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Selenium dioxide

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Title: Selenium dioxide  
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Subject: Selenium, Galantamine total synthesis, Sulfur dioxide, Oxide, Selenium compounds
Collection: Acidic Oxides, Interchalcogens, Photographic Chemicals, Selenium Compounds
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Selenium dioxide

Selenium dioxide
Selenium dioxide
Ball-and-stick model of a chain in crystalline selenium dioxide
Names
Other names
Selenium(IV) oxide
Selenous anhydride
Identifiers
 Y
ChemSpider  Y
Jmol-3D images Image
PubChem
RTECS number VS8575000
UNII  Y
UN number 3283
Properties
SeO2
Molar mass 110.96 g/mol
Appearance White, yellowish white,[1] or red[1] crystalline solid
Odor rotten radishes
Density 3.954 g/cm3, solid
Melting point 340 °C (644 °F; 613 K) (sealed tube)
Boiling point 350 °C (662 °F; 623 K) subl.
38.4 g/100 mL (20 °C)
39.5 g/100 ml (25 °C)
82.5 g/100 mL (65 °C)
Solubility soluble in benzene
Solubility in ethanol 6.7 g/100 mL (15 °C)
Solubility in acetone 4.4 g/100 mL (15 °C)
Solubility in acetic acid 1.11 g/100 mL (14 °C)
Solubility in methanol 10.16 g/100 mL (12 °C)
Vapor pressure 1.65 kPa (70 °C)
Acidity (pKa) 2.62; 8.32
> 1.76
Structure
see text
trigonal (Se)
Hazards
Safety data sheet ICSC 0946
Toxic (T)
Dangerous for the environment (N)
R-phrases R50/53
S-phrases (S1/2), S20/21, S28, S45, S60, S61
NFPA 704
0
3
0
Flash point Non-flammable
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
5890 mg/m3 (rabbit, 20 min)
6590 mg/m3 (goat, 10 min)
6590 mg/m3 (sheep, 10 min)[2]
Related compounds
Other anions
Selenium disulfide
Other cations
Sulfur dioxide
Tellurium dioxide
Related selenium oxides
Selenium trioxide
Related compounds
Selenous acid
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
 Y  (: Y/N?)

Selenium dioxide is the chemical compound with the formula SeO2. This colorless solid is one of the most frequently encountered compounds of selenium.

Contents

  • Properties 1
  • Preparation 2
  • Occurrence 3
  • Uses 4
    • Organic synthesis 4.1
    • As a colorant 4.2
    • Safety 4.3
  • References 5
  • External links 6

Properties

Solid SeO2 is a one-dimensional polymer, the chain consisting of alternating selenium and oxygen atoms. Each Se atom is pyramidal and bears a terminal oxide group. The bridging Se-O bond lengths are 179 pm and the terminal Se-O distance is 162 pm.[3] The relative stereochemistry at Se alternates along the polymer chain (syndiotactic). In the gas phase selenium dioxide is present as dimers and other oligomeric species, at higher temperatures it is monomeric.[4] The monomeric form adopts a bent structure very similar to that of sulfur dioxide with a bond length of 161 pm.[4] The dimeric form has been isolated in a low temperature argon matrix and vibrational spectra indicate that it has a centrosymmetric chair form.[3] Dissolution of SeO2 in selenium oxydichloride give the trimer [Se(O)O]3.[4] Monomeric SeO2 is a polar molecule, with the dipole moment of 2.62 D [5] pointed from the midpoint of the two oxygen atoms to the selenium atom.

The solid sublimes readily. At very low concentrations the vapour has a revolting odour, resembling decayed horseradishes. At higher concentrations the vapour has an odour resembling horseradish sauce and can burn the nose and throat on inhalation. Whereas SO2 tends to be molecular and SeO2 is a one-dimensional chain, TeO2 is a cross-linked polymer.[3]

SeO2 is considered an acidic oxide: it dissolves in water to form selenous acid.[4] Often the terms selenous acid and selenium dioxide are used interchangeably. It reacts with base to form selenite salts containing the SeO2−
3
anion. For example, reaction with sodium hydroxide produces sodium selenite:

SeO2 + 2 NaOH → Na2SeO3 + H2O

Preparation

Selenium dioxide is prepared by oxidation of selenium by burning in air and nitric acid or by reaction with hydrogen peroxide, but perhaps the most convenient preparation is by the dehydration of selenous acid.

3 Se + 4 HNO3 + H2O → 3 H2SeO3 + 4 NO
2 H2O2 + Se → SeO2 + 2 H2O
H2SeO3 SeO2 + H2O

Occurrence

The natural form of selenium dioxide, downeyite, is a very rare mineral. It is found in only a very few burning coal dumps.[6]

Uses

Organic synthesis

SeO2 is an important reagent in [8] This type of reaction is called a Riley oxidation. It is also renowned as a reagent for "allylic" oxidation,[9] a reaction that entails the following conversion

Allylic oxidation

This can be described more generally as;

R2C=CR'-CHR"2 + [O] → R2C=CR'-C(OH)R"2

where R, R', R" may be alkyl or aryl substituents.

As a colorant

Selenium dioxide imparts a red colour to glass. It is used in small quantities to counteract the blue colour due to cobalt impurities and so to create (apparently) colourless glass. In larger quantities, it gives a deep ruby red colour.

Selenium dioxide is the active ingredient in some cold-blueing solutions.

It was also used as a toner in photographic developing.

Safety

Selenium is an essential element, but ingestion of more than 5 mg/day leads to nonspecific symptoms.[10]

References

  1. ^ a b http://msds.chem.ox.ac.uk/SE/selenium_dioxide.html
  2. ^ "Selenium compounds (as Se)". Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health.  
  3. ^ a b c Handbook of Chalcogen Chemistry: New Perspectives in Sulfur, Selenium and Tellurium, Franceso A. Devillanova, Royal Society of Chemistry, 2007, ISBN 9780854043668
  4. ^ a b c d Holleman, A. F.; Wiberg, E. (2001), Inorganic Chemistry, San Diego: Academic Press,  
  5. ^ Takeo, Harutoshi; Hirota, Eizi; Morino, Yonezo (1972). "Third-order potential constants and dipole moment of SeO2 by microwave spectroscopy". Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy 41 (2): 420–422.  
  6. ^  
  7. ^ Ronzio, A. R.; Waugh, T. D. (1955). "Glyoxal Bisulfite".  
  8. ^ a b Hach, C. C. Banks, C. V.; Diehl, H. (1963). "1,2-Cyclohexanedione Dioxime".  
  9. ^ Coxon, J. M.; Dansted, E.; Hartshorn, M. P. (1988). "Allylic Oxidation with Hydrogen Peroxide–Selenium Dioxide: trans-Pinocarveol".  
  10. ^ Bernd E. Langner "Selenium and Selenium Compounds" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 2005, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. doi:10.1002/14356007.a23_525

External links

  • International Chemical Safety Card 0946
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