based on R. K. Narayan's books.

He made his directorial debut with Vamsha Vriksha (1971), based on a Kannada novel by S.L. Bhairappa. It won him National Film Award for Best Direction along with B. V. Karanth, who co-directed the film. Later, Karnad directed several movies in Kannada and Hindi, including Godhuli (1977) and Utsav (1984). Karnad has made number of documentaries, like one on the Kannada poet D. R. Bendre (1972), Kanaka-Purandara (English, 1988) on two medieval Bhakti poets of Karnataka, Kanaka Dasa and Purandara Dasa, and The Lamp in the Niche (English, 1989) on Sufism and the Bhakti movement. Many of his films and documentaries have won several national and international awards.

Some of his famous Kannada movies include Tabbaliyu Neenade Magane, Ondanondu Kaladalli, Cheluvi and Kaadu and most recent film Kanooru Heggaditi (1999), based on a novel by Kannada writer Kuvempu.

His Hindi movies include Nishaant (1975), Manthan (1976), Swami (1977) and Pukar (2000). He has acted in a number of Nagesh Kukunoor films, starting with Iqbal (2005), where Karnad's role of the ruthless cricket coach got him critical acclaim. This was followed by Dor (2006), 8 x 10 Tasveer (2009), with lead actor Akshay Kumar and Aashayein (2010).

He came back to Hindi movies after three years. He played a key role in Yash Raj Film's movie Ek Tha Tiger.[13]

Karnad has acted in the Kannada gangster movie Aa Dinagalu.

Other notable works

He has been the voice of APJ Abdul Kalam, former President of India, in the audiobook of Kalam's autobiography by Charkha Audiobooks Wings of Fire.

Awards and honours

For literature
For cinema
National Film Awards
Filmfare Awards South
Filmfare Awards
Karnataka State Film Awards
Others
  • Gubbi Veeranna Award
  • Karnad served as the director of the Film and Television Institute of India from 1974–1975, the Indian co-chairman for the Joint Media Committee of the Indo-US Sub-Commission on Education and Culture from 1984–1993, chairman of the Sangeet Natak Academy from 1988–1993, and president of Karnataka Nataka Academy from 1976–1978.
  • Honorary Doctorate from University of Southern California, Los Angeles – 2011[19]

Controversies

At the 2012 TATA Lit Fest held in Mumbai, Karnad was invited to speak about "his life in theater" in an hour-long session. Instead of talking about the subject, he took the opportunity to lash out at VS Naipaul for his "antipathy towards Indian Muslims". VS Naipaul had earlier been conferred the Lifetime achievement award by the festival's organisers. Karnad also criticized the organizers for having honored Naipaul.

The audience, which had gathered to hear Karnad speak, had mixed reactions to the speech. Some, like organizer Anil Dharker, tried ineffectually to steer the speech to more politically correct waters. Others were amused by the episode, and some commented on the research and logic that had gone into the speech (unfortunately overshadowed by its 'scandalous' nature).[20]

Just a few weeks after this, Karnad again created controversy by claiming that Rabindranath Tagore was a second-rate playwright and that his plays were "unbearable".[21][22]

In the run up to the 2014 Lok Sabha elections, Girish Karnad opposed the BJP Prime Ministerial candidate Narendra Modi.

Personal life

Karnad is married to Dr. Saraswathy Ganapathy and they have two children. He lives in Bangalore.[4] Girish Karnad, while working in Madras for Oxford University Press on his return from England,met his future wife Saraswathi Ganapathy at a party. They decided to marry but the marriage was formalised after 10 years, when Karnad was 42 years old. Saraswathi was born to a Parsi mother, Nargis Mugaseth and a Kodava father, Kodandera Ganapathy.[5]

Activism

He is a proponent of multi-culturalism and freedom of expression, Girish Karnad has been a critic of religious fundamentalism and Hindutva in India. He publicly condemned the demolition of Babri Masjid in 1992 and later spoke against the attempts to create controversy about the Idgah Maidan in Hubli.[4] He is a proponent of secularism and has opposed RSS, BJP and other Hindu organizations on several occasions. He has opposed Narendra Modi for Prime Minister post in the 2014 parliament elections.

Bibliography

Plays in Kannada

  • "Maa Nishaadha" (One Act Play)
  • "Yayati" (1961)[23]
  • "Tughlaq" (1964) (translated in Hindustani by B.V. Karanth. Major Indian directors who have staged it: Ebrahim Alkazi, Prasanna, Arvind Gaur, Dinesh Thakur & Shyamanand Jalan (in Bengali).
  • "Hayavadana" (1972)
  • "Anjumallige" (1977)
  • "Hittina Hunja" aka "Bali" (The Sacrifice) (1980)
  • "Nagamandala" (1988) (Play with Cobra)
  • "Taledanda" (1990) (Death by Beheading), in Hindi it is known as Rakt-Kalyan translated by Ram Gopal Bajaj, first directed by Ebrahim Alkazi for NSD rep., then by Arvind Gaur (1995–2008, still running) for Asmita Theater Group, New Delhi.[24]
  • "Agni mattu Male" (1995) (Agni Aur Varsha, The Fire and the Rain), first directed by Prasanna for NSD Rep.
  • "Tippuvina Kanasugalu" (The Dreams of Tipu Sultan)
  • "Odakalu Bimba" (2006) (Hindi, Bikre Bimb; English, A heap of Broken Images)
  • "Maduve Album" (2006)
  • "Flowers" (2012)
  • "Benda Kaalu on Toast" (2012)

Plays in English

  • Collected Plays, Vol.1, Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 2005

(Tughlag, Hayavadana, Bali: The Sacrifice, and Naga Mandala)

  • Collected Plays Vol.2, Oxford University Press, 2005.

(Tale-Danda, The Fire and the Rain, The Dreams of Tippu Sultan, Two Monologues: Flowers and Broken Images)

  • Yayati, Oxford University Press, 2008.
  • Wedding Album, Oxford University Press, 2009.
  • Boiled Beans on Toast, Oxford University Press, 2014.

Filmography

Movies

  1. Dheera Rana Vikrama (2015)
  2. Rudra Tandava (2015)
  3. Samrat & Co. (2014)
  4. Yaare Koogadali (2012)
  5. Mugamoodi (Tamil) (2012)
  6. Ek Tha Tiger (2012)
  7. Kempe Gowda (2011) as Gowda (Kavya's father)
  8. Narthagi (Tamil) (2011)
  9. Komaram Puli (2010) Telugu
  10. Life Goes On (2009) as Sanjay
  11. Aashayein (2009) (completed) as Parthasarthi
  12. 8 x 10 Tasveer (2009) as Anil Sharma
  13. Aa dinagalu Kannada (2007) as Girish nayak
  14. Tananam Tananam Kannada (2006) as Shastry
  15. Dor (2006) as Randhir Singh
  16. Iqbal (2005) as Guruji
  17. Shankar Dada MBBS (Telugu) (2004) as Satya Prasad
  18. Chellamae (Tamil) (2004) as Rajasekhar
  19. Hey Ram (Tamil) (2000) as Uppilli Iyengar
  20. Pukar (2000) as Mr. Rajvansh
  21. Prathyartha (1999) as Home Minister of India
  22. Aakrosh: Cyclone of Anger (1998) as Rajwansh Shashtri
  23. China Gate (1998) as Forest Officer Sunder Rajan
  24. Minsaara Kanavu (Tamil) (1997) as Amal Raj
  25. Ratchagan (Tamil) (1997) as Sriram
  26. The Prince (1996) as Vishwanath. Malayalam film
  27. Aatank (1996) as Inspector Khan
  28. Dharma Chakram (1996)
  29. Sangeetha Sagara Ganayogi Panchakshara Gavai (1995)
  30. Aagatha (Kannada) (1994) as Psychiatrist
  31. Kadhalan (Tamil) (1994) as Kakarla
  32. Praana Daata (1993)
  33. Cheluvi (1992) as Village Headman
  34. Guna (1991)
  35. Antarnaad (1991)
  36. Brahma (1991)
  37. Chaithanya (1991)
  38. AK-47 (1990)
  39. Nehru: The Jewel of India (1990)
  40. Santha Shishunala Sharifa (Kannada) (1990) as Govindabhatta
  41. Mil Gayee Manzil Mujhe (1989)
  42. Akarshan (1988)
  43. Sutradhar (1987) as Zamindar
  44. Naan Adimai Illai (1986) as Rajinikanth's Father-in-law
  45. Nilakurinhi Poothappol (Malyalam) (1986) as Appu Menon
  46. Sur Sangam (1985) as Pandit Shivshankar Shastri
  47. Meri Jung (1985) as Deepak Verma
  48. Zamana (1985) as Satish Kumar
  49. Nee Thanda Kanike (Kannada) (1985)
  50. Divorce (1984) as Jayant Oswal
  51. Tarang (1984) as Dinesh
  52. Ek Baar Chale Aao (1983) as Din Dayal
  53. Ananda Bhairavi' (1983) as Narayana Sarma
  54. Teri Kasam (1982) as Rakesh
  55. Aparoopa (Assamese) (1982)
  56. Umbartha (Marathi) (1982) as Advocate Subhash Mahajan
  57. Shama (1981) as Nawab Yusuf Khan
  58. Apne Paraye (1980) as Harish
  59. Man Pasand (1980) as Kashinath
  60. Aasha (1980) as Deepak
  61. Anveshane (Kannada) (1980)
  62. Beqasoor (1980) as Dr. Anand Bhatnagar
  63. Ratnadeep (1979)
  64. Sampark (1979) as Heera
  65. Jeevan Mukt (1977) as Amarjeet
  66. Swami (1977) as Ghanshyam
  67. Manthan (1976) as Dr.Rao
  68. Nishaant (1975) as Schoolmaster
  69. Jadu Ka Shankh (1974)
  70. Vamsha Vriksha (1971)
  71. Samskara (1970) as Praneshacharya

TV Series

  1. Malgudi Days (1987) as Swami's Father

Movies directed

Other works

  • Evam Indrajit (English) by Badal Sircar. Tr. by Girish Karnad. 1974.

Works in translation

  • Yayati. Oxford University Press.
  • Yayati (Hindi). Tr. by B. R. Narayan. Rajkamal Prakashan Pvt Ltd, 2008. ISBN 81-7119-627-6.
  • Tughlaq: A play in 13 scenes, Oxford Univ. Press, 1972
  • Hayavadana, Oxford University Press, 1975.
  • Tughlaq (Marathi), Tras. Vijay Tendulkar. Popular Prakashan Pvt. Ltd. ISBN 81-7185-370-6.
  • Three Plays: Naga-Mandala; Hayavadana; Tughlaq. Oxford University Press, 1996. ISBN 0-19-563765-8.
  • Tughlaq (Hindi). Tr. by B. V. Karanth. Rajkamal Prakashan Pvt Ltd, 2005. ISBN 81-7119-790-6.
  • Collected plays Vol 1: Tuglaq, Hayavadana, Bali: The Sacrifice, Naga-Mandala. Oxford University Press. 2005. ISBN 0-19-567310-7.
  • Collected Plays: Taledanda, the Fire and the Rain, the Dreams of Tipu Sultan, Flowers and Images: Two Dramatic Monologues: Flowers : Broken Images, Vol. 2. Oxford University Press, USA. 2005. ISBN 0-19-567311-5.
  • Three plays by Girish Karnad. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-563765-8.

Autobiography

  • Aadaadtha Aayushya. Manohara Grantha Mala, 2011

Notes

  1. ^ "Sahitya Akademi : Who's Who of Indian Writers". Sahitya Akademi. Sahitya Akademi. Retrieved 27 October 2015. 
  2. ^ "Drama between the lines".  
  3. ^ "Jnanpith for Dr Girish Karnad".  
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k AWARDS: The multi-faceted playwright Frontline, Vol. 16, No. 3, 30 Jan.–12 Feb 1999.
  5. ^ a b http://www.ourkarnataka.com/Articles/starofmysore/gkarnad.htm
  6. ^ Kumar, p.115
  7. ^ "Conversation with Girish Karnad". Bhargavi Rao on  
  8. ^ "Conversation: ‘I wish I were a magician’". Livemint. 11 October 2013. Retrieved 2013-10-12. 
  9. ^ Sachindananda, p. 57
  10. ^ a b c "PROFILE: GIRISH KARNAD: Renaissance Man".  
  11. ^ a b Sachindananda, p. 58
  12. ^ Don Rubin (1998). The World Encyclopedia of Contemporary Theatre: Asia. Taylor & Francis. p. 196.  
  13. ^ http://informationmadness.com/entertainment/bollywood/4640-ek-tha-tiger-theatrical-trailer-with-salman-a-katrina.html
  14. ^ a b "Padma Awards" (PDF). Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. 2015. Retrieved July 21, 2015. 
  15. ^ "USC News". Mobile.usc.edu. 14 April 2011. Retrieved 26 February 2012. 
  16. ^ "25th National Film Awards".  
  17. ^ "25th National Film Awards (PDF)" (PDF).  
  18. ^ Biography and plays of Girish Karnad
  19. ^ http://www.sify.com/movies/honorary-doctorate-for-karnad-news-kannada-lcvpKQchdih.html
  20. ^ Girish Karnad slams V S Naipaul for his anti-Islam views, questions his Mumbai fest award, Indian Express, 3 November 2012.
  21. ^ [2]Deccan Chronicle.
  22. ^ "Rabindranath Tagore a 'second-rate playwright', Girish Karnad says". The Times of India. Retrieved 9 November 2012. 
  23. ^ Kumar, p. 114
  24. ^ Drama critics. "Girish Karnad's Rakt Kalyan (Tale-Danda)". Retrieved 25 December 2008. 

References

  • Nand Kumar (2003). "Myths in the Plays of Girish Karnad". Indian English Drama. Sarup & Sons.  
  • Sachindananda (2006). "Girish Karnad". Authors speak. Sahitya Akademi.  
  • Dr. Prafull D. Kulkarni (2010). The Dramatic World of Girish Karnad. Creative Books Nanded.  
  • Dr. Prafull D. Kulkarni (2010). The Enchanting World of Indian English Drama A Socio-Cultural Review. Lulu, USA.  

Further reading

  • Jaydipsinh Dodiya, ed.,The Plays of Girish Karnad: Critical Perspectives Prestige Books, New Delhi, 1999.
  • Pradeep Trikha, Multiple Celebrations, Celebrating Multiplicity in Girish Karnad – A Monograph
  • Chhote Lal Khatri, Girish Karnad: Naga-mandala : a critique. Prakash Book Depot, 2006. ISBN 81-7977-165-2.
  • Dr. Prafull D. Kulkarni, The Dramatic World of Girish Karnad. Creative Books Nanded, 2010. ISBN 978-81-906717-5-0.
  • P Dhanavel, The Indian Imagination of Girish Karnad, Prestige Books, New Delhi, 2000.
  • G Baskaran, ed., Girish Karnad and Mahesh Dattani: Methods and Motives, Yking Books, Jaipur, 2012.
  • Vanashree Tripathi, Three Plays of Girish Karnad: Hayavadana, Tale-Danda, The Fire and the Rain, Prestige Books, New Delhi, 2004.
  • Neeru Tandon (2006). "Myth and Folklore in Girish Karnad's Fire and the Rain". Perspectives and challenges in Indian-English drama. Atlantic Publishers & Dist.  

External links

  • Profile of Girish Karnad
  • Girish Karnad at the Internet Movie Database
  • Profile of Girish Karnad on Virtual Bangalore
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Hawaii eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.