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91st Air Refueling Squadron

91st Air Refueling Squadron
KC-135R of the 91st Air Refueling Squadron over Tampa Bay
Active 1941-1945; 1950-1987; 1988-Present
Country  United States
Branch  United States Air Force
Role Air refueling
Part of Air Mobility Command
Garrison/HQ MacDill Air Force Base
Engagements European Theater of Operations
Decorations Air Force Outstanding Unit Award
91st Air Refueling Squadron emblem (approved 3 June 1952)[1]
391st Bombardment Squadron emblem (approved for 1st Reconnaissance Squadron 24 September 1941)[2]

The 91st Air Refueling Squadron is part of the 6th Air Mobility Wing at MacDill Air Force Base, Florida. It operates the Boeing KC-135R Stratotanker aircraft conducting air refueling missions.

The squadron was first activated in January 1941 as the 1st Reconnaissance Squadron at Langley Field, Virginia. Following the attack on Pearl Harbor, the squadron performed antisubmarine patrols. In the spring of 1942 it was renamed the 391st Bombardment Squadron and became part of the 34th Bombardment Group, to which it had been attached since activation. The squadron moved to the western United States and trained until April 1944 when it moved to the European Theater of Operations, where it participated in combat until VE Day. It returned to the United States in the summer of 1945 and was inactivated.


  • Mission 1
  • History 2
    • World War II 2.1
    • Air Refueling 2.2
  • Lineage 3
    • Assignments 3.1
    • Stations 3.2
    • Aircraft 3.3
    • Awards and campaigns 3.4
  • See also 4
  • References 5
    • Notes 5.1
    • Citations 5.2
    • Bibliography 5.3


The squadron provides air refueling and airlift for combatant commanders. It operates the Boeing KC-135R Stratotanker, a long-range tanker aircraft capable of refueling a variety of aircraft in mid-air, anywhere in the world and under any weather condition. The 91st's KC-135s have supported US military operations all over the world.[3]


World War II

B-18 of an Air Corps reconnaissance squadron

The squadron was first activated at Langley Field, Virginia in January 1941 as the 1st Reconnaissance Squadron, a long-range reconnaissance squadron, equipped with a mixture of B-17C and B-17D Flying Fortresses and Douglas B-18 Bolos. It was initially assigned to General Headquarters Air Force, but was attached to the 34th Bombardment Group. Along with the 34th Group, the squadron moved to Westover Field, Massachusetts four months after they were activated.[1][4]

After the Pearl Harbor attack the squadron began antisubmarine patrols off the Northeast coast of the United States, but soon became part of Western Defense Command and moved to Pendleton Field, Oregon. By the summer of 1942, Second Air Force had become primarily a heavy bomber training force and the squadron, called the 391st Bombardment Squadron since May, became a B-17 Replacement Training Unit (RTU) at Geiger Field.[4] RTUs were oversized units which trained aircrews prior to their deployment to combat theaters.[5]

On 15 December 1942 the squadron moved to Blythe Army Air Base, California a base of the Desert Training Center.[6] The unit provided cadres for a number of heavy bomber units that served with Eighth Air Force during this period.[7]

B-24H of the 34th Bomb Group[note 1]

The 391st began training with Consolidated B-24 Liberators for overseas combat operations on 5 January 1944. Its ground echelon moved to the port of embarkation on 1 April 1944,[4][7] while the air echelon began its overseas movement on 31 May 1944, taking the southern ferry route, from Florida to Trinidad, Brazil, West Africa and Marrakesh, arriving at RAF Valley, Wales.[7] The 34th Group arrived at its permanent station, RAF Mendlesham, England, in April 1944 and entered combat on 23 May 1944.[4][7]

The squadron helped to prepare for Operation Overlord, the invasion of Normandy, by bombing airfields in France and Germany, and supported the June landings by attacking coastal defenses and communications. It supported ground forces at Saint-Lô in late July and struck V-1 flying bomb launch sites, gun emplacements, and supply lines throughout the summer of 1944.[4]

34th Bomb Group B-17G Flying Fortress[note 2]

The mixture of B-24s and B-17s in the 3d Bombardment Division presented a number of operational problems, and in early 1944 plans had begun at VIII Bomber Command headquarters to standardize the division with the Flying Fortress.[8] The 34th group flew its last B-24 mission on 24 August 1944.[7] It transferred its Liberators for overhaul and eventual transfer to units of the 2d Bombardment Division,[9] and began converting to B-17s and flew its first mission with the new planes on 17 September 1944.[4][7] The squadron engaged primarily in bombardment of strategic objectives from October 1944 to February 1945. Targets included marshaling yards in Ludwigshafen, Hamm, Osnabrück, and Darmstadt; oil centers in Bielefeld, Merseburg, Hamburg, and Misburg; factories in Berlin, Dalteln, and Hanover; and airfields in Münster, Neumünster, and Frankfurt.[4]

During this period the squadron also supported ground forces during the Battle of the Bulge from December 1944 to January 1945. In March 1945, with few enemy industrial targets remaining and with Allied armies advancing across Germany, the 391st turned almost solely to interdicting enemy communications and supporting Allied ground forces.[4] The 391st flew its last combat mission on 20 April 1945.[7]

After V-E Day the squadron flew missions carrying food to flooded areas of the Netherlands and transported prisoners of war from German camps to Allied centers. The squadron redeployed to the United States in June and July 1945.[4] The first elements of the air echelon departed 19 June 1945. The ground echelon sailed aboard the RMS Queen Elizabeth from Southhampton on 6 August 1945. Upon arrival in the states, unit personnel were given 30 days leave.[7] The squadron reassembled at Sioux Falls Army Air Field, South Dakota, where it was inactivated on 28 August 1945.[4]

Air Refueling

91st Air Refueling Squadron KB-29P Superfortress formation 1951

The 91st Air Refueling Squadron was activated at Barksdale Air Force Base as a Boeing KB-29 Superfortress air refueling squadron in April 1950. After training with the tanker, it moved to Lockbourne Air Force Base along with its parent 91st Strategic Reconnaissance Wing. It remained at Lockbourne until 1971 and began to fly worldwide air refueling operations.[1]

Crews and aircraft from the 91st deployed to Southeast Asia to refuel tactical aircraft and Boeing B-52 Stratofortresses involved in combat in Vietnam from, January 1965 through December 1975. It refueled aircraft participating in the Operation Urgent Fury, the Grenada rescue mission between October and November 1983. The squadron also supported U.S. operations during the 1991 Gulf War. It performed refuelings for bombers, airlift, and fighter aircraft as part of Tanker Task Forces around the world from, 1992-1995.[1]

On 1 October 1996 the 91st relocated from Malmstrom Air Force Base, Montana to MacDill Air Force Base, Florida. Since 2002 the squadron has refueled fighter aircraft providing security for the southeastern United States.[1]


391st Bombardment Squadron

  • Constituted as the 1st Reconnaissance Squadron (Heavy) on 20 November 1940
Activated on 15 January 1941
Redesignated 391st Bombardment Squadron (Heavy) on 22 April 1942
Redesignated 391st Bombardment Squadron, Heavy on 20 August 1943
Inactivated on 28 August 1945
  • Consolidated with the 91st Air Refueling Squadron as the 91st Air Refueling Squadron on 19 September 1985[10]

91st Air Refueling Squadron

  • Constituted as the 91st Air Refueling Squadron, Medium on 1 March 1950
Activated on 16 April 1950
Redesignated 91st Air Refueling Squadron, Heavy on 1 January 1963
  • Consolidated with the 391st Bombardment Squadron on 19 September 1985
Inactivated on 1 October 1987
  • Activated on 5 January 1988
Redesignated 91st Air Refueling Squadron on 1 September 1991[10]



  • Langley Field, Virginia, 15 January 1941
  • Westover Field, Massachusetts, 29 May 1941
  • Pendleton Field, Oregon, c. 25 Jan 1942
  • Davis-Monthan Field, Arizona, c. 13 May 1942
  • Geiger Field (later Geiger Army Air Base), Washington, 1 July 1942
  • Ephrata Army Air Base, Washington, 1 December 1942
  • Blythe Army Air Base, California, 11 December 1942-3 April 1944
Deployed at Salinas Army Air Base, California, 29 May - 13 July 1943
Deployed at Nouasseur Air Base, French Morocco, 12 January - 26 February 1954
Deployed at Goose Air Base, Labrador, 6 October - 12 November 1954
Deployed at Ernest Harmon Air Force Base, Newfoundland, 10 July - October 1955


Awards and campaigns

Award streamer Award Dates Notes
Air Force Outstanding Unit Award 8 September 1953-8 November 1957 91st Air Refueling Squadron[1]
Air Force Outstanding Unit Award 1 October 1966-1 April 1967 91st Air Refueling Squadron[1]
Air Force Outstanding Unit Award 1 July 1974-30 June 1976 91st Air Refueling Squadron[1]
Air Force Outstanding Unit Award 1 July 1976-30 June 1978 91st Air Refueling Squadron[1]
Air Force Outstanding Unit Award 1 July 1980-30 June 1981 91st Air Refueling Squadron[1]
Air Force Outstanding Unit Award 1 July 1988-30 June 1990 91st Air Refueling Squadron[1]
Air Force Outstanding Unit Award 1 July 1991-30 June 1993 91st Air Refueling Squadron[1]
Air Force Outstanding Unit Award 1 July 1994-30 June 1996 91st Air Refueling Squadron[1]
Air Force Outstanding Unit Award 1 July 1996-30 June 1998 91st Air Refueling Squadron[1]
Air Force Outstanding Unit Award 1 July 1998-30 June 2000 91st Air Refueling Squadron[1]
Campaign Streamer Campaign Dates Notes
Antisubmarine 7 December 1941-c. 13 May 1942 1st Reconnaissance Squadron[1]
Air Offensive, Europe 23 April 1944-5 June 1944 391st Bombardment Squadron[1]
Normandy 6 June 1944-24 July 1944 391st Bombardment Squadron[1]
Northern France 25 July 1944-14 September 1944 391st Bombardment Squadron[1]
Rhineland 15 September 1944-21 March 1945 391st Bombardment Squadron[1]
Central Europe 22 March 1944-21 May 1945 391st Bombardment Squadron[1]
Air Combat, EAME Theater 7 December 1941-11 May 1945 391st Bombardment Squadron[1]

See also



  1. ^ The plane is Douglas-Tulsa B-24H-15-DT Serial 41-28851 of the 7th Bomb Squadron. This aircraft was damaged during a mission on 24 August 1944 and made an emergency landing in Sweden (MACR 8461). The aircraft was interned until the end of the war then repaired and flown back to the UK in 1945.
  2. ^ The aircraft is Lockheed/Vega B-17G-65-VE Serial 44-8457


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v Robertson, Patsy (January 17, 2008). "Factsheet 91 Air Refueling Squadron (ACC)". Air Force Historical Research Agency. Retrieved December 2, 2014. 
  2. ^ Maurer, Combat Squadrons, p. 480
  3. ^ "Factsheet, 6th Operations Group". 6th Air Mobility Wing Public Affairs. July 20, 2006. Retrieved December 4, 2014. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Maurer, Combat Units, pp. 87-89
  5. ^ Craven & Cate (eds.), Vol. VI, p. xxxvi
  6. ^ Wilson, p. 128
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h Freeman (1970), p. 240
  8. ^ Freeman (1970), p. 156
  9. ^ Freeman (1970), p. 172
  10. ^ a b c d e Lineage, including assignments, stations and aircraft in Robertson, Factsheet 91 Air Refueling Squadron except as noted
  11. ^ Station number in Anderson


 This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the Air Force Historical Research Agency.

  • Anderson, Capt. Barry (1985). Army Air Forces Stations: A Guide to the Stations Where U.S. Army Air Forces Personnel Served in the United Kingdom During World War II. Maxwell AFB, AL: Research Division, USAF Historical Research Center. Retrieved July 7, 2012. 
  • Craven, Wesley F & Cate, James L, ed. (1955). The Army Air Forces in World War II. Vol. VI, Men & Planes. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.  
  • Freeman, Roger A. (1970). The Mighty Eighth: Units, Men and Machines (A History of the US 8th Army Air Force). London, England, UK: Macdonald and Company.  
  • Maurer, Maurer, ed. (1983) [1961]. Air Force Combat Units of World War II (reprint ed.). Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History.  
  • Maurer, Maurer, ed. (1982) [1969]. Combat Squadrons of the Air Force, World War II (reprint ed.). Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History.  
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