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27th United States Congress

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27th United States Congress

27th Congress redirects here, for the Soviet congress, see 27th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
27th United States Congress
26th ← → 28th

United States Capitol (1846)

Duration: March 4, 1841 – March 4, 1843

Senate President: John Tyler (until April 4, 1841)
Vacant (from April 4, 1841)
Senate Pres. pro tem: William R. King
Samuel L. Southard
Willie P. Mangum
House Speaker: John White
Members: 52 Senators
242 Representatives
3 Non-voting members
Senate Majority: Whig
House Majority: Whig

Special: March 4, 1841 – March 15, 1841
1st: May 31, 1841 – September 13, 1841
2nd: December 6, 1841 – August 31, 1842
3rd: December 5, 1842 – March 3, 1843 (lame duck)

The Twenty-seventh United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1841 to March 4, 1843, during the one-month administration of U.S. President William Henry Harrison and the first two years of the administration of his successor, John Tyler. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Fifth Census of the United States in 1830. Both chambers had a Whig majority.

Major events

Major legislation


  • August 9, 1842: Webster-Ashburton Treaty signed, establishing the United States–Canada border east of the Rocky Mountains.

Party summary


House of Representatives

Affiliation Party
(Shading indicates majority caucus)
Democratic Independent
States Rights
Whig Other Vacant
End of previous Congress 124 0 0 111 2 242 0
Begin 97 1 1 142 0 241 1
End 100 139
Final voting share 41.5% 0.4% 0.4% 57.7% 0.0%
Beginning of next Congress 147 1 0 72 3 223 0


President of the Senate
John Tyler


House of Representatives


This list is arranged by chamber, then by state. Senators are listed in order of seniority, and Representatives are listed by district.


Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring reelection in 1844; Class 2 meant their term began with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1846; and Class 3 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1842.

House of Representatives

Changes in membership

The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress.


  • replacements: 9
  • deaths: 2
  • resignations: 8
  • interim appointments: 0
  • vacancy: 1
  • Total seats with changes: 10
Vacator Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation
Clement C. Clay (D) Resigned November 15, 1841 Arthur P. Bagby (D) Elected November 24, 1841
Rhode Island
Nathan F. Dixon (W) Died January 29, 1842 William Sprague (W) Elected February 18, 1842
Alfred O. P. Nicholson (D) Resigned February 7, 1842 Vacant Not filled this term
New Hampshire
Franklin Pierce (D) Resigned February 28, 1842 Leonard Wilcox (D) Appointed March 1, 1842 and subsequently elected
Alexandre Mouton (D) Resigned March 1, 1842 after being elected Governor of Louisiana Charles M. Conrad (W) Appointed April 14, 1842
Henry Clay (W) Resigned March 31, 1842 John J. Crittenden (W) Appointed March 31, 1842 and subsequently elected
Samuel Prentiss (W) Resigned April 11, 1842 to become judge of the U.S. District Court of Vermont Samuel C. Crafts (W) Appointed April 23, 1842 and subsequently elected
New Jersey
Samuel L. Southard (W) Died June 26, 1842 William L. Dayton (W) Appointed July 2, 1842
South Carolina
William C. Preston (W) Resigned November 29, 1842 D) Elected December 23, 1842
Reuel Williams (D) Resigned February 15, 1843 Vacant Not filled this term

House of Representatives

  • replacements: 17
  • deaths: 8
  • resignations: 12
  • contested election: 1
  • Total seats with changes: 20
District Vacator Reason for change Successor Date successor
Maine 4th Vacant Rep. George Evans resigned in previous congress David Bronson (W) Seated May 31, 1841
New York 26th Francis Granger (W) Resigned March 5, 1841 after being appointed United States Postmaster General John Greig (W) Seated May 21, 1841
Massachusetts 5th Levi Lincoln, Jr. (W) Resigned March 16, 1841 after being appointed Collector of the port of Boston Charles Hudson (W) Seated May 3, 1841
Pennsylvania 20th Enos Hook (D) Resigned April 18, 1841 Henry W. Beeson (D) Seated May 31, 1841
Pennsylvania 18th Charles Ogle (W) Died May 10, 1841 Henry Black (W) Seated June 28, 1841
Pennsylvania 2nd John Sergeant (W) Resigned September 15, 1841 Joseph R. Ingersoll (W) Seated October 12, 1841
New York 26th John Greig (W) Resigned September 25, 1841 Francis Granger (W) Seated November 27, 1841
Georgia At-large Julius C. Alford (W) Resigned October 1, 1841 Edward J. Black (D) Seated January 3, 1842
Georgia At-large Eugenius A. Nisbet (W) Resigned October 12, 1841 Mark A. Cooper (D) Seated January 3, 1842
Georgia At-large William C. Dawson (W) Resigned November 13, 1841 Walter T. Colquitt (D) Seated January 3, 1842
Pennsylvania 18th Henry Black (W) Died November 28, 1841 James M. Russell (W) Seated December 21, 1841
Virginia 13th Linn Banks (D) Lost contested election December 6, 1841 William Smith (D) Seated December 6, 1841
Pennsylvania 17th Davis Dimock, Jr. (D) Died January 13, 1842 Almon H. Read (D) Seated March 18, 1842
North Carolina 13th Lewis Williams (W) Died February 23, 1842 Anderson Mitchell (W) Seated April 27, 1842
Ohio 16th Joshua R. Giddings (W) Resigned March 22, 1842 after vote of his censure and re-elected to same seat Joshua R. Giddings (W) Seated December 5, 1842
Pennsylvania 21st Joseph Lawrence (W) Died April 17, 1842 Thomas M. T. McKennan (W) Seated May 30, 1842
Massachusetts 1st Robert C. Winthrop (W) Resigned May 25, 1842 Nathan Appleton (W) Seated June 9, 1842
Massachusetts 9th William S. Hastings (W) Died June 17, 1842 Vacant Not filled this Congress
South Carolina 4th Sampson H. Butler (D) Resigned September 27, 1842 Samuel W. Trotti (D) Seated December 17, 1842
Massachusetts 1st Nathan Appleton (W) Resigned September 28, 1842 Robert C. Winthrop (W) Seated November 29, 1842
Georgia At-large Richard W. Habersham (W) Died December 2, 1842 W) Seated January 7, 1843
Maryland 3rd James W. Williams (D) Died December 2, 1842 Charles S. Sewall (D) Seated January 2, 1843



House of Representatives


External links

  • Statutes at Large, 1789-1875
  • Senate Journal, First Forty-three Sessions of Congress
  • House Journal, First Forty-three Sessions of Congress
  • Biographical Directory of the U.S. Congress
  • U.S. House of Representatives: House History
  • U.S. Senate: Statistics and Lists
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