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A440 (pitch standard)

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Title: A440 (pitch standard)  
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Subject: Musical tuning, Equal temperament, ISO 3166, A (musical note), Array mbira
Collection: Musical Tuning
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A440 (pitch standard)

A440 About this sound Play  .

A440 or A4, which has a frequency of 440 Hz, is the musical note A above middle C and serves as a general tuning standard for musical pitch.

Prior to the standardization on 440 Hz, many countries and organizations followed the

  • ISO 16:1975 as described in their catalog
  • A4 in a keyboard and frequencies

External links

  1. ^ Karp, Theodore (1983). Dictionary of Music. Northwestern University Press. p. 406.  
  2. ^ George Martin (2008). The Opera Companion. Hal Leonard Corporation.  
  3. ^ ISO 16:1975 Acoustics -- Standard tuning frequency (Standard musical pitch). International Organization for Standardization. 1975. 
  4. ^ Franz Nistl, Table of European orchestra tunes, part 2
  5. ^ Franz Nistl, Table of European orchestra tunes, part 2
  6. ^ Franz Nistl, Table of orchestra tunes
  7. ^ Oxford Composer Companion JS Bach, page 369–372. Oxford University Press, 1999
  8. ^


See also

The US time and frequency station WWV broadcasts a 440 Hz signal at two minutes past every hour, with WWVH broadcasting the same tone at first minutes past every hour. This was added in 1936 to aid orchestras in tuning their instruments.[8]

A440 is often used as a tuning reference in just intonation regardless of 1/1 or key. For example, A is common to all stringed instruments.

3 seconds of sine wave at 440 Hz

Problems playing this file? See .

A440 is widely used as concert pitch in the United Kingdom[4] and the United States. In continental Europe the frequency of A commonly varies between 440 Hz and 444 Hz.[5][6] In the period instrument movement, a consensus has arisen around a modern baroque pitch of 415 Hz (A♭ of A440), baroque for some special church music (Chorton pitch) at 466 Hz (A♯ of A440), and classical pitch at 430 Hz.[7]

Piano Keyboard
An 88-key piano, with the octaves numbered and Middle C (cyan) and A440 (yellow) highlighted.

It is designated A4 in scientific pitch notation because it occurs in the octave that starts with the fourth C key on a standard 88-key piano keyboard. On MIDI, it is note 69.

reference for the calibration of acoustic equipment and the tuning of pianos, violins, and other musical instruments. frequency Although not universally accepted, since then it has served as the audio [3]

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