World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Pea Ridge National Military Park

Article Id: WHEBN0000313397
Reproduction Date:

Title: Pea Ridge National Military Park  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Museums in Benton County, Arkansas, DeGray Lake, Lake Ouachita, Protected areas established in 1956, U.S. Route 62 in Arkansas
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Pea Ridge National Military Park

Pea Ridge National Military Park
IUCN category V (protected landscape/seascape)
Map showing the location of Pea Ridge National Military Park
Map showing the location of Pea Ridge National Military Park
Location Sugar Creek Township / Garfield Township, Benton County, Arkansas, USA
Nearest city Garfield, Arkansas
Area 4,300 acres (1,700 ha)[1]
Authorized July 20, 1956 (1956-July-20)
Visitors 114,234 (in 2011)[2]
Governing body National Park Service
Designated: October 15, 1966
Reference No. 66000199[3]
Built: 1862

Pea Ridge National Military Park is a United States National Military Park located in extreme northwestern Arkansas near the Missouri border. The park protects the site of the American Civil War Battle of Pea Ridge which was fought March 7 and March 8, 1862. The battle was a victory for the Union, and helped it gain control of the crucial border state of Missouri.

The 4,300-acre (17 km2) Pea Ridge National Military Park was created by an act of Congress in 1956 to preserve the battlefield of the 1862 Battle of Pea Ridge. It was dedicated as a national park during the nation’s Civil War Centennial in 1963.[4]

In 1956, the Arkansas congressional delegation proposed legislation to make Pea Ridge a national military park. This was a major breakthrough in Civil War battlefield preservation. At that time, under the National Park Service classification system, only 1-acre (4,000 m2) should have been preserved, along with a monument. On July 20, 1956, Congress enacted legislation to accept a 5,000-acre (20 km2) donation from the state of Arkansas.[4]

Elkhorn Tavern, center of day two's fighting
In acquiring the land for the park, the government purchased or used eminent domain on dozens of farms and residences of various sizes, ranging from a few acres to the large Winton Springs estate. Many of the houses and structures were sold and moved off of park property, including some that still stand in nearby Pea Ridge, all other remaining structures, with the exception of the historic Elkhorn Tavern, were demolished by the park, including the elaborate Winton Springs mansion.

Many Union and Confederate veterans attended several reunions at the Pea Ridge battlefield long before it was a park. The first of these reunions was held in 1887, twenty-five years after the battle. The reunions promoted not only remembrance, but healing. The veterans dedicated the first monuments on the battlefield to both the Union and Confederate dead. These monuments are located within the park today.[4]

The park is acknowledged as one of the best preserved Civil War battlefields. The park features a visitors center and museum, a driving tour, the restored battlefields, hiking trails, a portion of the pre-war Old Telegraph/Wire Road, approximately two-and-a-half miles of the Trail of Tears as followed by some members of the Cherokee Nation and the restored Elkhorn Tavern, which was the epicenter of much of the battle.
The Winton Springs Mansion was the primary residence on the large Winton Springs estate, which became part of the Pea Ridge National Military Park. The mansion, which was built several years after the Civil War, was considered inappropriate for the nature of the park and was too large to be moved when the government acquired the land in the early 1960s. It stood empty for more than 20 years after the establishment of the Park before being torn down by the National Park Service.

The battle

The Battle of Pea Ridge (also known as Elkhorn Tavern) was fought on March 7 and March 8, 1862, near Bentonville, Arkansas. In the battle, Union Army forces led by Brig. Gen. Samuel R. Curtis defeated Confederate troops under Maj. Gen. Earl Van Dorn effectively securing Missouri, St. Louis, the Missouri River and the Upper Mississippi River for the Union.

Visiting the Park


  1. ^ "Listing of acreage as of December 31, 2011". Land Resource Division, National Park Service. Retrieved 2012-03-19. 
  2. ^ "NPS Annual Recreation Visits Report". National Park Service. Retrieved 2012-03-19. 
  3. ^ "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places.  
  4. ^ a b c Warren, Steven L. Pea Ridge National Military Park, The Encyclopedia of Arkansas History and Culture.

External links

  • Official site: Pea Ridge National Military Park
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Hawaii eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.