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Putto

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Putto

Sleeping Putto, by Léon Bazille Perrault, 1882
Sarcophagus of the Museo Pio-Clementino (Vatican Museums).
Putto on the ceiling of Stirling Castle.

A putto (Italian: ; plural putti or puttoes)[1] is a figure in a work of art depicted as a chubby male child, usually nude and sometimes winged. Putti are commonly confused with, yet are completely unrelated to, cherubim. In the plural, "the Cherubim" refers to the biblical angels, which have four faces of different species and several pairs of wings; they are traditionally the second order of angels.[2] Putti are secular and represent a non-religious passion.[3] However, in the Baroque period of art, the putto came to represent the omnipresence of God.[3] A putto representing a cupid is also called an amorino (plural amorini).

Contents

  • Etymology 1
    • Revival of the putto in the Renaissance 1.1
  • Where to find putti 2
    • Iconography of the putto 2.1
  • Putti in popular culture 3
  • Historiography 4
  • See also 5
  • References 6
  • External links 7

Etymology

The more commonly found form putti is the plural of the Italian word putto. The Italian word comes from the Latin word putus, meaning "boy" or "child".[4] Today, in Italian, putto means either toddler winged angel or, rarely, toddler boy. It may have been derived from the same Indo-European root as the Sanskrit word "putra" (meaning "boy child", as opposed to "son"), Avestan puθra-, Old Persian puça-, Pahlavi (Middle Persian) pus and pusar, all meaning 'son,' and the New Persian pesar 'boy, son.'

Putti, in the ancient classical world of art, were winged infants that were believed to influence human lives. In Renaissance art, the form of the putto was derived in various ways including the Greek Eros or Roman Amor/Cupid, the god of love and companion of Aphrodite or Venus; the Roman, genius, a type of guardian spirit; or sometimes the Greek, daemon, a type of messenger spirit, being halfway between the realms of the human and the divine.[5]

Revival of the putto in the Renaissance

Tomb and monument of Ilaria del Carretto by Jacopo della Quercia, ca. 1413 (plaster cast in Moscow)

Putti are a classical motif found primarily on child sarcophagi of the 2nd century, where they are depicted fighting, dancing, participating in bacchic rites, playing sports, etc.

During the Middle Ages, the putto disappeared and was revived during the Quattrocento.The revival of the figure of the putto is generally attributed to Donatello, in Florence in the 1420s, although there are some earlier manifestations (for example the tomb of Ilaria del Carretto, sculpted by Jacopo della Quercia in Lucca). Since then, Donatello has been called the originator of the putto because of the contribution to art he made in restoring the classical form of putto. He gave putto a distinct character by infusing the form with Christian meanings and using it in new contexts such as musician angels. Putti also began to feature in works showing figures from classical mythology, which became popular in the same period.

Most Renaissance putti are essentially decorative and they ornament both religious and secular works, without usually taking any actual part in the events depicted in narrative paintings. There are two popular forms of the putto as the main subject of a work of art in 16th century Italian Renaissance art: the sleeping putto and the standing putto with an animal or other object.[6]

Where to find putti

Putti, cupids, and angels (see below) can be found in both religious and secular art from the 1420s in Italy, the turn of the 16th century in the Netherlands and Germany, the Mannerist period and late Renaissance in France, and throughout Baroque ceiling frescoes. So many artists have depicted them that a list would be pointless, but among the best-known are the sculptor Donatello and the painter Raphael. The two relaxed and curious putti who appear at the foot of Raphael's Sistine Madonna are often reproduced.[7]

They also experienced a major revival in the 19th century, where they gamboled through paintings by French academic painters, from Gustave Doré’s illustrations for Orlando Furioso to advertisements.

In the twentieth century, putti appeared in Walt Disney's Fantasia.

Putto versions of the main characters, Finn and Jake, of the animated television programme Adventure Time lift a banner with the subtitle with Finn & Jake below the main title in the opening credits of each episode.

Iconography of the putto

An example of Victorian putti on a building in Leith, Scotland. Here they are associated with the prosperity of the port.
Putto on building in Ptuj, Slovenia
Putti on building in Mons, Belgium

The iconography of putti is deliberately unfixed, so that it is difficult to tell the difference between putti, cupids, and various forms of angels. They have no unique, immediately identifiable attributes, so that putti may have many meanings and roles in the context of art.

Some of the more common associations are:

  • Associations with Aphrodite, and so with romantic—or erotic—love
  • Associations with Heaven
  • Associations with peace, prosperity, mirth, and leisure

Putti in popular culture

A putto is the main character in the 2010 webcomic The Sorrowful Putto of Prague[8] by James Stafford and A. J. Bernardo.

In popular culture, putto is also used as a decorative art found on buildings, gardens, and greeting cards as a purveyor of love.

A putto is the protagonist of the 2000 third person shooter Messiah.

In the British TV series Doctor Who, infants of the species Weeping Angels appear as putti.

In the 1st-person shooter Team Fortress 2, the Meet the Pyro video has the BLU Team appear as putti in Pyroland (The Pyro's vision).[9]

In the 2003 video game Drakengard, a group of malevolent god-like figures known as the Watchers appear as putti.[10]

Historiography

The historiography of this subject matter is very short. Many art historians have commented on the importance of the putto in art, but few have undertaken a major study. One useful scholarly examination is Charles Dempsey's Inventing the Renaissance Putto.[11]

See also

References

  1. ^ "arthistory.about.com". arthistory.about.com. 2012-04-13. Retrieved 2012-12-30. 
  2. ^ Link text, dictionary.com
  3. ^ a b Dempsey, Charles. Inventing the Renaissance Putto. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill and London, 2001.
  4. ^ Harper, Douglas. "putti".  
  5. ^ Struthers, Sally A. "Donatello's 'Putti': Their Genesis, Importance, and Influence on Quattrocento Sculpture and Painting. (Volumes I and II)." The Ohio State University, 1992. United States - Ohio: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (PQDT). Web. 23 Oct. 2011.
  6. ^ Korey, ALexandra M. "Putti, Pleasure, and Pedagogy in Sixteenth-Century Italian Prints and Decorative Arts." The University of Chicago, 2007. United States - Illinois: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (PQDT). Web. 23 Oct. 2011.
  7. ^ "Loggia.com". Loggia.com. Retrieved 2012-12-30. 
  8. ^ theputto.com
  9. ^ "Pyroland - Official TF2 Wiki | Official Team Fortress Wiki". Wiki.teamfortress.com. Retrieved 2012-12-30. 
  10. ^ Drag-On Dragoon Official Guide Book (in Japanese). Tokyo: Square Enix. 2003-10-24.  
  11. ^ University of North Carolina Press, 2001

External links

  • Warburg Institute Iconographic Database: ca. 1,400 images of Amorini (Amoretti) in secular contexts
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