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16th United States Congress

16th United States Congress
15th ← → 17th

United States Capitol (1827)

Duration: March 4, 1819 – March 4, 1821

Senate President: Daniel D. Tompkins
Senate Pres. pro tem: James Barbour
John Gaillard
House Speaker: Henry Clay
John W. Taylor
Members: 46 Senators
186 Representatives
3 Non-voting members
Senate Majority: Democratic-Republican
House Majority: Democratic-Republican

1st: December 6, 1819 – May 15, 1820
2nd: November 13, 1820 – March 3, 1821

The Sixteenth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1819 to March 4, 1821, during the third and fourth years of James Monroe's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Third Census of the United States in 1810. Both chambers had a Democratic-Republican majority.


  • Major events 1
  • Major legislation 2
    • Proposed but not enacted 2.1
  • Treaties 3
  • States admitted and territories created 4
  • Party summary 5
    • Senate 5.1
    • House of Representatives 5.2
  • Leadership 6
    • Senate 6.1
    • House of Representatives 6.2
  • Members 7
    • Senate 7.1
      • Alabama 7.1.1
      • Connecticut 7.1.2
      • Delaware 7.1.3
      • Georgia 7.1.4
      • Illinois 7.1.5
      • Indiana 7.1.6
      • Kentucky 7.1.7
      • Louisiana 7.1.8
      • Maine 7.1.9
      • Maryland 7.1.10
      • Massachusetts 7.1.11
      • Mississippi 7.1.12
      • New Hampshire 7.1.13
      • New Jersey 7.1.14
      • New York 7.1.15
      • North Carolina 7.1.16
      • Ohio 7.1.17
      • Pennsylvania 7.1.18
      • Rhode Island 7.1.19
      • South Carolina 7.1.20
      • Tennessee 7.1.21
      • Vermont 7.1.22
      • Virginia 7.1.23
    • House of Representatives 7.2
      • Alabama 7.2.1
      • Connecticut 7.2.2
      • Delaware 7.2.3
      • Georgia 7.2.4
      • Illinois 7.2.5
      • Indiana 7.2.6
      • Kentucky 7.2.7
      • Louisiana 7.2.8
      • Maine 7.2.9
      • Maryland 7.2.10
      • Massachusetts 7.2.11
      • Mississippi 7.2.12
      • New Hampshire 7.2.13
      • New Jersey 7.2.14
      • New York 7.2.15
      • North Carolina 7.2.16
      • Ohio 7.2.17
      • Pennsylvania 7.2.18
      • Rhode Island 7.2.19
      • South Carolina 7.2.20
      • Tennessee 7.2.21
      • Vermont 7.2.22
      • Virginia 7.2.23
      • Non-voting members 7.2.24
  • Changes in membership 8
    • Senate 8.1
    • House of Representatives 8.2
  • Officers 9
    • Senate 9.1
    • House of Representatives 9.2
  • References 10
  • External links 11
President pro tempore of the Senate James Barbour
Speaker of the House Henry Clay

Major events

Major legislation

Proposed but not enacted

  • Tallmadge Amendment would bar slaves from the new state of Missouri. Passed the House of Representatives, but not the Senate. The Tallmadge Amendment led to the passage of the Missouri Compromise.


States admitted and territories created

Party summary

The count below identifies party affiliations at the beginning of the first session of this congress. Changes resulting from subsequent replacements are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section.


During this congress, two Senate seats were added for each of the new states of Alabama and Maine.
(Shading shows control)
Total Vacant

End of the previous congress 28 12 40 2
Begin 30 10 40 2
End 37 9 46 0
Final voting share 80.4% 19.6%
Beginning of the next congress 40 4 44 2

House of Representatives

During this congress, one House seat was added for the new state of Alabama and one seat was reapportioned from Massachusetts to the new state of Maine. For the beginning of the next congress, six more seats from Massachusetts would be reapportioned to Maine.
(Shading shows control)
Total Vacant

End of the previous congress 146 39 185 0
Begin 157 26 183 2
End 158 25 3
Final voting share 86.3% 13.7%
Beginning of the next congress 150 31 181 5


President of the Senate Daniel D. Tompkins


House of Representatives


This list is arranged by chamber, then by state. Senators are listed in order of seniority, and Representatives are listed by district.


Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1820; Class 2 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring reelection in 1822; and Class 3 meant their term began in this Congress, requiring reelection in 1824.

House of Representatives

Changes in membership

The count below reflects changes from the beginning of this Congress.


There were 5 resignations, 2 deaths, 2 vacancies before the Congress, and 4 new seats. The Democratic-Republicans had an 7 seat net gain and the Federalists had a 1 seat net loss.

Vacator Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation
Vacant John Forsyth had resigned before the beginning of the Congress. Freeman Walker (DR) Elected November 6, 1819
Vacant John J. Crittenden had resigned before the beginning of the Congress. Richard M. Johnson (DR) Elected December 10, 1819
New seats Alabama was admitted to the Union. John W. Walker (DR) Elected December 14, 1819
William R. King (DR) Elected December 14, 1819
Maine was admitted to the Union. John Holmes (F) Elected June 13, 1820
John Chandler (DR) Elected June 14, 1820
Alexander C. Hanson (F) Died April 23, 1819 William Pinkney (DR) Elected December 21, 1819
John W. Eppes (DR) Resigned December 4, 1819 James Pleasants (DR) Elected December 10, 1819
Prentiss Mellen (F) Resigned May 15, 1820 Elijah H. Mills (F) Elected June 12, 1820
Walter Leake (DR) Resigned May 15, 1820 after becoming US Marshal for Mississippi David Holmes (DR) Appointed August 30, 1820
William Logan (DR) Resigned May 28, 1820 to run for Governor of Kentucky Isham Talbot (DR) Elected October 19, 1820
Rhode Island
James Burrill, Jr. (F) Died December 25, 1820 Nehemiah R. Knight (DR) Elected January 9, 1821
New Jersey
James J. Wilson (DR) Resigned January 8, 1821 Samuel L. Southard (DR) Appointed January 26, 1821

House of Representatives

There were 13 resignations, 5 deaths, 2 contested elections, and 2 new seats. The Democratic-Republicans had a 1-seat net gain and the Federalists had no net change.

District Vacator Reason for change Successor Date successor
North Carolina
Vacant Hutchins G. Burton (DR) Seated December 6, 1819
Alabama Territory Vacant Seat remained vacant until statehood John Crowell (DR) Seated December 14, 1819
Arkansas Territory Vacant Arkansas Territory organized July 4, 1819 James W. Bates Seated December 21, 1819
New York
Vacant Contested election. Representative-elect Ebenezer Sage never qualified. James Guyon, Jr. (DR) Seated January 14, 1820
New Jersey
John Condit (DR) Resigned November 4, 1819 Charles Kinsey (DR) Seated February 16, 1820
Virginia 17th James Pleasants (DR) Resigned December 14, 1819 William S. Archer (F) Seated January 18, 1820
Vermont 1st Orsamus C. Merrill (DR) Contested election, served until January 12, 1820 Rollin C. Mallary (DR) Seated January 13, 1820
Virginia 20th James Johnson (DR) Resigned February 1, 1820 John C. Gray (DR) Seated November 13, 1820
Virginia 10th George F. Strother (DR) Resigned February 10, 1820 Thomas L. Moore (DR) Seated November 13, 1820
David Walker (DR) Died March 1, 1820 Francis Johnson (DR) Seated November 13, 1820
John Holmes (DR) Resigned March 15, 1820 to become U.S. Senator from Maine. District moved to Maine District inactive until 1903
New seat Massachusetts's 14th district became Maine's at-large district Joseph Dane (F) Seated November 6, 1820
Jonathan Mason (F) Resigned May 15, 1820 Benjamin Gorham (DR) Seated November 27, 1820
David Fullerton (DR) Resigned May 15, 1820 Thomas G. McCullough (F) Seated November 13, 1820
Edward Dowse (DR) Resigned May 26, 1820 William Eustis (DR)
Tunstall Quarles (DR) Resigned June 15, 1820 Thomas Montgomery (DR)
Virginia 1st James Pindall (F) Resigned July 26, 1820 Edward B. Jackson (DR)
Zabdiel Sampson (DR) Resigned July 26, 1820 Aaron Hobart (DR) Seated December 18, 1820
Michigan Territory William Woodbridge Resigned August 9, 1820 Solomon Sibley Seated November 20, 1820
Joseph Hiester (DR) Resigned sometime in December 1820 Daniel Udree (DR) Seated January 8, 1821
Rhode Island
Nathaniel Hazard (DR) Died December 17, 1820 Vacant Not filled in this Congress
North Carolina
Jesse Slocumb (F) Died December 20, 1820 William S. Blackledge (DR) Seated February 7, 1821
New Jersey
John Linn (DR) Died January 5, 1821 Vacant Not filled in this Congress
Willard Hall (DR) Resigned January 22, 1821 Vacant Not filled in this Congress
Virginia 14th William A. Burwell (DR) Died February 16, 1821 Vacant Not filled in this Congress



House of Representatives


  1. ^ "debunk". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth edition.  
  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. 
  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1982). The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. 

External links

  • Statutes at Large, 1789–1875
  • Senate Journal, First Forty-three Sessions of Congress
  • House Journal, First Forty-three Sessions of Congress
  • Biographical Directory of the U.S. Congress
  • U.S. House of Representatives: House History
  • U.S. Senate: Statistics and Lists
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