World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article
 

Abingdon-on-Thames

Abingdon
Abingdon

Coat of arms of Abingdon: Vert a Cross patonce Or between four Crosses pattée Argent

The River Thames at Abingdon looking towards St. Helen's parish church
Abingdon is located in Oxfordshire
Abingdon
 Abingdon shown within Oxfordshire
Population 33,130 (2011 Census)
OS grid reference
   – London  62.6 miles (100.7 km) 
Civil parish Abingdon
District Vale of White Horse
Shire county Oxfordshire
Region South East
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town Abingdon
Postcode district OX14
Dialling code 01235
Police Thames Valley
Fire Oxfordshire
Ambulance South Central
EU Parliament South East England
UK Parliament Oxford West and Abingdon
Website Abingdon Town Council
List of places
UK
England
Oxfordshire

Abingdon , also known as Abingdon on Thames or Abingdon-on-Thames, is a market town and civil parish in England. Historically it was the county town of Berkshire, but has been in the administrative county of Oxfordshire since 1974.

The 2011 Census recorded the parish's population as 33,130.[1] This is 2,504 more than in the 2001 Census total of 30,626, and represents just over 8% growth in the population.[2]

Contents

  • Geography and transport 1
  • Archaeology and history 2
  • Leisure and media 3
    • Sport 3.1
  • Economy 4
  • Governance 5
  • Places of interest 6
    • Abingdon Abbey 6.1
    • St Helen's Church 6.2
    • St Nicolas' Church 6.3
    • Abingdon Bridge 6.4
    • Abingdon County Hall Museum 6.5
    • Abingdon Gaol 6.6
      • Local legend 6.6.1
    • Abingdon School 6.7
    • Abingdon Castle 6.8
    • Pillbox 6.9
  • Culture and folklore 7
  • Abingdonians 8
  • Education 9
  • See also 10
  • References 11
  • Sources and further reading 12
  • External links 13

Geography and transport

Abingdon is 5 12 miles (9 km) south of Oxford and 5 miles (8 km) north of Didcot in the flat valley of the Thames on its west (right) bank, where the small river Ock flows in from the Vale of White Horse. It is on the A415 between Witney and Dorchester, adjacent to the A34 trunk road, linking it with the M4 and M40 motorways. The B4017 and A4183 also link the town, both being part of the old A34 and often heavily congested.

Local bus services to Oxford and the surrounding areas are run by Stagecoach Oxfordshire, Thames Travel, the Oxford Bus Company and smaller independent companies.

Abingdon is one of the largest towns in southern England with no rail service. However the small, primarily stopping-service, stations at Culham and Radley are both just over 2 miles (3.2 km) away. Abingdon's eastern ring-road and newest suburbs are under a mile which is connected by footpath and cycleway from Radley station. The Radley to Abingdon station branch line closed to passengers in 1963. The nearest major stations with taxi ranks are Oxford (8 miles/13 km) and Didcot Parkway (7 miles/11 km). All are managed by First Great Western. Frequent express buses operate between Oxford station and Abingdon.

Archaeology and history

A Neolithic stone hand axe was found at Abingdon. Petrological analysis in 1940 identified the stone as epidotised tuff from Stake Pass in the Lake District, 250 miles (400 km) to the north. Stone axes from the same source have been found at Sutton Courtenay, Alvescot, Kencot[3] and Minster Lovell.[4]

Abingdon has been occupied from the early to middle Iron Age and the remains of a late Iron Age defensive enclosure (or oppidum) lies below the town centre. The oppidum was in use throughout the Roman occupation.

Abingdon Abbey was founded in Saxon times, possibly around AD 676,[5] but its early history is confused by numerous legends, invented to raise its status and explain the place name. The name seems to mean 'Hill of a man named Æbba, or a woman named Æbbe',[6] possibly the saint to whom St Ebbe's Church in Oxford was dedicated (Æbbe of Coldingham or a different Æbbe of Oxford). However Abingdon stands in a valley and not on a hill. It is thought that the name was first given to a place on Boars Hill above Chilswell, and the name was transferred to its present site when the Abbey was moved.[7]

In 1084, William the Conqueror celebrated Easter at the Abbey and then left his son, the future Henry I, to be educated there.

In the 13th and 14th centuries, Abingdon was a flourishing agricultural centre with an extensive trade in

  • AAAHS: Abingdon Area Archaeological and Historical Society
  • Abingdon Men Who Served in World War 1
  • Abingdon Muslims
  • [2]
  • 360 Panorama of Abingdon Market Square
  • 360 Panorama of Ruins (Folly) in Abbey Gardens
  • 360 Panorama inside St Helen's Church
  • 360 Panorama of Mr Twitty's Almshouse
  • 360 Panorama of Long Alley Almshouse

External links

  •  
  •  
  •  
  • Harden, D.B. (1940). "The Geological Origin of Four Stone Axes Found in the Oxford District" (PDF).  
  • Hoiberg, Dale H., ed. (2010). "Abingdon". Encyclopedia Britannica. I: A-ak Bayes (15th ed.). Chicago, IL: Encyclopedia Britannica Inc. p. 33.  
  • Jervoise, Edwyn (1930). The Ancient Bridges of the South of England I. Westminster:  
  • John, A.H. (1959). A Liverpool Merchant House: Being the History of Alfred Booth and Company 1863–1958. London: George  
  •  
  • Meyrick, Ian (2007). Oxfordshire Cinemas. Images of England. Brimscombe Port:  
  • Mills, A.D.; Room, A. (2003). A Dictionary of British Place-Names. Oxford:  
  •  
  •  
  • Sullivan, Paul (2012). "Legends, Superstition and the Supernatural – Grave News". The Little Book of Oxfordshire. Stroud:  
  •  

Sources and further reading

  1. ^ "Area: Abingdon (Parish): Key Figures for 2011 Census: Key Statistics".  
  2. ^ "Area selected: Vale of White Horse (Non-Metropolitan District)". Neighbourhood Statistics: Full Dataset View. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 3 April 2010. 
  3. ^ Harden 1940, p. 165.
  4. ^ Zeuner 1952, p. 240.
  5. ^ a b c d Hoiberg 2010, p. 33.
  6. ^ Mills & Room 2003, Abingdon
  7. ^ Gelling 1957, pp. 54–62.
  8. ^ Jacobson, Curtis (September 2007). "Abingdon For MG Enthusiasts". Longmont, CO: British V8. Retrieved 31 December 2009. 
  9. ^ Abingdon Town Council Official Guide
  10. ^ Abingdon County Hall: Information for Teachers (PDF). Colchester:  
  11. ^ Summer assizes were moved from Abingdon in 1867, effectively making Reading the county town. However, the  
  12. ^ Williams, Amanda (25 November 2011). "Public to have say on renaming town".  
  13. ^ Wilkinson, Ben (24 February 2012). "It's all change at Abingdon-on-Thames". Oxford Mail (Newsquest). Retrieved 24 February 2012. 
  14. ^ Meyrick 2007, pp. 29–35.
  15. ^ Meyrick 2007, p. 34.
  16. ^ Rogers, Gordon (7 December 2006). "Traders fear bigger Tesco". Oxford Mail. Newsquest. 
  17. ^ "Abingdon Integrated Transport Strategy (ABITS), The Current Situation". Radley, Oxfordshire. Radley Parish Council. 21 April 2007. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 30 August 2007. 
  18. ^ "Construction starts on Abingdon Gaol development".  
  19. ^ The 50 Best British Artist of All Time – Paste Magazine
  20. ^ "Abingdon Golf Club/North Berks Golf Club", "Golf's Missing Links".
  21. ^ a b "History". Booth and Co. 2014. Retrieved 25 March 2015. 
  22. ^ John 1959, p. 116.
  23. ^ John 1959, p. 130.
  24. ^ "Pavlova Leather Co". Grace's Guide: The Best of British Engineering 1750–1960s. 1 November 2008. Retrieved 25 March 2015. 
  25. ^ John 1959, p. 186.
  26. ^ "Abingdon Town Council 2011 Election Results" (PDF). 
  27. ^ "St. Helen, Abingdon, Oxon". Old North Berks branch of the ODG. 2009. 
  28. ^ a b Jervoise 1930, p. 7.
  29. ^ Jervoise 1930, p. 6.
  30. ^ Leeming & Salter 1937, pp. 134–140.
  31. ^ Sullivan 2012
  32. ^ "Pillbox FW3/28A Abingdon". tracesofwar.com. Retrieved 18 June 2013. 
  33. ^ "Abingdon Traditional Morris Dancers". 
  34. ^ "Mr Hemmings' Traditional Abingdon Morris Dancers". 

References

See also

Education

See also Abbot of Abingdon, Abingdon School and List of notable Old Abingdonians.

Abingdonians

Old Speckled Hen ale was originally brewed by Morlands of Abingdon to commemorate the MG factory in the town.

The Friends of Abingdon's Unicorn Theatre, housed in the old Abbey buildings, is the site of first productions of many stage adaptations of Terry Pratchett's Discworld novels, by Stephen Briggs.

Abingdon has a very old and still active Morris Dancing tradition, passed on since before the folk dance and song revivals in the 19th century.[33][34] Every year a Mayor of Ock Street is elected by the inhabitants of Ock Street; he then parades through the town preceded by the famous Horns of Ock St, a symbol of Abingdon's Morris Dance troupe.

The centre of town and the whole of Ock Street (half a mile) are closed every October for two days for the Ock Street Michaelmas Fair, once a hiring fair but now maybe Britain's longest and narrowest funfair. The much smaller Runaway Fair, the following Monday, was traditionally for workers who had found their new employers too much to take within the first week.

A long-standing tradition of the town has local dignitaries throwing buns from the roof of the Abingdon County Hall Museum for crowds assembled in the market square on specific days of celebration (such as royal marriages, coronations and jubilees). The museum has a collection of the buns, dried and varnished, dating back to bun throwings of the 19th century. Since 2000, there have been bun-throwing ceremonies to commemorate the Millennium, the Golden Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II in 2002, the 450th anniversary of the town's being granted a Royal Charter in 2006, the Royal Wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton in 2011, and the Diamond Jubilee of Elizabeth II in 2012.

Children running for a bun in 2006

Culture and folklore

There is a Second World War FW3/28A pillbox by the River Ock near Marcham Road.[32]

Pillbox

Abingdon has the remains of a motte-and-bailey castle, which can be found to the north of the town centre surrounded by trees within a housing estate. Originally built of wood or stone, it was a fortification on a raised earthwork called a motte surrounded by a protective ditch. Many were built with unskilled or forced labour; they were built extensively across northern Europe from the 10th century onwards. They started to be built in England during the Norman invasion.

Abingdon Castle

The Roysse Room was the site of Abingdon School (then 'Roysse's School') from 1563 until it moved to its current site after an indenture by John Roysse, who had been born and educated in Abingdon before he moved to London. The room is now part of the civic offices.

Abingdon School

According to local legend, prior to its conversion in the 1970s, the gaol was haunted by the ghost of an eight-year-old boy who, after being convicted for arson in the mid-19th century, became the youngest person in the UK to be executed by hanging.[31]

Local legend

A gaol, built by prisoners of the Napoleonic Wars in 1811, is on the south edge of town next to the Thames. In the 1970s the gaol was converted into a leisure centre. In 2011 the site was developed into residential and commercial premises.

Abingdon Gaol

Abingdon's county hall by the main market square, built in 1677–1680 reputedly by Christopher Kempster, stands on columns, leaving the ground floor open for a market and other functions. It was once hailed as the "grandest town hall in Britain". It now houses the Abingdon County Hall Museum and is run by Historic England.

Abingdon County Hall Museum

Abingdon Bridge over the Thames, near St Helen's Church, was built in 1416 and widened or altered in 1790,[28] 1828,[29] 1927 and 1929.[5][28][30]

Abingdon Bridge

St. Nicolas' Church, parts of which were built in 1180, is near the museum.[5]

St Nicolas' Church

St. Helen's Church dates from around 1100 and is the second widest church in England, having five aisles and being only 10 feet (3.0 m) wider than it is long. The tower of St Helen's Church has a modern ring of ten bells, cast by The Whitechapel Bell Foundry in 2005 and hung in a new frame with new fittings by White's of Appleton in 2006.[27]

St Helen's parish church from across the Thames

St Helen's Church

The Abbey Gateway between the Abingdon County Hall Museum and the Guildhall remains a point of local importance. Although it is unclear how far back this tradition dates, some people from families that have lived in the town for generations follow the superstition that in walking under the gateway one should hold one's breath to stop the gargoyles that decorate the gateway from stealing it.

Of the Benedictine Abingdon Abbey there remains a beautiful Perpendicular gateway (common local knowledge, however, is that it was actually rebuilt out of the rubble of the original, and a little cursory examination of the patternation of the stonework will apparently divulge this) and ruins of buildings such as the mainly Early English prior's house, the guest house and other fragments. Other remains from the former abbey include the Unicorn Theatre and Long Gallery, which are still used for plays and functions including an annual craft fair.

Abingdon Abbey

The Long Gallery at Abingdon Abbey

Places of interest

The town is also represented on Oxfordshire County Council.

Abingdon is represented on the Vale of White Horse district council, as well as having its own town council. Control of the town council has passed between the Liberal Democrats and Conservatives in recent years. The political composition of the council is (2011 election results),[26]

The Member of Parliament for Oxford West and Abingdon is Nicola Blackwood (Conservative).

Abingdon Bridge, built in 1416, spans the Thames

Governance

A police station was built in its place, which was later extended with the addition of more cells, as Oxford's police station could not be extended further.

In 1924, car-maker MG was founded and moved its business alongside the Pavlova Leather Factory in 1929. By the outbreak of the Second World War, MG was established as one of the most popular brands of sports car in Britain. After the war, the MG factory continued to churn out increasing volumes of popular sports car which were available at competitive prices. But the factory closed in October 1980 on the demise of the ageing but still popular MG MGB range, and was demolished within months. The headquarters of the MG Car Club, founded in 1930, is at 11 & 12 Cemetery Road, next to the old factory offices.

Abingdon has a business park which has offices for several national and international companies including Northern Rock bank. Until recently, Vodafone had offices in the town, acquired as part of its takeover of Mannesmann in 2000. The Science Park includes the headquarters of Sophos, an anti-virus company. RM, an educational computing supplier, commonly refer to themselves as being Abingdon-based, which is technically true – even though their HQ is actually in nearby Milton Park, Milton, they have an Abingdon post code (as does the rest of Milton Park). Penlon Ltd, a medical equipment company, have their premises on the outskirts of Abingdon (their previous site, near the former railway station, has been redeveloped as residential housing). Another major employer is the British head office of the German appliance company Miele.

Abingdon is near several major scientific employers: the UKAEA at Culham (including the Joint European Torus (JET) fusion research project), Harwell Laboratory, the STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and the new Diamond Light Source synchrotron, which is the largest UK-funded scientific facility to be built for over 40 years. Many inhabitants work in Oxford or commute by rail to London, from nearby Didcot. The Army now occupies Dalton Barracks, which, prior to 1993, was the Royal Air Force station RAF Abingdon.

Abingdon had the Morland Brewery, whose most famous ale was Old Speckled Hen, named after an early MG car. Greene King Brewery bought Morland for £182 million in 1999, closed the brewery and moved production to Bury St Edmunds in Suffolk. The site of the brewery has been redeveloped into housing. The Maltings was demolished and is now a mixed residential area and council offices.

The Pavlova and Gloria leather works were major employers but both are now closed. Alfred Booth and Company of Liverpool traded with the Pavlova Leather Syndicate from 1860,[21] bought a share in it in 1917–18[22] and took it over in 1921.[23] In May 1947 at the annual British Industries Fair in Birmingham, Pavlova advertised doe skins, chamois, lambskins and goatskins, much of it as suede, for uses including shoes, gloves and belts.[24] In 1958 Pavlova's site covered 35 acres (14 ha), employed neary 200 people and included a staff sports field. At that time its factory still processed imported skins of sheep, lamb and goat, mainly to make suede.[25] Garner group took over the Booth group in 1979 and became Garner Booth. Pittards plc took over Garner Booth in 1987 and became Pittard Garner. It closed the Pavlova works in 1993.[21]

Industrially, Abingdon was best known for the MG car factory, which opened in 1929. 1,155,032 cars were made at the plant over the next 51 years until British Leyland closed it on 24 October 1980.

Economy

In 2013 -14 Abingdon RFC's President, Paul Murphy MBE, was also the President of the RFU.

Several years ago it was decided to introduce the youngsters of Abingdon to Club Rugby. The Youth Section has 200 playing members from the ages of 6 to 18.

The Abingdon Sevens traditionally opens the Home Counties' playing season and has attracted sides from throughout the Country and beyond. Initiated in 1956 as a one-off tournament to celebrate the town's 400th anniversary of receiving a Royal Charter, it proved so successful that the competition has been held on an annual basis ever since.

Abingdon has had members representing the county, progressing to first-class level and on to international status in the Five Nations Tournament.

In the mid 80s a determined effort was made to acquire grounds and a clubhouse dedicated to Rugby. The current base at the town's Southern Sports Park was opened by John Pattern MP in 1989.

This period saw the formation of the ill-fated Abingdon Sports Club; an amalgamation of the town's Rugby, Cricket and Hockey clubs and the bid to establish a sporting centre at Hales Meadow. In a short time the ground was developed and a pavilion erected but the organisation was plagued with financial difficulties and very soon dissolved with Hockey disbanding and Abingdon Rugby remaining at the site as tenants to the Cricket Club.

Abingdon RUFC was formed at the Queens Hotel on 27 February 1931. During the 30s the club was based at the Queens Hotel and games were played on the Council owned recreation ground at Caldecott Road. Immediately after the Second World War the club moved to outside the RAF camp (now Dalton Barracks) which offered on-site changing facilities and later a pitch inside the camp. The games would often continue as Beverly Bombers rolled up and down the adjacent runways. At the start of the Suez Crisis in 1956 play temporarily returned to the Caldecott Road site because of security risks.

Abingdon Golf Club/North Berks Golf Club (now defunct) was first mentioned in 1876. The club disappeared at the time of WW2.[20]

Abingdon has two non-league football teams: Abingdon United F.C., who play at The Armadillo Energy Stadium, and their Abingdon Town F.C., who play at Culham Road.

Sport

The famous rock band Radiohead formed in Abingdon in 1985. The band grew to become highly successful, selling more than 30 million albums worldwide. In 2011, Radiohead were ranked the third best British artists of all time by Paste, below only the Beatles and the Rolling Stones.[19] In 2005, Radiohead were ranked number 73 in Rolling Stone's list of "The Greatest Artists of All Time".

Abingdon is one of the few towns in the UK to have its own annual air display – the Abingdon Air & Country Show, which takes place every May at Dalton Barracks (formerly RAF Abingdon) (see below).

Redevelopment of Old Gaol began in 2010.[18] The first stage was demolishing the 1970s additions and swimming pool extension. The Gaol is to become luxury flats, shops and restaurants, with promised access to the riverside. Part of the old Police Station will be demolished to access the older building of the Old Gaol.

In 2012, further refurbishment is underway; the Bury Street Precinct has a new owner/landlord, its name has been changed to Abbey Shopping Centre and it is to get another "facelift" plan: instead of a roof (always promised), the covered walkways are to be removed and the flat roofs replaced. A few shops have been knocked together for larger shops; W H Smith have moved in. When Woolworths went into administration, the shop was empty for a while, then Cargo returned to Abingdon on a short-term lease. The current occupants of the former Woolworths store are Poundland. Proposed plans show demolition of the buildings in the Charters. The GP practice and public library are to be moved, with the latest plans being to move them into the second floor of the building where Woolworths used to be.

The town centre of Abingdon was refurbished in 2007 as part of the council's redevelopment plan. The roads around the area have been changed: notably the one-way system around the centre has been partially changed to two-way. While this has slightly reduced traffic within the historic town centre, congestion has greatly increased elsewhere. Local businesses have also complained that the increased traffic has driven shoppers away.[17] Also planned for the town centre is a roof over the pre-1970s shopping precinct and the removal of two kiosks. The market square was repaved and a new tourist information centre is planned.

Shopping in Abingdon fares poorly in comparison to developments in nearby Didcot, Wantage and Witney. The Tesco Extra store west of the town is the largest supermarket in Abingdon and one of the most profitable Tesco stores in the country.[16] Nearby is the Fairacres Retail Park, recently redeveloped, which includes Homebase, Argos, Subway, Dreams, Beales and Pets at Home stores as well as an AHF furniture store which is part of Anglia Regional Co-operative Society. It originally had two long established Abingdon retailers – Vineys Home Furnishings (now part of the Lee Longlands chain) and Mays Carpets (now part of the Carpetright chain and has re-branded accordingly). In the town centre, many independent stores, estate agents and charity shops make up the Bury Street shopping precinct as major high street names have chosen to go to other towns. However, this may change following redevelopment planned here.

The local newspapers are The Oxford Times, Oxford Mail and Abingdon Herald. The Oxfordshire Guardian, a free newspaper, has been based in Abingdon for many years and was founded as the South Oxfordshire Courier. Local radio and television stations are shared with Oxford, although ITV retains a news gathering centre in the town, formerly a broadcasting studio, for ITV Meridian. Formerly the ITV franchise was ITV Central. Local radio is provided by BBC Radio Oxford, Jack FM, Glide FM and Heart Thames Valley. There was a SIX TV local TV channel until 2009.

Abingdon had four cinemas but all have closed.[14] The last was the Regal, which closed in 1989. It stood derelict for 24 years until it was demolished in 2003 and replaced by housing development, Regal Close.[15]

Sport and recreation facilities include White Horse Leisure and Tennis Centre, Tilsley Park and the Southern Town Park.

Leisure and media

Local councillors voted in November 2011 to rename the town back to its former name of "Abingdon-on-Thames", though this would need approval from the Vale of White Horse council.[12] This approval was granted on 23 February 2012.[13]

Since the 1980s, Abingdon has played host to a number of information communication companies, with many based in the town's respective business and science parks. With this, and the result of Abingdon's proximity to academic and scientific institutions in Oxford, the town has seen an influx of young professionals taking residence in the town's many residential areas such as Peachcroft.

Abingdon became the county town of non-metropolitan shire county of Oxfordshire and the seat of the new Vale of White Horse District Council, with Abingdon becoming a civil parish with a town council.

The nearest railway station is Radley, two miles (3 km) away. Abingdon was served by a branch line but the line and Abingdon railway station were closed in 1963. Much of the original Abingdon branch line is now a cyclepath, whilst the land on which the station stood has been extensively redeveloped, and is now the site of a large Waitrose store and surrounded by a large number of new flats and houses.

In 1790 Abingdon Lock was built, replacing navigation to the town via the Swift Ditch. In 1810, the Wilts and Berks Canal opened, linking Abingdon with Semington on the Kennet and Avon Canal. Abingdon became a key link between major industrial centres such as Bristol, London, Birmingham and the Black Country. In 1856 the Abingdon Railway opened, linking the town with the Great Western Railway at Radley. The Wilts & Berks Canal was abandoned in 1906 but a voluntary trust is now working to restore and re-open it. Abingdon railway station was closed to passengers in September 1963. The line remained open for freight until 1984, including serving the MG car factory, which opened in 1929 and closed in October 1980 as part of a British Leyland rationalisation plan.[8]

County Hall, completed in 1680

The council was empowered to elect one George III, made no considerable change. James II changed the style of the corporation to that of a mayor, twelve aldermen and twelve burgesses.

After the abbey's dissolution in 1538, the town sank into decay and, in 1556,[5] upon receiving a representation of its pitiable condition, Mary I granted a charter establishing a mayor, two bailiffs, twelve chief burgesses and sixteen secondary burgesses, the mayor to be clerk of the market, coroner and a Justice of the Peace. The present Christ's Hospital originally belonged to the Guild of the Holy Cross, on the dissolution of which Edward VI founded the almshouses instead, under its present name.

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Hawaii eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.