World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

1900 (film)

Article Id: WHEBN0000909006
Reproduction Date:

Title: 1900 (film)  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Bernardo Bertolucci, Donald Sutherland, Dominique Sanda, Robert De Niro, Alida Valli
Collection: 1970S Historical Films, 1970S Romantic Drama Films, 1976 Films, 20Th Century Fox Films, Animal Cruelty in Fiction, English-Language Films, Epic Films, Film Scores by Ennio Morricone, Films About Communism, Films About Fascists, Films About Sexuality, Films Directed by Bernardo Bertolucci, Films Produced by Alberto Grimaldi, Films Set in Emilia-Romagna, Films Set in Italy, Films Set in the 1900S, Films Set in the 1910S, Films Set in the 1920S, Films Set in the 1930S, Films Set in the 1940S, Films Shot in Italy, Films Shot in Naples, Films Shot in Rome, French Films, Italian Drama Films, Italian Epic Films, Italian Films, Italian Historical Films, Italian Romance Films, Italian-Language Films, Italy in Fiction, Paramount Pictures Films, United Artists Films, West German Films
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

1900 (film)

Not to be confused with the 1998 film, The Legend of 1900.
Theatrical release poster
Directed by Bernardo Bertolucci
Produced by Alberto Grimaldi
Written by Franco Arcalli
Bernardo Bertolucci
Giuseppe Bertolucci
Starring Robert De Niro
Gérard Depardieu
Dominique Sanda
Donald Sutherland
Alida Valli
Burt Lancaster
Music by Ennio Morricone
Cinematography Vittorio Storaro
Edited by Franco Arcalli
Produzioni Europee Associati (PEA)
Les Productions Artistes Associés
Artemis Film
Distributed by 20th Century Fox Italia (Italy)
Action Gitanes (France)
United Artists (West Germany)
Paramount Pictures (United States)
Release dates
  • 21 May 1976 (1976-05-21) (Cannes)
  • 28 August 1976 (1976-08-28) (Venice)
  • 3 September 1976 (1976-09-03) (Part 1)
  • 24 September 1976 (1976-09-24) (Part 2)
Running time
317 minutes (Original cut)
247 minutes[1] (Theatrical cut)
Country Italy
West Germany
Language Italian
Budget $9 million[2]

1900 (Italian: Novecento, "Twentieth Century") is a 1976 Italian epic film directed by Bernardo Bertolucci, starring Robert De Niro, Gérard Depardieu, Dominique Sanda, Donald Sutherland, Alida Valli, and Burt Lancaster. Set in Bertolucci's ancestral region of Emilia, the film chronicles the lives of two men during the political turmoils that took place in Italy in the first half of the 20th century. The film was screened at the 1976 Cannes Film Festival, but was not entered into the main competition.[3]

Due to the film's length, 1900 was presented in two parts when originally released in many countries, including Italy, East and West Germany, Denmark, Belgium, Norway, Sweden, and Colombia.[4]

The film features an explicit sex scene with De Niro and Depardieu, who are shown naked either side of an actress.


  • Plot 1
  • Cast 2
  • Release 3
  • Reception 4
  • See also 5
  • References 6
  • Further reading 7
  • External links 8


The initial credits are displayed over a zoom out of Giuseppe Pellizza da Volpedo's The Fourth Estate.

Born on the day of the death of renowned composer Giuseppe Verdi—27 January 1901—Alfredo Berlinghieri and Olmo Dalcò come from opposite ends of the social spectrum. Alfredo is from a family of landowners led by his populist grandfather (also called Alfredo), while Olmo is an illegitimate peasant. Olmo's grandfather, Leo, is the foreman and peasants' strong man who verbally and spiritually carries out a duel of wits with grandfather Alfredo. As Alfredo is somewhat rebellious and despises the falseness of his family, in particular his weak but abusive and cynical father Giovanni, he befriends Olmo, who was raised as a socialist.

The two are friends throughout their childhood, despite the social differences of their families. Olmo enlists with the Italian army in 1917 during World War I and goes off to fight while Alfredo learns how to run his family's large plantation under the guidance of his father. Olmo returns from the war over a year later and his friendship with Alfredo continues. However, Alfredo's father has hired Attila Mellanchini as his foreman. Taken with fascism, Attila eventually incorporates his new belief system in his dealings with the Berlinghieri workers; he treats them cruelly and later cages them in the Berlinghieri compound and accuses them of treason against fascist Italy. Several are killed by Attila himself. As the new padrone (master) of the plantation, Alfredo does little to challenge or halt Attila's actions.

During the late 1920s, the intimacy and lack thereof in their respective relationships with others is highlighted in their love lives. Alfredo marries a gorgeous, demure woman while Olmo marries Anita, who like him shares in the enthusiasm of the cause of workers' rights. Alfredo’s wife, Ada, sinks into alcoholism when confronted with the reality of the emptiness of her relationship with Alfredo. Anita, a strong and independent spirit dies tragically in childbirth, bringing another member into the community. As Olmo takes on his fateful role of leader among the poor farmers and their families, he clashes with Attila.

The power, however, shifts after World War II in 1945, and the ruling class is at the mercy of the jovial and bitter peasants in the agricultural estate. As padrone, Alfredo is captured by a teenage peasant boy carrying a rifle. Attila is also captured when he and his wife, tries to flee the region. Attila is stabbed, non-fatally, several times by women wielding pitchforks and is imprisoned in the Berlinghieri pig sty. He is later executed by the peasants (while they cut off most of Regina's hair), who have discovered that Attila had killed a young boy (ironically, the son of one of the most fervent supporters of fascism as an antidote to socialism) several years prior and had also murdered a wealthy landowner's widow, Mrs. Pioppi (whose husband had been economically ruined by Alfredo), in order to steal her land and home, also [years earlier] Attila had several peasants killed after they threw horse manure at Atilla for "selling" Olmo. Olmo made Atilla eat manure and let him go. Olmo then had to leave town to keep from being killed by the fascists. Alfredo fires Attila, when Attila and his blackshirts seek vengeance on Olmo by tearing up Olmo's house.

In the final scenes, set on 28 April 1945, Alfredo is brought before Olmo's workers tribunal to stand trial. Many workers come forth and accuse Alfredo of letting them suffer in squalor while he (and his social class) profited from their labors. Alfredo is sentenced to death, but his execution is prevented after Olmo explains that the padrone is dead, so Alfredo Berlinghieri is alive. Suggesting that the social system has been overthrown with the end of the war. As soon as the verdict is reached, however, representatives and soldiers of the new government, which includes the Communist Party, arrive and call on the peasants to turn in their arms. Olmo convinces the peasants to do so, overcoming their skepticism. Alone with Olmo, Alfredo declares, "The padrone is alive."



The original director's cut of the film runs 317 minutes (5 hours, 17 minutes). Alberto Grimaldi, the film's producer, was contractually obligated to deliver a 195-minute (3 hours, 15 minutes) version to Paramount Pictures. Bertolucci originally wanted to release the film in two parts, but Grimaldi refused.

Grimaldi then locked Bertolucci out of the editing room, and assembled a 180-minute cut. Bertolucci, horrified at Grimaldi's cut, decided to compromise.[5] His 255-minute (4 hours, 15 minutes) version was the one initially released in the United States. In 1987, the Bravo channel broadcast the uncut version with dubbed dialogue. Later in 1991, the film was restored to its original length and shown in a limited release. The film has also been shown uncut on Sky Movies and Film 4.

When Bertolucci released his 317-minute version to theaters, the Motion Picture Association of America re-classified the film with an NC-17 rating; the 245-minute American cut, the other version officially available on video in the United States, still retained its R rating. In 2006, Paramount surrendered the NC-17 rating of the uncut version, then released it as unrated on DVD on 5 December 2006. This same uncut version was released on Blu-ray Disc in the US by Olive Films on 15 May 2012 and remains on sale in North America.


1900 received mixed reviews from critics. On review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes, the film currently holds a 47% rating based on 15 reviews.[6]

See also


  1. ^ (X)"1900".  
  2. ^ 1900 at Box Office Mojo
  3. ^ "Festival de Cannes: 1900". Retrieved 25 July 2015. 
  4. ^ "1900 (1976) - Release Info".  
  5. ^ "Bernardo Bertolucci - 1900". Retrieved 25 July 2015. 
  6. ^ "1900 (1976)".  

Further reading

  • di Giovanni, Norman Thomas (1977). Novecent (in Italian). Milano: Euroclub. 
  • Kline, T. Jefferson (1987). Bertolucci's Dream Loom: a Psychoanalytical Study in Cinema. Amherst, MA: University Press of Massachusetts. 
  • Boswell, Laird (1990). "Reviewed Work: 1900 by Alberto Grimaldi, Bernardo Bertolucci". The American Historical Review 25 (4): 1131–1133.  
  • Tonetti, Claretta M. (1995). Bernardo Bertolucci: the Cinema of Ambiguity. London: Twayne. 
  • Gerard, Fabien S.; Kline, T. Jefferson (2000). Bernardo Bertolucci: Interviews. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi. 
  • "1900". International Dictionary of Films and Filmmakers. 2001. Retrieved 25 July 2015. 

External links

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Hawaii eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.