World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Activator (genetics)

Article Id: WHEBN0000553182
Reproduction Date:

Title: Activator (genetics)  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Enhancer (genetics), Promoter (genetics), Activator, Glossary of gene expression terms, Coactivator (genetics)
Collection: Gene Expression, Proteins
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Activator (genetics)

A transcriptional activator is a protein (transcription factor) that increases gene transcription of a gene or set of genes. Most activators are DNA-binding proteins that bind to enhancers or promoter-proximal elements.

Most activators function by binding sequence-specifically to a DNA site located in or near a promoter and making protein-protein interactions with the general transcription machinery (RNA polymerase and general transcription factors), thereby facilitating the binding of the general transcription machinery to the promoter. The DNA site bound by the activator is referred to as an "activator site." The part of the activator that makes protein-protein interactions with the general transcription machinery is referred to as an "activating region." The part of the general transcription machinery that makes protein-protein interactions with the activator is referred to as an "activation target."

Example

The catabolite activator protein (CAP; also known as cAMP receptor protein, CRP) activates transcription at the lac operon of the bacterium Escherichia coli.[1] Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is produced during glucose starvation, binds to CAP, causes a conformational change that allows CAP to bind to a DNA site located adjacent to the lac promoter. CAP then makes a direct protein-protein interaction with RNA polymerase that recruits RNA polymerase to the lac promoter.

lac operon in detail

See also

References

  1. ^ Busby S.,  
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Hawaii eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.