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List of heads of state of the Soviet Union

 

List of heads of state of the Soviet Union

Heads of state of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Residence Grand Kremlin Palace, Moscow
Precursor None
Formation 30 December 1922
First holder Mikhail Kalinin
Final holder Mikhail Gorbachev
Abolished 25 December 1991
Succession President of the Russian Federation

The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). The Chairman of these bodies performed the largely ceremonial functions of a head of state[1] but held little real power.

The Soviet Union was established in 1922. However, the country's first constitution was adopted in 1924. Before that time, the 1918 Constitution of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic was adopted as the constitution of the USSR. According to the 1918 Constitution, the All-Russian Central Executive Committee (CEC), whose chairman was head of state, had the power to determine what matters of income and taxation would go to the state budget and what would go to the local Soviets. The CEC could also limit taxes.[2] In periods between convocations of the Congress of Soviets the CEC held supreme power.[3] In between sessions of the Congress of Soviets the CEC was responsible for all the affairs of the Congress of Soviets.[4] The CEC and the Congress of Soviets was replaced by the Presidium and the Supreme Soviet by several amendments to the 1936 constitution in 1938.[5]

The

  1. ^
  2. ^ Всероссийский съезд Советов. Статья №81 от 10 июля 1918 г. «Бюджетное право». (All-Russian Congress of Soviets. Article #81 of 10 July 1918 The Budget. ).
  3. ^ Всероссийский съезд Советов. Статья №30 от 10 июля 1918 г. «О Всероссийском съезде Советов рабочих, крестьянских, казачьих и красноармейских депутатов». (All-Russian Congress of Soviets. Article #30 of 10 July 1918 The All-Russian Congress of Soviets of Workers', Peasants', Cossacks', and Red Army Deputies. ).
  4. ^ Всероссийский съезд Советов. Статья №29 от 10 июля 1918 г. «О Всероссийском съезде Советов рабочих, крестьянских, казачьих и красноармейских депутатов». (All-Russian Congress of Soviets. Article #29 of 10 July 1918 The All-Russian Congress of Soviets of Workers', Peasants', Cossacks', and Red Army Deputies. ).
  5. ^ a b c d Съезд Советов СССР. Статья №30–56 от 10 июля1918 г. «Высшие органы государственной власти Союза Советских Социалистических Республик». (Congress of Soviets of the Soviet Union. Article #30–56 of 10 July 1918 The Highest Organs of State Authority of The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. ).
  6. ^ Верховный Совет СССР. Статья №120 от 7 октября 1977 г. «Верховный Совет СССР». (Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union. Article #120  The Supreme Soviet of the USSR. ).
  7. ^
  8. ^
  9. ^ Верховный Совет СССР. Статья №127.1 от 26 декабря 1990 г. «Президент СССР». (Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union. Article #127.1 of 26 December 1990 President of the USSR. ).
  10. ^
  11. ^
  12. ^ a b
  13. ^
  14. ^
  15. ^ a b
  16. ^
  17. ^
  18. ^ a b c d
  19. ^ a b
  20. ^
  21. ^ a b c
  22. ^
  23. ^
  24. ^ a b
  25. ^
  26. ^
  27. ^ a b

References

  1. ^ a b Repeat head of state and vice heads of state are numbered only once; subsequent terms are marked with their original number italicised. Acting heads of state are not numbered. These numbers are not official.
  2. ^ a b A convocation in the Soviet sense of the word were elected members of Parliament in between elections.
  3. ^ On 15 March 1990 most constitutional powers were transferred to the newly created office of President of the Soviet Union. Anatoly Lukyanov was elected Chairman of the Supreme Soviet to replace Mikhail Gorbachev. Although the Chairman's office retained its name, it was now that of a parliamentary speaker, not a head of state. Real executive powers were retained by Gorbachev.[22]
  4. ^ Yanayev was Acting President of the Soviet Union during the August Coup of 1991, but was jailed following the coup's collapse and Gorbachev returned to his post as President.[26]
  5. ^ Following the failed August Coup of 1991 the State Council was given the power to elect a Vice President in the temporary absence of the President.[27]

Notes

Russia-related
Soviet Union-related
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
the Soviet Union
 

See also


[note 1]
Name
(Birth–Death)
Portrait Term of office Convocations
[note 2]
First Vice Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (1977–1989)
1 Vasili Kuznetsov
(1901–1990)[18]
7 October 1977 – 18 June 1986 9th11th Convocation
2 Pyotr Demichev
(1917–2010)[23]
18 June 1986 – 1 October 1988 11th Convocation
3 Anatoly Lukyanov
(1930–)[24]
1 October 1988 – 25 May 1989 11th12th Convocation
Vice Chairman of the Supreme Soviet (1989–1990)
Anatoly Lukyanov
(1930–)[24]
25 May 1989 – 15 March 1990 12th Convocation
Vice President (1990–1991)
4 Gennady Yanayev
(1937–2010)[25]
27 December 1990 – 21 August 1991[note 4] 12th Convocation
Office abolished[27] 21 August 1991 – 26 December 1991[note 5]

There have been four individuals appointed vice head of state. At over eight years, Vasily Kuznetsov spent the longest time in office. Gennady Yanayev spent the shortest time in office.

Vice heads of state of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Gennady Yanayev
Residence Grand Kremlin Palace, Moscow
Formation 7 October 1977
First holder Vasili Kuznetsov
Final holder Gennady Yanayev
Abolished 21 August 1991

List of vice heads of state


[note 1]
Name
(Birth–Death)
Portrait Term of office Convocations
[note 2]
1
Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the Congress of Soviets (1922–1938)
Mikhail Kalinin
(1875–1946)[12]
30 December 1922 – 12 January 1938 1st8th Convocation
Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (1938–1989)
Mikhail Kalinin
(1875–1946)[12]
17 January 1938 – 19 March 1946 1st Convocation
2 Nikolay Shvernik
(1888–1970)[13]
A picture taken by the Soviet Government of Nikolai Shvernik in grey 19 March 1946 – 6 March 1953 2nd3rd Convocation
3 Kliment Voroshilov
(1881–1969)[14]
A photo taken in 1937 of Kliment Voroshilov 15 March 1953 – 7 May 1960 3rd5th Convocation
4 Leonid Brezhnev
(1906–1982)[15]
An official portrait of Leonid Brezhnev dating back to 1977 7 May 1960 – 15 July 1964 5th6th Convocation
5 Anastas Mikoyan
(1895–1978)[16]
15 July 1964 – 9 December 1965 6th Convocation
6 Nikolai Podgorny
(1903–1983)[17]
Nikolai Podgorny as depicted during his visit to the German Democratic Republic in 1963 9 December 1965 – 16 June 1977 6th9th Convocation
(4) Leonid Brezhnev
(1906–1982)[15]
An official portrait of Leonid Brezhnev dating back to 1977 16 June 1977 – 10 November 1982 9th10th Convocation
Vasili Kuznetsov
(1901–1990)[18]
10 November 1982 – 16 June 1983 10th Convocation
7 Yuri Andropov
(1914–1984)[19]
Yuri Andropov as seen in 1963 in the German Democratic Republic 16 June 1983 – 9 February 1984
Vasili Kuznetsov
(1901–1990)[18]
9 February 1984 – 11 April 1984 11th Convocation
8 Konstantin Chernenko
(1911–1985)[19]
Chernenko as depicted during Nicolae Ceauşescu's state visit to Moscow 11 April 1984 – 10 March 1985
Vasili Kuznetsov
(1901–1990)[18]
10 March 1985 – 27 July 1985
9 Andrei Gromyko
(1909–1989)[20]
Gromyko at the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe 27 July 1985 – 1 October 1988
10 Mikhail Gorbachev
(1931–)[21]
Mikhail Gorbachev as depicted during his state visit to the United States in 1987 1 October 1988 – 25 May 1989 11th12th Convocation
Chairman of the Supreme Soviet (1989–1990)[note 3]
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1931–)[21]
Mikhail Gorbachev as depicted during his state visit to the United States in 1987 25 May 1989 – 15 March 1990 12th Convocation
President (1990–1991)
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1931–)[21]
Mikhail Gorbachev as depicted during his state visit to the United States in 1987 15 March 1990 – 25 December 1991 12th Convocation
. At over twenty years, Kalinin spent the longest time in office; he died shortly after his resignation in 1946. Andropov spent the shortest time in office. Treaty on the Creation of the USSR, who was inaugurated in 1922 after the Mikhail Kalinin). The first head of state was Mikhail Gorbachev), and four held posts of party leader and head of state simultaneously (Brezhnev, Andropov, Chernenko and Vasili Kuznetsov), one held the position in a temporary role (Konstantin Chernenko and Yuri Andropov, Leonid BrezhnevOf the eleven individuals appointed head of state, three died in office of natural causes (

List of heads of state

Contents

  • List of heads of state 1
    • List of vice heads of state 1.1
  • See also 2
  • Notes 3
  • References 4

The Presidency was established in 1990 and the President would, according to the altered constitution, be elected by the Soviet people by direct and secret ballot. However, the first and only Soviet President, Mikhail Gorbachev, was elected by the democratically-elected Congress of People's Deputies.[8] In connection with the dissolution of the Soviet Union national elections for the office of President never took place. To be elected to the office a person must have been a Soviet citizen and older than thirty-five but younger than sixty-five years. The same person could not be elected president for more than two terms.[9] The Presidency was the highest state office, and was the most important office in the Soviet Union by influence and recognition, eclipsing that of Premier and General Secretary. With the establishment of the Presidency executive power was shared between the President and the Prime Minister. The Presidency was given broad powers, such as being responsible for negotiating the membership of the Cabinet of Ministers with the Supreme Soviet;[10] the Prime Minister, however, was responsible for managing the nomenklatura and economic matters.[11]

[7] (CPSU).Communist Party of the Soviet Union of the General Secretary's rule, the Chairman of the Presidium had very little power because supreme power was in the hands of the Joseph Stalin Just as with the CEC under [6], elected by the deputies of the Supreme Soviet.1977 Soviet Constitution The Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, along with the first and fifteen other vice chairmen, were, according to the [5] the Presidium could form a conciliation commission. If this commission failed the Presidium could dissolve the Supreme Soviet and order new elections.Soviet of Nationalities and the Soviet of the Union In the event of a disagreement between the [5].Union Republic Sessions of the Supreme Soviet were convened by the Presidium twice a year; however, special sessions could be convened on the orders of a [5]

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