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Aisin Gioro

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Aisin Gioro

Aisin Gioro
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese 愛新覺羅
Simplified Chinese 爱新觉罗
Manchu name
Manchu script
Aisin Gioro, Jin
Country Qing China, Manchukuo
Estates Mukden Palace, Chengde Mountain Resort, Old Summer Palace, Summer Palace
Titles Emperor of the Great Qing dynasty
Emperor of China
Khan of the Later Jin dynasty
Son of Heaven
Lord of ten thousand years
Founded 1616 (in Jilin); 1644 (in China proper)
Founder Emperor Nurhaci
Final ruler Xuantong Emperor (Puyi)
Current head Jin Yuzhang[1]
Deposition 1912: Monarchy dissolved
Ethnicity Manchu

Aisin Gioro was the family name of the Manchu emperors of the Qing dynasty. The House of Aisin Gioro ruled China from 1644 until the Xinhai Revolution of 1911, which established a republican government in its place. The word aisin means gold in the Manchu language, and "gioro" is the name of the place in present day Yilan, Heilongjiang Province. In Manchu custom, families are identified first by their Hala (哈拉), i.e. their family or clan name, and then by Mukūn (穆昆), the more detailed classification, typically referring to individual families. In the case of Aisin Gioro, Aisin is the Mukūn, and Gioro is the Hala. Other members of the Gioro clan include Irgen Gioro (伊尔根觉罗), Susu Gioro (舒舒觉罗) and Sirin Gioro (西林觉罗).

The Jin dynasty (jin means gold in Chinese) of the Jurchens, ancestors of the Manchus, was known as aisin gurun, and the Qing dynasty was initially named () amaga aisin gurun, or Later Jin dynasty. Since the fall of the Empire, a number of members of the family have changed their surnames to Jin (Chinese: ) since it has the same meaning as "Aisin". For example, Puyi's younger brother changed his name from Aisin-Gioro Puren (愛新覺羅溥任) to Jin Youzhi (金友之) and his children in turn are surnamed Jin.

Contents

  • Family generation names 1
  • Foundation 2
  • From Fanca to Ningguta Beise 3
  • Intermarriage and political alliances 4
  • Genetics 5
  • Notable Aisin-Gioros 6
    • Emperors 6.1
    • Iron-cap princes and their descendants 6.2
    • Prominent political figures 6.3
    • Others 6.4
    • Present-day 6.5
  • See also 7
  • References 8

Family generation names

Before the founding of the

  1. ^ Heir to China's throne celebrates a modest life, The Age, November 27, 2004
  2. ^ Edward J. M. Rhoads (2001). Manchus & Han: ethnic relations and political power in late Qing and early republican China, 1861-1928 (reprint, illustrated ed.). University of Washington Press. p. 55.  
  3. ^ Mark C. Elliott (2001). The Manchu Way: The Eight Banners and Ethnic Identity in Late Imperial China (illustrated, reprint ed.). Stanford University Press. p. 243.  
  4. ^ Mark C. Elliott (2001). The Manchu Way: The Eight Banners and Ethnic Identity in Late Imperial China (illustrated, reprint ed.). Stanford University Press. p. 244.  
  5. ^ Edward J. M. Rhoads (2001). Manchus & Han: ethnic relations and political power in late Qing and early republican China, 1861-1928 (reprint, illustrated ed.). University of Washington Press. p. 55.  
  6. ^ Edward J. M. Rhoads (2001). Manchus & Han: ethnic relations and political power in late Qing and early republican China, 1861-1928 (reprint, illustrated ed.). University of Washington Press. p. 56.  
  7. ^ Anne Walthall (2008). Anne Walthall, ed. Servants of the dynasty: palace women in world history. Volume 7 of The California world history library (illustrated ed.). University of California Press. p. 148. Retrieved March 2, 2012. Whereas the emperor and princes chose wives or concubines from the banner population through the drafts, imperial daughters were married to Mongol princes, Manchu aristocrats, or, on some occasions, Chinese high officials...To win the support and cooperation of Ming generals in Liaodong, Nurhaci gave them Aisin Gioro women as wives. In 1618, before he attacked Fushun city, he promised the Ming general defending the city a woman from the Aisin Gioro clan in marriage if he surrendered. After the general surrendered, Nurhaci gave him one of his granddaughters. Later the general joined the Chinese banner. 
  8. ^ Frederic E. Wakeman (1977). The fall of imperial China (illustrated, reprint ed.). Simon and Schuster. p. 79.  
  9. ^ Anne Walthall (2008). Anne Walthall, ed. Servants of the dynasty: palace women in world history. Volume 7 of The California world history library (illustrated ed.). University of California Press. p. 148. Retrieved March 2, 2012. In 1632, Hongtaiji accepted the suggestion of Prince Yoto, his nephew, and assigned one thousand Manchu women to surrendered Chinese officials and generals for them to marry. He also classified these Chinese into groups by rank and gave them wives accordingly. "First-rank officials were given Manchu princes' daughters as wives; second rank officials were given Manchu ministers' daughters as wives." 
  10. ^ Anne Walthall (2008). Anne Walthall, ed. Servants of the dynasty: palace women in world history. Volume 7 of The California world history library (illustrated ed.). University of California Press. p. 148. Retrieved March 2, 2012. Hongtaiji believed that only through intermarrige between Chinese and Manchus would he be able to eliminate ethnic conflicts in the areas he conquered; and "since the Chinese generals and Manchu women lived together and ate together, it would help these surrendered generals to forget their motherland" 
  11. ^ Anne Walthall (2008). Anne Walthall, ed. Servants of the dynasty: palace women in world history. Volume 7 of The California world history library (illustrated ed.). University of California Press. p. 148. Retrieved March 2, 2012. During their first years in China, the Manchu rulers continued to give imperial daughters to Chinese high officials. These included the sons of the Three Feudatories—the Ming defectors rewarded with large and almost autonomous fiefs in the south. 
  12. ^ eds. Watson, Ebrey 1991, pp. 179-180.
  13. ^ Wakeman 1986, p. 1017.
  14. ^ http://www.laty.gov.cn/ShowArticle.asp?ArticleID=24693

References

See also

Present-day

Others

Yinti, Prince Xun, 14th son of the Kangxi Emperor, general in Xinjiang, rumoured successor to the throne

Prominent political figures

By Qing tradition, the sons of Princes do not automatically inherit their father's title, but rather will inherit a title one level lower. However, there were 12 princes during the Qing dynasty who were named "iron-cap princes" (铁帽子王), meaning that their princely titles will be "passed on forever" through each succeeding generation.

Iron-cap princes and their descendants

Emperors

Notable Aisin-Gioros

Haplogroup C3c has been identified as a possible marker of the Aisin Gioro and is found in ten different ethnic minorities in northern China, but completely absent from Han Chinese.

Genetics

The Manchus lured Chinese Generals into defecting and joining the [10] Women from the Imperial family were also married to other Chinese who joined the Qing after their conquest of China.[11] Aisin Gioro women were married to the sons of the Han Chinese Generals Sun Sike (Sun Ssu-k'o), Geng Jimao (Keng Chi-mao), Shang Kexi (Shang K'o-hsi), and Wu Sangui (Wu San-kuei).[12] Geng Zhongming, a Han bannerman, was awarded the title of Prince Jingnan, and his son Geng Jingmao managed to have both his sons Geng Jingzhong and Geng Zhaozhong become court attendants under Shunzhi and get married to Aisin Gioro women, with Haoge's (a son of Hong Taiji) daughter marrying Geng Jingzhong and Prince Abatai's granddaughter marrying Geng Zhaozhong.[13]

Marriage with the Aisin Gioro family was used by the Qing emperors to further political alliances. The Qing offered Aisin Gioro princesses to Chinese generals during the Manchu conquest of China to induce them to surrender. Aisin Gioro princesses were also frequently married to Mongol princes.

Intermarriage and political alliances

1 Although Aisin Gioro is usually pronounced "Aixin Jueluo" in Mandarin, some argue that it should be "Aixin Jiaoluo", since the only pronunciation of the character 覺 corresponding to Manchu gio is jiao.

Mengtemu is identified as Möngke Temür (猛哥帖木儿), who left Odoli at the invitation of the Ming dynasty and was appointed as leader of the Jianzhou Left Guard. On the other hand, the founder of the Jianzhou Right Guard was Möngke Temür's half-brother Fanca. It is unclear whether he was the same person as Mentemu's ancestor, or if this was just a mistake by the Manchus. The Jianzhou Left Guard fell into chaos in the early 16th century. In addition, Sibeoci Fiyanggū and Fuman seem to have been fictional, because they did not appear in Chinese or Korean records. Maybe they were fabricated by the imperial family to claim its linkage to Möngke Temür.

Suffering from tyranny, the people raided Odoli and killed all Bukūri Yongšon's descendants except Fanca. A magpie saved Fanca's life. Fanca's descendant Mengtemu went eastward to execute his ancestors' revenge in Hetu Ala and settled there. Mengtemu's sons were Cungšan and Cuyan. Cungšan's sons were Tolo, Toimo, and Sibeoci Fiyanggū. Sibeoci Fiyanggū's son was Fuman, and Fuman's six sons were called Ningguta Beise (Six Kings; or ningguta i mafa), who lived around Hetu Ala.

From Fanca to Ningguta Beise

Under Nurhaci and his son Hong Taiji, the Aisin Gioro clan of the Jianzhou tribe won hegemony among the rival Jurchen tribes of the northeast, then through warfare and alliances extended its control into Inner Mongolia. Nurhachi created large, permanent civil-military units called “banners” to replace the small hunting groups used in his early campaigns. A banner was composed of smaller companies; it included some 7,500 warriors and their households, including slaves, under the command of a chieftain. Each banner was identified by a coloured flag that was yellow, white, blue, or red, either plain or with a border design. Originally there were four, then eight, Manchu banners; new banners were created as the Manchu conquered new regions, and eventually there were Manchu, Mongol, and Chinese banners, eight for each ethnic group. By 1648 less than one-sixth of the bannermen were actually of Manchu ancestry. The Manchu conquest was thus achieved with a multiethnic army led by Manchu nobles and Han Chinese generals. Han Chinese soldiers were organized into the Army of the Green Standard, which became a sort of imperial constabulary force posted throughout China and on the frontiers.

The Aisin Gioro also claimed descent from Mentemu of the Odoli clan, who served as Chieftains of the Jianzhou Jurchens.

The Aisin Gioro claimed their progenitor Bukūri Yongšon was the result of a virgin birth. According to the legend, three heavenly maidens including one named Fekulen were bathing at a lake near Changbai mountain called Bulhūri omo, when a mapgpie dropped a piece of red fruit near her and she ate it. She then became pregnant with Bukūri Yongšon.

The Aisin Gioro clan, as a Manchu clan, claimed descent from the Jurchen people, who founded the Jin dynasty nearly five centuries earlier under the Wanyan (完顏 Wányán) clan. However, the Aisin Gioro and Wanyan clans are unrelated.

Foundation

Subsequent: Qi 启, Dao 焘, Kai 闿, Zeng 增, Qi 祺

  Order Generation code Radical code Examples
1 Yongzheng Emperor Yin, 胤/Yun, 允 Fortune (Shi) 示 Yinzhi, 胤祉
2 Qianlong Emperor Hong, 弘 Sun/Day (Ri) 日 Hongzhou, 弘晝
3 Jiaqing Emperor Yong, 永/Yong, 顒 Jade (Yu) 玉 Yongqi,永琪
4 Daoguang Emperor Mian, 綿/Min, 旻 Emotion (Xin) 心 Mianyu, 綿愉
5 Xianfeng Emperor Yi, 奕 Literary (Yan) 言 Yixin, 奕訢
6 Guangxu Emperor Zai, 載 Water (Shui) 水 Zaifeng, 載灃
7 Xuantong Emperor Pu, 溥 Human (Single Ren) 人 Pujie, 溥傑
8 Yu'e, 毓峨 Yu, 毓 Mountain (Shan) 山 Yuzhan, 毓嶦
9 Hengtai, 恒鈦 Heng, 恒 Metal/Gold (Jin) 金 Hengjiang, 恒鏹

After taking control of China, however, the family gradually incorporated Han Chinese naming conventions.[4][5] During the reign of the Kangxi Emperor, all of Kangxi's sons were to be named with a generation prefix preceding the given name. There were three characters initially used, Cheng (承), Bao (保), and Chang (长), before finally settling on Yin (胤) over a decade into Kangxi's reign. The generation prefix of the Yongzheng Emperor's sons switched from Fu (福) to Hong (弘). Following Yongzheng, the Qianlong Emperor decreed that all subsequent male offspring would have a generation prefix placed in their name according to a Generation Poem, for which the Qianlong Emperor composed the first four characters, yong-mian-yi-zai (永綿奕載). Moreover, direct descendants of the emperor will often share a similar radical or meaning in the final character. A common radical was shared in the second character of the first name of royals who were in line to the throne, however, royals who were not in line to the throne did not necessarily share the radical in their name.[6] In one case, the Yongzheng Emperor changed the generation code of his brothers as a way of keeping his own name unique. Such practices apparently ceased to exist after the Daoguang Era.

[3][2]

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