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9/11 Commission

The commission's seal

The National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, also known as the 9/11 Commission, was set up on November 27, 2002, "to prepare a full and complete account of the circumstances surrounding the September 11 attacks", including preparedness for and the immediate response to the attacks.

The commission was also mandated to provide recommendations designed to guard against future attacks.

Chaired by former George W. Bush.

The commission's final report was lengthy and based on extensive interviews and testimony. Its primary conclusion was that the failures of the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency and Federal Bureau of Investigation permitted the terrorist attacks to occur and that had these agencies acted more wisely and more aggressively, the attacks could potentially have been prevented.

After the publication of its final report, the commission closed on August 21, 2004.[1]


  • History 1
  • Members 2
  • Officials called to testify 3
  • Report 4
  • Criticism 5
  • Work of commissioners after the commission ceased its functions 6
  • NORAD testimony 7
  • References 8
  • Further reading 9
  • External links 10


The members of The National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States

The National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States was established on November 27, 2002, by

  • Official website
  • The Complete 9/11 Commission Report (7 MB PDF)
  • Kindle-formatted version of the Complete 9/11 Commission Report
  • 9/11 Commission staff biographies
  • 9/11 Public Discourse Project (Set up by Commission members following completion of report)
  • The 9-11 Commission: An Audio Chronicle - NPR
  • Congressional Research Service, 9/11 Commission Recommendations: Implementation Status, Dec. 2006
  • Stonewalled by the C.I.A. Op-Ed piece written by Thomas Kean and Lee H. Hamilton in the January 2, 2008 edition of the New York Times
  • 9/11 Chair: Attack Was Preventable - from CBS
  • The Shea Memorandum to the 9-11 Commission
  • Photos of 9/11 Commission Public Hearings 7 to 12
  • Works by 9/11 Commission at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)

External links

  • Without Precedent: The Inside Story of the 9/11 Commission, by Thomas H Kean and Lee H. Hamilton (Random House, August 2006) ISBN 0-307-26377-0
  • The Commission: The Uncensored History of the 9/11 Investigation, by Philip Shenon (the Twelve - Jan. 2008), ISBN 978-0-446-58075-5
  • The Next Ten Years of Post-9/11 Security Efforts, Q&A with 9/11 Commissioner Slade Gorton (July 2011)

Further reading

  1. ^ "National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States". September 20, 2004. Archived from the original on February 11, 2010. Retrieved February 17, 2010. 
  2. ^ "Investigating Sept. 11". NewsHour (PBS). November 27, 2002. Archived from the original on February 20, 2009. Retrieved January 21, 2009. 
  3. ^  
  4. ^ "Mitchell quits 9/11 probe". CNN. December 10, 2002. Archived from the original on February 20, 2009. Retrieved January 21, 2009. 
  5. ^ "Bush taps ex-New Jersey governor for 9/11 panel". CNN. December 16, 2002. Archived from the original on February 20, 2009. Retrieved January 21, 2009. 
  6. ^ Burger, Timothy J. (March 26, 2003). "Commission Funding Woes". Time Magazine. Archived from the original on January 14, 2009. Retrieved January 21, 2009. 
  7. ^ "Probe Wins Boost in Aid". New York Daily News. March 30, 2003. Retrieved January 21, 2009. 
  8. ^ Chen, David W. (April 1, 2003). "Beyond Numbers, 9/11 Panel Hears Families' Anguish". The New York Times. Archived from the original on February 20, 2009. Retrieved January 21, 2009. 
  9. ^ The White House Has Played Cover-Up"–Former 9/11 Commission Member Max Cleland Blasts Bush""".  
  10. ^  
  11. ^ a b c d "9/11 commission finishes Bush, Cheney session". April 29, 2004. Retrieved November 24, 2010. 
  12. ^ Kill the Messenger. SBS Australia, 2007. Documentary.
  13. ^ Burger, Timothy J. (Dec 20, 2003). "Condi and the 9/11 Commission". Time. Archived from the original on December 1, 2010. Retrieved November 24, 2010. 
  14. ^  
  15. ^ Zelikow, Philip D.; Condoleezza Rice (1995). "Germany Unified and Europe Transformed: A Study in Statecraft". Harvard University Press.
  16. ^ Associated Press, Feb. 3, 2008, "Ties between White House, Sept 11 Chief", archived at:
  17. ^ "9/11: Truth, Lies and Conspiracy Interview: Lee Hamilton". CBC News, Canada. August 21, 2006. Archived from the original on June 23, 2008. Retrieved October 16, 2010. 
  18. ^ Eggen, Dan (August 2, 2006). "9/11 Panel Suspected Deception by Pentagon".  
  19. ^ Yen, Hope (August 4, 2006). "Book: Sept. 11 Panel Doubted Officials".  
  20. ^ Levins, Harry (September 6, 2009). "The Ground Truth". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. Retrieved September 12, 2009. 
  21. ^ Farmer, John (2009). The Ground Truth: The Untold Story of America Under Attack on 9/11. Riverhead Books.  


John Farmer, Jr., senior counsel to the Commission stated that the Commission "discovered that...what government and military officials had told Congress, the Commission, the media, and the public about who knew what when — was almost entirely, and inexplicably, untrue." Farmer continues: "At some level of the government, at some point in time … there was a decision not to tell the truth about what happened...The (NORAD) tapes told a radically different story from what had been told to us and the public."[20] Thomas Kean, the head of the 9/11 Commission, concurred: "We to this day don’t know why NORAD told us what they told us, it was just so far from the truth."[21]

NORAD testimony

The book was released on August 15, 2006 and chronicles the work of Kean (Commission Chairman) and Hamilton (Commission Vice-Chairman) of the 9/11 Commission. In the book, Kean and Hamilton charge that the 9/11 Commission was "set up to fail," and write that the commission was so frustrated with repeated misstatements by officials from The Pentagon and the Federal Aviation Administration during the investigation that it considered a separate investigation into possible obstruction of justice by Pentagon and FAA officials.[19]

Months after the commission had officially issued its report and ceased its functions, Chairman Kean and other commissioners toured the country to draw attention to the recommendations of the commission for reducing the terror risk, claiming that some of their recommendations were being ignored. Co-chairs Kean and Hamilton wrote a book about the constraints they faced as commissioners titled Without Precedent: The Inside Story of the 9/11 Commission.

Work of commissioners after the commission ceased its functions

The commission was criticized for alleged conflicts of interest on the part of commissioners and staff (e.g., Philip D. Zelikow, 9/11 Commission Executive Director/Chair in 1995 co-authored a book with Condoleezza Rice[15]).[16] Further, the commission's report has been the subject of criticism by both commissioners themselves and by others.[17][18]


Additionally, the commission has released several supplemental reports on the terrorists' financing, travel, and other matters.

The commission issued its final report on July 22, 2004. After releasing the report, Commission Chair Thomas Kean declared that both FBI and CIA.[14] The commission interviewed over 1,200 people in 10 countries and reviewed over two and a half million pages of documents, including some closely guarded classified national security documents. Before it was released by the commission, the final public report was screened for any potentially classified information and edited as necessary.

The cover of the final 9/11 report, which can be purchased in bookstores across the United States and around the world


President George W. Bush, Vice President Dick Cheney, former President Bill Clinton, and former Vice President Al Gore all gave private testimony. President Bush and Vice President Cheney insisted on testifying together and not under oath, while Clinton and Gore met with the panel separately. As National Security Advisor, Condoleezza Rice claimed that she was not required to testify under oath because the position of NSA is an advisory role, independent of authority over a bureaucracy and does not require confirmation by the Senate. Legal scholars disagree on the legitimacy of her claim. Eventually, Condoleezza Rice testified publicly and under oath.[13]

Past government officials who were called to testify before the commission included:

Then government officials who were called to testify before the commission included:

Officials called to testify

The members of the commission's staff included:

9/11 Commission Chairman Thomas Kean


By the spring of 2003, the commission was off to a slow start, needing additional funding to help it meet its target day for the final report, of May 27, 2004.[6] In late March, the Bush administration agreed to provide an additional $9 million for the commission, though this was $2 million short of what the commission requested.[7] The first hearings were held from March 31 to April 1, 2003, in New York City.[8]

[5] to head the commission.Tom Kean governor New Jersey On December 15, 2002, Bush appointed former [4]

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