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Newington, London

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Title: Newington, London  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Walworth, Surrey, William John Swainson, William Jowett, John Thwaites (British politician)
Collection: Areas of London, Districts of Southwark, Parishes Governed by Vestries (Metropolis)
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Newington, London


Trinity Church Square forms part of a conservation area
Newington is located in Greater London
 Newington shown within Greater London
OS grid reference
London borough Southwark
Ceremonial county Greater London
Region London
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town LONDON
Postcode district SE1, SE17
Dialling code 020
Police Metropolitan
Fire London
Ambulance London
EU Parliament London
UK Parliament North Southwark and Bermondsey
London Assembly Lambeth and Southwark
List of places

Newington is a district of central London, England, and part of the London Borough of Southwark. It was an ancient parish and the site of the early administration of the county of Surrey. It was the location of the County of London Sessions House from 1917, in a building now occupied by the Inner London Crown Court.


  • History 1
    • Toponymy 1.1
    • Urban development 1.2
    • Local governance 1.3
  • Ecclesiastical parish 2
  • Politics 3
  • People 4
  • Geography 5
  • References 6
  • External links 7



The name means "new farmstead" or the newer part of the manor of Walworth but because of its position on the principal road to the south-coast (Stane Street) subsumed it. The first mention of Newington (or Neweton) occurs in the Testa de Nevill (a survey of feudal tenure officially known as the Book of Fees compiled 1198-1242) during the reign of Henry III, wherein it is stated that the queen's goldsmith holds of the king one acre of land in Neweton, by the service of rendering a gallon of honey.[1] In 1313 it is mentioned again in the Archbishop of Canterbury's Register as Newington juxta London.[1] The name survives now in the street names Newington Causeway and Newington Butts and in the open space Newington Gardens, formerly the location of Horsemonger Lane Gaol from 1791. Newington Ward is one of three local council wards in Walworth, covering the area from the West side of Walworth road up to the border with Lambeth.

Urban development

The area remained as a farming village with a low level of population until the second half of the 18th century. There was a little industry, for example, the manufacture of Elephant and Castle which then became a name to signify the area. Traffic heading to the south-east from the West End was connected to the older route from the City of London and Southwark to Kent as New Kent Road from Newington to a junction with the older route at the Bricklayers Arms. New roads brought development opportunities. The local landowner, Henry Penton (MP for Winchester), started to sell some of his farmland. The 19th century brought more dense speculative house building, and some philanthropic provision too. The Trinity House Newington Estate, laid out on property the institution was left in the seventeenth century, became a high class residential district which is still largely in existence. It was built around an 1820s classical church by Francis Octavius Bedford.

Further urban stimulus was given by the arrival of mainline railway routes from the City to the south, the London, Chatham and Dover Railway built a station at Elephant and Castle in 1863. In 1890 the City and South London Railway (now the Northern Line City Branch of London Underground) was projected through the area with stations at what was termed 'Kennington' (but in fact within Newington) and also at Elephant. In 1906 the new Bakerloo line terminated at the Elephant also.

Local governance

The parish of Newington St Mary was part of the Metropolitan Borough of Southwark and the vestry was abolished. The civil parish was finally abolished in 1930. The parish was of 633 acres (2.56 km2) and the population peaked in 1901 at 121,863.[2]

Newington is a ward within the London Borough of Southwark and the Parliamentary seat of Bermondsey and Old Southwark. It is represented by Councillors Neil Coyle and Patrick Diamond of the Labour Party and Catherine Bowman of the Liberal Democrats.

Ecclesiastical parish

The ancient parish, dedicated to St Mary, was in the Diocese of Winchester until 1877, then the Diocese of Rochester until 1905, and then finally in the Diocese of Southwark. From 1826, as the population of Newington increased, a number of new parishes were formed:[3]

  • Holy Trinity, Newington in 1826
  • St Peter, Walworth in 1826
  • St Paul, Newington in 1857
  • St John, Walworth in 1860
  • All Saints, Newington in 1866
  • St Matthew, Newington in 1868
  • St Mark, Walworth in 1870
  • St Stephen, Walworth Common in 1871
  • All Souls, Grosvenor Park in 1871
  • St Andrew, Newington in 1877

In addition, as the population of neighbouring areas increased, parts of Newington parish were included in new parishes:

  • St Agnes, Kennington Park in 1874 with parts of St Mary, Lambeth
  • St Mark, Camberwell in 1880 with parts of St Giles, Camberwell


A map showing the Newington wards of Southwark Metropolitan Borough as they appeared in 1916.

Under the Metropolis Management Act 1855 any parish that exceeded 2,000 ratepayers was to be divided into wards; as such the incorporated vestry of St Mary Newington was divided into four wards (electing vestrymen): No. 1 or St Mary's (18), No. 2 or Trinity (18), No. 3 or St Paul's (15) and No. 4 or St Peter's (21).[4][5]

In 1894 as its population had increased the incorporated vestry was re-divided into five wards (electing vestrymen): St Mary's (15), St Paul's (12), St Peter's (15), St John's (18) and Trinity (12).[6][7]


The scientist Michael Faraday was born here, in Newington Butts, in 1791. Charles Babbage the promoter of the first computing machine in Walworth Road; William Jowett, a 19th-century missionary and author, was born at Newington in 1787,[8] as was the visionary English artist Samuel Palmer in 1805 in Surrey Square. Also born here was William John Swainson, the ornithologist and renowned natural history artist (1789-1855).


Nearest places:

Nearest tube stations:

Nearest railway stations:


  1. ^ a b Weinreb, Hibbert, Keay & Keay (2008). The London Encyclopaedia. Macmillan. p. 587.  
  2. ^
  3. ^ [2], 'Parishes: Newington', A History of the County of Surrey: Volume 4 (1912), pp. 74-77. Date accessed: 10 March 2014.
  4. ^ The London Gazette Issue: 21802. 20 October 1855. pp. 3882–3883. Retrieved 8 April 2015. 
  5. ^ "H.M.S.O. Boundary Commission Report 1885 Newington Map". Vision of Britain. Retrieved 8 April 2015. 
  6. ^ The London Gazette Issue: 26542. 14 August 1894. pp. 4719–4720. Retrieved 8 April 2015. 
  7. ^ The London Gazette Issue: 26563. 23 October 1894. p. 5943. Retrieved 8 April 2015. 
  8. ^ Goodwin, G., revised by H. C. G. Matthew, 'Jowett, William (1787–1855), missionary', in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford University Press, 2004)

External links

  • Newington, Southwark — Hidden London
  • Walworth, Newington and Elephant & Castle suburban development
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