World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Akron, Ohio

Akron, Ohio
City of Akron
Flag of Akron, Ohio
Official seal of Akron, Ohio
Nickname(s): Rubber City, City of Invention, Rubber Capital of the World (historical)
Location in Summit County and the state of Ohio.
Location in Summit County and the state of Ohio.
Akron, Ohio is located in Ohio
Akron, Ohio
Location in Ohio
Country United States
State Ohio
County Summit
Demonym Akronite
Founded 1825
Incorporated 1836 (village)
Incorporated 1865 (city)
 • Type Mayor–Council
 • Mayor Jeff Fusco (D) (interim)
 • City 62.37 sq mi (161.54 km2)
 • Land 62.03 sq mi (160.66 km2)
 • Water 0.34 sq mi (0.88 km2)  0.55%
Elevation 1,004 ft (306 m)
Population (2010)[2]
 • City 199,110
 • Estimate (2013)[3] 198,100
 • Rank US: 116th
 • Density 3,209.9/sq mi (1,239.3/km2)
 • Urban 569,499 (US: 71st)
 • Metro 705,686 (US: 77th)
Time zone EST (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4)
ZIP code 44301-44321, 44325, 44326, 44328, 44333, 44334, 44372, 44396, 44398
Area code(s) 330, 234
FIPS code 39-01000
GNIS feature ID 1064305[4]
Website .us.oh.akronci

Akron is the fifth-largest city in the U.S. state of Ohio and is the seat of Summit County. It is in the Great Lakes region approximately 39 miles (63 km) south of Lake Erie along the Little Cuyahoga River. As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 199,110.[5] The Akron, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) covers Summit and Portage counties, and in 2010 had a population of 703,200.[5] Akron is also part of the larger Cleveland-Akron-Canton, OH Combined Statistical Area, which in 2010 had a population of 3,515,646.

Akron was co-founded in 1825 when suggested by Paul Williams to [7] In 1851, Sojourner Truth attended a convention and extemporaneously delivered the original "Ain't I a Woman?" speech. During the Civil War, Ferdinand Schumacher supplied the Union Army with oats produced by his mill along the Ohio Canal. Between the 1870s and World War I, numerous churches across the nation were built using the Akron Plan.[8][9]

With a population increase of 201.8% during the 1910s, it became the nation's fastest-growing city due to industries such as stoneware, sanitary sewer, fishing tackle, farming equipment, match, toy, and rubber.[10][11] The companies General Tire, B.F. Goodrich, Firestone, and Goodyear built headquarters, though only the latter remains. Airships, blimps, dirigibles, and zeppelins have been manufactured at the Goodyear Airdock since World War II. The Goodyear Polymer Center and National Polymer Innovation Center are on the University of Akron campus, which anchors the Polymer Valley and is home to the Archives of the History of American Psychology. Akron also headquartered the National Marble Tournament, Professional Bowlers Association, and Women's Professional Mud Wrestling.[12] Home to employers such as Summa, GOJO Industries, FirstMerit Bank, and FirstEnergy, it is listed by Newsweek as one of ten Information Age high tech havens.[13] Awarded by the National Civic League and National Arbor Day Foundation, it was named one of the world's most livable cities.[14] The All-American Soapbox Derby, WGC-Bridgestone Invitational, National Hamburger Festival, Founders Day (Alcoholics Anonymous), and Road Runner Akron Marathon are annually hosted by the city, which was a venue for some events of the 2014 Gay Games. Tourist attractions include Stan Hywet Hall & Gardens and Lock 3 Park, where the American Marble & Toy Manufacturing Company once stood.

Residents of Akron are referred to as "Akronites." Nicknames include "Rubber City," "City of Invention" and "Rubber Capital of the World."[15][16][17]


  • History 1
    • 1850s–1890s: Summit City 1.1
    • 1900s–1990s: Rubber Capital of the World 1.2
    • 2000s: City of Invention 1.3
  • Geography 2
    • Climate 2.1
  • Cityscape 3
    • Architecture 3.1
      • Neighborhoods 3.1.1
    • Suburbs 3.2
  • Culture 4
    • Film and television 4.1
    • In popular culture 4.2
    • Tourism 4.3
    • Cuisine 4.4
    • Spoken dialects 4.5
  • Sports 5
    • Past sports teams 5.1
    • College sports 5.2
  • Parks and recreation 6
  • Media 7
  • Economy 8
    • Polymer Valley 8.1
    • Hospitals 8.2
    • Top employers 8.3
  • Government and politics 9
    • Humanitarian affairs 9.1
  • Demographics 10
    • 2010 census 10.1
  • Education 11
  • Transportation 12
    • Airports 12.1
    • Railroads 12.2
    • Bus and public transportation 12.3
    • Freeways 12.4
  • Crime 13
    • Methamphetamine history 13.1
  • Notable people 14
  • Sister cities 15
  • References 16
  • Further reading 17
  • External links 18


Original town plot of Akron

In 1811, Paul Williams settled near the corner of what is now Buchtel Avenue and Broadway and suggested to surveyor of the Connecticut Land Company's Connecticut Western Reserve General Simon Perkins, the co-founding of a town at the summit of the developing Ohio and Erie Canal. The name derived from the Greek word ἄκρον signifying a summit or high point.[18] Laid out in December 1825, where the South Akron neighborhood now is; Irish laborers working on the Ohio Canal built approximately 100 cabins nearby in autumn.

Due to Eliakim Crosby founding "North Akron" (Cascade) in 1833, "South" was added to Akron's name up until the two merged and became an incorporated village in 1836.[6] In 1840 [7]

1850s–1890s: Summit City

Quaker Square as it appeared in 1979

When the Ohio Women's Rights Convention came to Akron in 1851, Sojourner Truth extemporaneously delivered her speech named Ain't I A Woman?, at the Universalist Old Stone Church. Associated with the church, John R. Buchtel founded Buchtel College in 1870, renamed the University of Akron in 1913. Purchasing a mill in 1856, Ferdinand Schumacher mass-produced oat bars which the Union Army were supplied with during the American Civil War, becoming high in demand afterward. Akron incorporated as a city in 1865.[19] Philanthropist Lewis Miller, Walter Blythe, and architect Jacob Snyder designed the widely used Akron Plan, debuting it on Akron's First Methodist Episcopal Church in 1872.[20] Numerous Congregational, Baptist, and Presbyterian churches built between the 1870s and World War I use it.[8][9] In 1883, a local journalist began the modern toy industry by founding the Akron Toy Company. A year later, the first popular toy was mass-produced clay marbles made by Samuel C. Dyke at his shop where Lock 3 Park is now. Other popular inventions include rubber balloons; ducks; dolls; balls, Baby Buggy Bumpers, and Little Brown Jugs. In 1895, the first long distance electric railway, the Akron, Bedford and Cleveland Railroad, began service.[21] On August 25, 1889, the Boston Daily Globe referred to Akron with the nickname "Summit City."[22] To assist local police, the city deployed the first police car in the U.S. running on electricity.[23]

1900s–1990s: Rubber Capital of the World

Goodyear headquarters

The Riot of 1900 resulted in city officials being assaulted, two deaths, plus Columbia Hall and the Downtown Fire station (now the City Building since 1925) burning to the ground.[24] The American trucking industry was birthed through Akron's Rubber Capital of the World era when the four major tire companies Goodrich Corporation (1869), Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company (1898), Firestone Tire and Rubber Company (1900),[25] and General Tire (1915)[26][27] were headquartered in the city. The numerous jobs the rubber factories provided for deaf people led to Akron being nicknamed the "Crossroads of the Deaf."[28] On Easter Sunday 1913, Akron's total rainfall was recorded at 9.55 inches resulting in a flood which killed five citizens and destroyed the Ohio and Erie Canal system. From 1916–1920 10,000 schoolgirls took part in the successful Akron Experiment, testing iodized salt to prevent goiter in what was known as the "Goiter Belt".[29]

Rubber companies responded to housing crunches by building affordable housing for workers. Goodyear's president,

  • Akron travel guide from Wikivoyage
  • Akron, Ohio at DMOZ
  • City of Akron official website
  • History of Akron and Summit County
  • Balanced in the wind: a biography of ... Google Books. June 1989.  
  • "Table 1. Annual Estimates of the Population of Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2009 (CBSA-EST2009-01)" ( 
  • "US Census 2000 est". 

External links

  • Joyce Dyer, Gum-Dipped: A Daughter Remembers Rubber Town. Akron: University of Akron Press, 2003.
  • Kathleen Endres, Akron's Better Half: Women's Clubs and the Humanization of a City, 1825–1925, Akron: University of Akron Press, 2006.
  • Kathleen L. Endres, Rosie the Rubber Worker: Women Workers in Akron's Rubber Factories during World War II. Kent: Kent State University Press, 2000
  • Jack Gieck, A Photo Album of Ohio's Canal Era, 1825–1913, Revised Edition. Kent: Kent State University Press, 1992
  • Jack Gieck, Early Akron's Industrial Valley: A History of the Cascade Locks. Kent: Kent State University Press, 2008
  • Alfred Winslow Jones, Life, Liberty, & Property: A Story of Conflict and a Measurement of Conflicting Rights. Akron: University of Akron Press, 1999.
  • S. A. Lane, Fifty Years and Over of Akron and Summit County. Akron, 1892.
  • S. Love and David Giffels, Wheels of Fortune: The Story of Rubber in Akron, Ohio. Akron: University of Akron Press, 1998.
  • S. Love, Ian Adams, and Barney Taxel, Stan Hywet Hall & Gardens. Akron: University of Akron Press, 2000.
  • F. McGovern, Written on the Hills: The Making of the Akron Landscape. Akron: University of Akron Press, 1996.
  • F. McGovern, Fun, Cheap, and Easy: My Life in Ohio Politics, 1949–1964. Akron: University of Akron Press, 2002.
  • Russ Musarra and Chuck Ayers, Walks around Akron. Akron: University of Akron Press, 2007.
  • Oscar E. Olin, et al., A Centennial History of Akron, 1825-1925. Summit County Historical Society, 1925.
  • John S. Reese, Guide Book for the Tourist and Traveler over the Valley Railway, Revised Edition. Kent: Kent State University Press, 2002
  • Akron Chamber of Commerce Year Book, (1913–14)

Further reading

  1. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer Files: Places".  
  2. ^ a b "American FactFinder".  
  3. ^ "Population Estimates".  
  4. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names".  
  5. ^ a b "American FactFinder2". Retrieved March 20, 2010. 
  6. ^ a b "Akron's Historic Timeline: 1800-1849". City of Akron. Retrieved June 9, 2015. 
  7. ^ a b "Akron School Law - Ohio History Central - A product of the Ohio Historical Society". Ohio History Central. July 1, 2005. Retrieved September 9, 2012. 
  8. ^ a b When Church Became Theatre: The Transformation of Evangelical Architecture and Worship in Nineteenth-Century America. Jeanne Halgren Kilde. Oxford University Press, 2005. ISBN 978-0-19-517972-9.`p.185
  9. ^ a b Jenks, Christopher Stephen (December 1995). "American Religious Buildings: The Akron Plan Sunday School".  
  10. ^ a b "Butler: Clay Products". Retrieved September 9, 2012. 
  11. ^ a b Howe, Henry (1896). "Historical collections of Ohio: An encyclopedia of the state: History both general and local, geography with descriptions of its counties, cities and villages, its agricultural, manufacturing, mining and business development, sketches of eminent and interesting characters, etc., with notes of a tour over it in 1886". 
  12. ^ a b "Mighty mud maidens". Archived from the original on January 1, 2011. 
  13. ^ a b c "A New Brand Of Tech Cities - Newsweek and The Daily Beast". April 29, 2001. Retrieved September 9, 2012. 
  14. ^ a b "Akron Named Tree City USA by the Arbor Day Foundation" (Press release). City of Akron. April 17, 2009. Archived from the original on September 27, 2011. Retrieved June 9, 2015. 
  15. ^ "Akron: News Releases 2003: Akron History Returns to the Canal". July 2, 2003. Archived from the original on August 8, 2007. Retrieved April 15, 2009. 
  16. ^ "Community slogans about products". ePodunk. Archived from the original on March 28, 2009. Retrieved April 15, 2009. 
  17. ^ Mandel, Peter (April 25, 2004). "Bouncing Around Akron, Rubber Capital of the World".  
    • Love, Steve (January 5, 1997). "The Rubber City's Last Stand".  
    • Allen, Dale (May 26, 1996). "What Happened to Rubber Capital?".  
  18. ^ ἄκρον. Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project.
  19. ^ Ben Cahoon. "Mayors of U.S. Cities A-L". Retrieved September 9, 2012. 
  20. ^ a b Robert T. Englert (February 2004). "National Register of Historic Places Registration: First Presbyterian Church".  
  21. ^
  22. ^ Barry Popik, Smoky City, website, March 27, 2005
  23. ^ a b "Police Technology". April 3, 2008. Retrieved August 15, 2009. 
  24. ^ "Akron Ohio History: 1900 Riot". Archived from the original on February 15, 2012. Retrieved September 9, 2012. 
  25. ^ "Goodyear Corporate || Historic Overview". Archived from the original on April 9, 2009. Retrieved April 3, 2009. 
  26. ^ "General Tire * Our Company". March 23, 2009. Archived from the original on March 1, 2009. Retrieved April 3, 2009. 
  27. ^ "CONTENTdm Collection". Retrieved September 9, 2012. 
  28. ^ "Deaf Today v2.0: Exhibit reveals history from deaf perspective". March 24, 2003. Retrieved March 28, 2010. 
  29. ^ [3]
  30. ^ "Firestone Park" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on February 20, 2012. Retrieved September 9, 2012. 
  31. ^ "Clark Gable – Ohio History Central – A product of the Ohio Historical Society". Ohio History Central. Retrieved April 3, 2009. 
  32. ^ "Goodyear Blimps – Ohio History Central – A product of the Ohio Historical Society". Ohio History Central. July 1, 2005. Retrieved April 3, 2009. 
  33. ^ Cragg, Dan (2001). Guide to military installations (6th ed.). Stackpole Books. p. 174.  
  34. ^  
  35. ^ "Charles Arthur 'Pretty Boy' Floyd". Retrieved September 9, 2012. 
  36. ^ "Claims to Fame – Products".  
  37. ^ "Akron Rubber Strike of 1936 - Ohio History Central - A product of the Ohio Historical Society". Ohio History Central. July 1, 2005. Retrieved September 9, 2012. 
  38. ^ "Akron, Ohio" (PDF). Retrieved April 3, 2009. 
  39. ^ "Hungry Bacteria Begins Saving Akron Money" (Press release). City of Akron, Ohio. December 12, 2007. Archived from the original on January 9, 2010. Retrieved January 11, 2010. 
  40. ^ "Akron leads the way". Builders Exchange. 2007. Archived from the original on April 3, 2008. Retrieved January 11, 2010. 
  41. ^ "2010 Census U.S. Gazetteer Files for Places – Ohio". United States Census. Retrieved October 19, 2012. 
  42. ^ United States Department of Agriculture. United States National Arboretum. USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map [Retrieved February 19, 2015].
  43. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "NowData – NOAA Online Weather Data".  
  44. ^ "Station Name: OH AKRON CANTON RGNL AP". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved February 21, 2015. 
  45. ^ "Nolan N. Guzzetta Miniature Sculpture, (sculpture)". May 18, 1976. Retrieved February 9, 2010. 
  46. ^ When Church Became Theatre: The Transformation of Evangelical Architecture and Worship in Nineteenth-Century America. Jeanne Halgren Kilde. Oxford University Press, 2005. ISBN 0-19-517972-2.`p.185
  47. ^ a b FirstMerit Restoration,
  48. ^ "Scraping the Sky".  
  49. ^ "Akron Art Museum – Building the Akron Art Museum". Retrieved September 9, 2012. 
  50. ^ "Akron Art Museum – Building the Akron Art Museum". Retrieved September 9, 2012. 
  51. ^ "Akron Art Museum – Building the Akron Art Museum". Retrieved September 9, 2012. 
  52. ^ "Akron: News Releases 2005: Mayor Brings $2 Million to Weekly News Conference". March 25, 2005. Archived from the original on September 4, 2005. Retrieved January 19, 2010. 
  53. ^ "Museum Collection: On View Now". Akron Art Museum. 2007. Archived from the original on January 9, 2010. Retrieved January 2, 2010. ...dedicated to the display of its collection, which focuses on art produced since 1850. 
  54. ^ "Akron Art Museum". 2005 American Architecture Awards. The Chicago Athenaeum. 2005. Archived from the original on October 8, 2009. Retrieved January 5, 2010. 
  55. ^ "Architecture". Akron Art Museum. Retrieved January 1, 2010. 
  56. ^ "Museum History". Akron Art Museum. 2007. Retrieved January 1, 2010. 
  57. ^ Trexler, Phil (December 29, 2009). "Arresting displays refreshed for public". Archived from the original on January 2, 2010. Retrieved January 2, 2010. 
  58. ^ Jeffery S. King (1999). The Life and Death of Pretty Boy Floyd. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press. p. 33.  
  59. ^ "The American Toy Marble Museum Akron, Ohio". Archived from the original on March 26, 2009. Retrieved April 3, 2009. 
  60. ^ "Dance, Girl, Dance – Lucy’s Ball of Fun on DVD – Movies, Reviews and More". Archived from the original on December 1, 2008. Retrieved January 18, 2010. 
  61. ^ "Dance, Girl, Dance". DVD Times. Retrieved February 9, 2010. 
  62. ^ O'Connor, John J. (April 30, 1989). Became a creed"One Day at a Time"Television; How . The New York Times. Retrieved February 2, 2010. 
  63. ^ "Prison Break | Episode 2–15 Transcript | The Message". January 29, 2007. Archived from the original on January 2, 2010. Retrieved January 21, 2010. 
  64. ^ "All the Marbles 1981 | Movie Trailer, Reviews, Photos, Cast". Retrieved January 19, 2010. 
  65. ^  
  66. ^ "Jason Biggs Interview, Over Her Dead Body – MoviesOnline". Archived from the original on December 30, 2008. Retrieved March 25, 2010. 
  67. ^ "The Virgin of Akron, Ohio Television show – The Virgin of Akron, Ohio TV Show – Yahoo! TV". Retrieved March 26, 2010. 
  68. ^ "TV Detail: My Own Worst Enemy reviewSeries Premiere :: TV :: Reviews :: Paste". October 13, 2008. Retrieved March 25, 2010. 
  69. ^ "The Heldenfiles, Seinfeld Bus Rolling to Cleveland, Akron Beacon Journal, Wednesday, August 13, 2008" 
  70. ^ Cla452 Added (July 16, 2005). "M.Y.O.B. on". Retrieved March 26, 2010. 
  71. ^  
  72. ^ Traister, Rebecca (May 6, 2005). The Coast of Akron" by Adrienne Miller""". Salon. Retrieved February 2, 2010. 
  73. ^ Niquette, Mark (December 5, 2007). "On the brink: Akron – Transitioning from rubber to polymers buoys economy". The Columbus Dispatch. Retrieved February 2, 2010. 
  74. ^ """The Black Keys: "Rubber Factory. Archived from the original on June 6, 2011. Retrieved March 4, 2010. 
  75. ^ Wolpaw, Erik (September 30, 2002). "No One Lives Forever 2: A Spy in H.A.R.M.'s Way Review for PC". GameSpot. Archived from the original on May 6, 2009. Retrieved April 28, 2009. 
  76. ^ Allen, Todd. "No One Lives Forever 2: A Spy in HARM's Way Review". GamesFirst!. Retrieved February 5, 2010. 
  77. ^ a b "Lock 3 Akron, Ohio Concerts". City of Akron. Archived from the original on August 28, 2008. Retrieved January 20, 2010. 
  78. ^ "Hamburger festivals, special events have participants flipping". July 15, 2007. Retrieved January 19, 2010. 
  79. ^ "First Night Akron". Downtown Akron Partnership. 2009. Archived from the original on January 30, 2010. Retrieved February 2, 2010. 
  80. ^ Carney, Jim (June 11, 2009). "This Founders' Day marks A.A. milestones". Retrieved January 20, 2010. 
  81. ^ "Akron, Ohio – Birthplace of Alcoholics Anonymous". Akron Area Intergroup Council of Alcoholics Anonymous. Archived from the original on June 16, 2009. Retrieved January 20, 2010. 
  82. ^ "F. Schumacher Milling Company". April 16, 1908. Archived from the original on January 3, 2010. Retrieved January 24, 2010. 
  83. ^ "The Ohio Academy of Science". Heartland Science. Retrieved January 24, 2010. 
  84. ^ "Ferdinand Schumacher – Ohio History Central – A product of the Ohio Historical Society". Ohio History Central. July 1, 2005. Retrieved January 19, 2010. 
  85. ^ Ohio Curiosities: Quirky Characters ... Google Books. August 8, 2007.  
  86. ^ Ohio Curiosities: Quirky Characters ... Google Books. August 8, 2007.  
  87. ^ "City of Akron: News Releases 2006: America’s 1st National Hamburger Festival". April 7, 2006. Archived from the original on August 8, 2007. Retrieved January 21, 2010. 
  88. ^ "Hoppin’ Frog on list of world’s top brewers | Hoppin' Frog Brewery". February 10, 2010. Archived from the original on February 24, 2010. Retrieved March 22, 2010. 
  89. ^ "American Food & American Restaurant – Hamburgers | Uniontown, OH". Retrieved April 3, 2009. 
  90. ^ "Food Feuds Episode Guide 2010 Season 1 - Beef Feuds, Episode 8". Retrieved September 9, 2012. 
  91. ^ Shuy, Roger (September 17, 2006). "Language Log: Wut? Wen? Wich?". Retrieved January 7, 2010. 
  92. ^ Hall, Joan Houston (2003). Dictionary of American Regional English. p. 38.  
  93. ^ Akron Marathon. "Popularity, increased registration make Road Runner Akron Marathon Cap". Archived from the original on March 2, 2012. Retrieved September 9, 2012. 
  94. ^ Armon, Rick. "Cleveland-Akron win bid for 2014 Gay Games". Archived from the original on June 15, 2011. Retrieved September 30, 2009. 
  95. ^ "Cavaliers: NBA Stars Join LeBron’s King for Kids Bikeathon". NBA. Retrieved May 4, 2009. 
  96. ^ "Lock 3 Live! Park In Akron, Ohio". Archived from the original on February 21, 2009. Retrieved April 3, 2009. 
  97. ^ "About the Towpath Trail". Retrieved April 3, 2009. 
  98. ^ "Ohio & Erie Canal Towpath Trail". Archived from the original on March 29, 2009. Retrieved April 3, 2009. 
  99. ^ "City of Akron: News Releases 2008: Bridging Urban Places with Green Spaces – Historic Towpath Winds into New Territory". Archived from the original on September 28, 2011. Retrieved April 3, 2009. 
  100. ^ "The Portage Hike and Bike". Portage Park District. Retrieved October 4, 2009. See also map link
  101. ^ "The Buchtelite". Archived from the original on January 24, 2010. Retrieved January 18, 2010. 
  102. ^ "Local Television Market Universe Estimates Comparisons of 2008–09 and 2009–10 Market Ranks" (PDF). nielsen. 2009. Retrieved February 5, 2010. 
  103. ^ "Akron news release". Archived from the original on February 3, 2015. 
  104. ^ Heldenfelds, R.D. (July 5, 2005). "Newscast off air, on cable.".  
  105. ^ "Greater Akron’s Competitive Advantages". Greater Akron Chamber. Retrieved March 28, 2010. 
  106. ^ Byard, Katie (December 5, 2007). "Goodyear has tentative deal to stay in Akron". Archived from the original on August 29, 2008. Retrieved January 24, 2010. 
  107. ^ "Akron Riverwalk / The Bridge to Polymer Valley". Retrieved April 3, 2009. 
  108. ^ "Goodyear's headquarters moving along". Archived from the original on December 20, 2010. 
  109. ^ Mackinnon, Jim (November 25, 2009). "Tech center plans progressing". Retrieved December 5, 2009. 
  110. ^ "Bridgestone Americas, Inc". November 13, 2009. Retrieved December 5, 2009. 
  111. ^ Lin, Betty (May 26, 2009). "KeyBank breaks ground on Akron, Ohio office building |". Archived from the original on July 16, 2011. Retrieved January 2, 2010. 
  112. ^ "Connect Akron Wireless Network". Archived from the original on December 9, 2009. Retrieved December 18, 2009. 
  113. ^ "Polymer Valley - Ohio History Central - A product of the Ohio Historical Society". Ohio History Central. July 1, 2005. Retrieved September 9, 2012. 
  114. ^ "A New Brand Of Tech Cities". Newsweek. April 30, 2001. Archived from the original on October 7, 2012. Retrieved January 24, 2010. 
  115. ^ "Akron's biomedical corridor taking shape". Archived from the original on June 15, 2011. 
  116. ^ "Akron Ohio: Akron Ohio: Mayor's Office of Economic Development". Archived from the original on September 19, 2009. Retrieved November 24, 2009. 
  117. ^ "Summa Health System – Summa Celebrates 11th Consecutive Year on U.S. New". July 11, 2008. Archived from the original on July 28, 2011. Retrieved July 5, 2009. 
  118. ^ "Summa Health System – Locations". Archived from the original on May 3, 2009. Retrieved April 3, 2009. 
  119. ^ "Summa Health System – Hospital Rankings". Retrieved July 5, 2009. 
  120. ^ "Akron Hospital | Best Ohio Hospital | Akron General Medical Center". Akron General. September 22, 2008. Retrieved April 3, 2009. 
  121. ^ Powell, Cheryl. "Akron General earns honors". Archived from the original on June 15, 2011. Retrieved July 16, 2009. 
  122. ^ "Akron Children's Hospital : Why Akron Children's?". June 19, 2007. Archived from the original on October 27, 2007. Retrieved April 3, 2009. 
  123. ^ "Microsoft Word - BIA History of Innovation Timeline Web Version 10.13.08.doc" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on February 19, 2009. Retrieved July 5, 2009. 
  124. ^ "City of Akron CAFR" (PDF). Retrieved April 1, 2014. 
  125. ^ Mark (July 6, 1999). "Ohio Building Authority – Ocasek Building". Retrieved July 9, 2009. 
  126. ^ "Akron: Office of the Mayor: Cabinet Members". Archived from the original on August 31, 2012. Retrieved September 9, 2012. 
  127. ^
  128. ^ a b
  129. ^
  130. ^
  131. ^
  132. ^
  133. ^
  134. ^
  135. ^
  136. ^ "ASCPL Digital Exhibit". July 4, 1905. Retrieved January 20, 2010. 
  137. ^ "Ku Klux Klan – Ohio History Central – A product of the Ohio Historical Society". Ohio History Central. Retrieved April 15, 2009. 
  138. ^ "Akron: Akron's Black History Timeline: 1900–1919: The New Century". Archived from the original on July 17, 2009. Retrieved January 2, 2010. 
  139. ^ "Akron Ohio Historical Timeline 1950–1999". Archived from the original on March 29, 2009. Retrieved January 2, 2010. 
  140. ^ Grevatt, Martha (October 9, 2008). "Ohio foreclosure prompts suicide attempt". Retrieved January 30, 2010. 
  141. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014". Retrieved June 4, 2015. 
  142. ^  
  143. ^ "Akron (city), Ohio". State & County QuickFacts. U.S. Census Bureau. 
  144. ^ "Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990". U.S. Census Bureau. 
  145. ^ "History of the Akron Public Schools" (PDF). Retrieved September 9, 2012. 
  146. ^ "Akron-Summit County Public Library". February 15, 2009. Retrieved July 8, 2009. 
  147. ^ "PPG Industries – PPG donates $5,000 to University of Akron". August 27, 2009. Retrieved January 24, 2010. 
  148. ^ "University of Akron breaks ground for $13 million polymer center". Plastics News. Archived from the original on July 15, 2011. Retrieved October 1, 2009. 
  149. ^ "Education Alternatives in Akron Ohio". Archived from the original on November 21, 2008. Retrieved April 3, 2009. 
  150. ^ "Akron Public Schools General Information". Akron Public Schools. Archived from the original on June 15, 2008. Retrieved July 9, 2009. 
  151. ^ "Welcome to the Akron-Canton Airport!" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on December 9, 2008. 
  152. ^ "Akron, Ohio: Akron Fulton Airport". Archived from the original on December 24, 2008. Retrieved April 3, 2009. 
  153. ^ "Cuyahoga Valley Scenic Railroad, Akron Northside Station In Akron, Ohio". Retrieved April 3, 2009. 
  154. ^ Sanders, Craig (2007). Akron Railroads. Images of Rail. Charleston, SC:  
  155. ^ "Akron Express" (PDF). PARTA Online. Portage Area Regional Transportation Authority. January 2009. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 6, 2009. Retrieved March 14, 2009. 
  156. ^ "Solar panels make Akron's new transit center a leader in Ohio".  
  157. ^ "Akron Innerbelt Integration Initiative – History". Archived from the original on February 10, 2006. Retrieved April 3, 2009. 
  158. ^ "Morgan Quitno's 7th Annual Safest City Award in Dangerous Rank Order". Archived from the original on July 28, 2012. Retrieved September 9, 2012. 
  159. ^ "Preliminary Ohio Crime Statistics for 2007". June 2, 2008. Archived from the original on November 19, 2008. Retrieved April 3, 2009. 
  160. ^ "Ohio Police Test Gun That Shoots Round Corners". December 14, 2007. Archived from the original on March 21, 2009. Retrieved April 3, 2009. 
  161. ^ King, Jeffery S (August 1, 1999). "The Life and Death of Pretty Boy Floyd".  
  162. ^ Armon, Rick (September 5, 2008). "Summit County has third most methamphetamine sites in U.S". Retrieved April 3, 2009. 
  163. ^ "Methamphetamine – Ohio Drug Threat Assessment". June 15, 2012. Retrieved September 9, 2012. 
  164. ^ "National Clandestine Laboratory Register – Ohio". Justice.Gov. United States Department of Justice. August 19, 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 8, 2010. Retrieved January 7, 2010. Note- The list uses the mailing address for each site, so not all sites listed as being in Akron are actually within the Akron city limits but instead have an Akron ZIP code
  165. ^ Armon, Rick (February 15, 2009). "Meth lab raids jump 42% in Summit". Archived from the original on March 21, 2009. Retrieved April 3, 2009. 
  166. ^ "City of Akron: News Releases 2008: State of the City Presentation". Archived from the original on January 9, 2010. Retrieved January 6, 2010. 
  167. ^ [4]
  168. ^ "Akron, Ohio". Sister Cities International. Archived from the original on June 10, 2015. Retrieved June 10, 2015. 
  169. ^ "Twin cities — Chemnitz". Retrieved November 25, 2013. 
  170. ^ "Sister Cities: City of Akron". Retrieved November 25, 2013. 


Akron, as of 2015, has two sister cities:[168]

Global street sign

Sister cities

The philosopher and logician Willard van Orman Quine was born and grew up in Akron.

Carol Folt, the 11th chancellor and 29th chief executive, of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill was born in Akron in 1951. She was previously provost (chief academic officer) and interim president of Dartmouth College. She assumed her duties on July 1, 2013, and is the first woman to lead UNC.

Owner of over 400 patents, native Stanford R. Ovshinsky invented the widely used nickel-metal hydride battery. Richard Smalley, winner of a Nobel Prize in Chemistry for discovering buckminsterfullerene (buckyballs) was born in the city during 1943. Another native, the second U.S. female astronaut in space, Judith Resnik, died in the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster and has the Resnik Moon crater named in her honor.

Poet Rita Dove was born and grew up in Akron. She went on to become the first African-American United States Poet Laureate. Many of her poems are about or take place in Akron, foremost among them Thomas and Beulah, which earned her the 1987 Pulitzer Prize for poetry.

Performing artists to come from Akron include bands such as Ruby and the Romantics, Devo, The Black Keys, The Waitresses, and 1964 the Tribute; singers Chrissie Hynde, James Ingram, Joseph Arthur, Jani Lane, Rachel Sweet and outlaw country singer David Allan Coe; and actors Frank Dicopoulos, David McLean, Melina Kanakaredes, Elizabeth Franz, William Boyett, Lola Albright and Jesse White. Clark Gable and John Lithgow lived in Akron.

Noted athletes to have come from Akron include National Basketball Association players LeBron James and Stephen Curry, Basketball Hall of Famers Gus "Honeycomb" Johnson and Nate "The Great" Thurmond, Major League Baseball player Thurman Munson, International Boxing Hall of Famer Gorilla Jones, former Northwestern University and Notre Dame coach Ara Parseghian, and Butch Reynolds, former world record holder in the 400 meter dash, and MLS footballer Ben Zemanski. James Harrison of the Pittsburgh Steelers was also born in Akron, as was former New England Patriots linebacker and current Houston Texas linebackers coach Mike Vrabel.

Akron has produced and been home to a number of notable individuals in varying fields. Its natives and residents are called "Akronites." The first postmaster of the Connecticut Western Reserve and president of its bank, General Simon Perkins, co-founded Akron in 1825. His son, Colonel Simon Perkins, while living in Akron during the same time as abolitionist John Brown, went into business with Brown. Wendell Willkie, the Republican nominee for president in 1940, worked in Akron as a lawyer for Firestone. Pioneering televangelist Rex Humbard rose to prominence in Akron. Beacon Journal publisher John S. Knight ran the national Knight Newspapers chain from Akron. Broadcaster Hugh Downs was born in Akron. In the mid- to late 1940s, pioneering rock 'n' roll DJ Alan Freed was musical director at Akron's WAKR. Watergate figure John Dean was born in Akron.

Mission Specialist Judith Resnik
Mission Specialist Judith Resnik on the middeck of Discovery during STS-41-D

Notable people

The distribution of methamphetamine ("meth") in Akron greatly contributed to Summit County becoming known as the "Meth Capital of Ohio". The county ranks third in the nation in the number of registered meth sites.[162] During the 1990s, motorcycle gang the Hells Angels sold the drug from bars frequented by members.[163] Between January 2004 and August 2009, the city had significantly more registered sites than any other city in the state.[164] Authorities believe a disruption of a major Mexican meth operation attributed to the increase of it being made locally.[165] In 2007, APD received a grant to help continue its work with other agencies and jurisdictions to support them in ridding the city of meth labs.[166] The Akron Police Department coordinates with the Summit County Drug Unit and the Drug Enforcement Administration, forming the Clandestine Methamphetamine Laboratory Response Team.[167]

Methamphetamine history

Historically, Pretty Boy Floyd was a member.[161] Akron has experienced several riots in its history including, the Riot of 1900 and the Wooster Avenue Riots of 1968.

to assist officers. patrol cars The city invented the first [160], to aid them in fighting crime.CornerShot Akron became the first city in the United States to train and equip officers with the [159] Preliminary Ohio crime statistics show aggravated assaults increased by 45% during 2007.[158] In 1999, Akron ranked as the 94th most dangerous city and the 229th safest, on the 7th

Summit County Courthouse and police car. The modern police car originated in Akron in 1899.[23]


  • The Akron Innerbelt is a six-lane, 2.24-mile (3.60 km) spur from the I-76/I-77 concurrency and serves the urban core of the city. Its ramps are directional from the interstates, so it only serves west side drivers. ODOT is considering changing this design to attract more traffic to the route. The freeway comes to an abrupt end near the northern boundary of downtown where it becomes Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard. The freeway itself is officially known as "The Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial Freeway." The freeway was originally designed to connect directly to State Route 8, but plans were laid to rest in the mid-1970s due to financial troubles.
  • Ohio State Route 8 is an original state highway that is a limited access route that connects Akron's northern suburbs with Interstates 76 and 77. State Route 8's southern terminus is at the central interchange, where it meets I-76 and I-77. The second freeway in Akron to be completed, it went through a major overhaul in 2003 with new ramps and access roads. In 2007 ODOT began a project to upgrade the road to interstate highway standards north of Akron from State Route 303 to I-271, providing a high speed alternative to Cleveland.[157]
View of Akron from the south looking north
  • Interstate 77 connects Marietta, Ohio to Cleveland, Ohio. In Akron, it features 15 interchanges, four of which permit freeway-to-freeway movements. It runs north-south in the southern part of the city to its intersection with I-76, where it takes a westerly turn as a concurrency with Interstate 76.
  • Interstate 76 connects Interstate 71 to Youngstown, Ohio and farther environs. It runs east-west and has 18 interchanges in Akron, four of which are freeway-to-freeway. The East Leg was rebuilt in the 1990s to feature six lanes and longer merge lanes. The concurrency with Interstate 77 is eight lanes. The Kenmore Leg is a four-lane leg that is slightly less than two miles (3 km) long and connects to Interstate 277.
  • Interstate 277 is an east-west spur that it forms with US 224 after I-76 splits to the north to form the Kenmore Leg. It is six lanes and cosigned with U.S. 224.
The Innerbelt looking northeast

Akron is served by two major interstate highways that bisect the city. Unlike other cities, the bisection does not occur in the Central Business District, nor do the interstates serve downtown; rather, the Akron Innerbelt and to a lesser extent Ohio State Route 8 serve these functions.


Public transportation is available through the METRO Regional Transit Authority system, which has a fleet of over two hundred buses and trolleys and operates local routes as well as running commuter buses into downtown Cleveland. Stark Area Regional Transit Authority (SARTA) also has a bus line running between Canton and Akron and the Portage Area Regional Transportation Authority (PARTA) runs an express route connecting the University of Akron with Kent State University.[155] Metro RTA operates out of the Intermodal Transit Center on South Broadway Street. This facility, which opened in 2009, also houses inter-city bus transportation available through Greyhound Lines.[156]

Intermodal Transit Center

Bus and public transportation

Due to the city's large rubber industry, Akron was once serviced by a variety of railroads who competed for the city's freight and passenger business. The largest of these railroads were the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, Erie Railroad and the Pennsylvania Railroad. Smaller regional railroads included the Akron Canton and Youngstown Railroad, Northern Ohio Railroad, and the Akron Barberton Belt Railroad.[154] Today the city is only serviced by CSX Corporation which has a de facto monopoly on all rail freight transport to and from the city. There is currently no passenger rail transportation.

Akron Northside Station is a train station at 27 Ridge Street along the Cuyahoga Valley Scenic Railroad.[153]

Akron Northside Station


The primary terminal that airline passengers traveling to or from Akron use is the Akron-Canton Regional Airport, serving nearly 2 million passengers a year. The Akron-Canton Airport is a commercial Class C airport located in the city of Green,[151] roughly 10 mi (16 km) southeast of Akron operated jointly by Stark and Summit counties. It serves as an alternative for travelers to or from the Cleveland area as well. Akron Fulton International Airport is a general aviation airport located in and owned by the City of Akron that serves private planes. It first opened in 1929 and has operated in several different capacities since then. The airport had commercial scheduled airline service until the 1950s and it is now used for both cargo and private planes.[152] It is home of the Lockheed Martin Airdock, where the Goodyear airships, dirigibles, and blimps were originally stored and maintained. The Goodyear blimps are now housed outside of Akron in a facility on the shores of Wingfoot Lake in nearby Suffield Township.

Former Akron Fulton International Airport administration building



The city is home to the University of Akron, which the Princeton Review listed among the Best in the Midwest, in 2008.[147] Originally Buchtel College, the school is home of the Goodyear Polymer Center and the National Polymer Innovation Center.[148] All Akron Public Schools are currently going through a 15-year, $800 million rebuilding process.[149] In recent times the city's schools have been moved from "Academic Watch" to "Continuous Improvement" by the Ohio Department of Education.[150] Akron also has many private, parochial and charter schools. Akron Public Schools made headlines in 2004 when a freshman student of Akron Digital Academy, the district's own online charter school, was not allowed to participate in extracurricular activities, an event later covered and satirized by The Daily Show. National Basketball Association player LeBron James, attended St. Vincent - St. Mary High School.

In 2009 Akron-Summit County Public Library was recognized with a 5 star rating by Library Journal[146]

Preschool, elementary, and secondary education is mainly provided by the Akron City School District. Planning of the district began in 1840, when Ansel Miller suggested to build free public schools for all children in the city, paid for by property taxes. After enduring much opposition by citizens, in 1843 Miller joined with Rev. Isaac Jennings. Three years later, Jennings became the chairman of a committee of citizens who discussed how to improve the school system. On November 21, 1846, their plan was approved unanimously by the citizens. The Ohio Legislature adopted the plan, called "An act for the support and better regulation of the Common Schools of the Town of Akron" on February 8, 1847. Akron's first public schools were established in the fall of 1847 and were led by Mortimer Leggett. The first annual report showed that it cost less than $2 a year to educate a child. In 1857 the cost of running the schools for a year was $4,200. The primary schools were taught by young women, which the Akron Board of Education justified because they could be paid less and were under the supervision of a male superintendent. From 1877 to 1952, Akron graduated students semi-annually instead of annually. 9% of the city's school-aged population were born in other countries in 1888. In the 1920s, an Americanization program was designed to help the many Akron students who were first-generation Americans. Classes were in the rubber companies and some of the schools. A "continuation school" began for working boys and girls who were required by law to have at least four hours of schooling a week. In 1924, Akron's platoon schools attracted visitors from all over the country. Being a stronghold for the Ku Klux Klan during the decade, the majority of school board and government officials were members. Their influence ended with the arrival of Wendell Willkie. During the city's 1950s boom town phase, Akron schools grew eight times faster than the city's population. In 1967, Kenmore launched the Air Force JROTC. In 1971, Jennings piloted the middle school model, which moved ninth-graders to the senior high school. In 1984, all-day kindergarten was piloted at Seiberling, Rankin and Hatton schools, and Ellet, East and Garfield high schools piloted the in-school suspension program. The district received an A+ evaluation from the state in 1987.[145]

Goodyear Polymer Center


The median age in the city was 35.7 years. 22.9% of residents were under age 18; 12.4% were between 18 and 24; 25.9% were from 25 to 44; 25.9% were from 45 to 64; and 12.6% were 65 or older. The gender makeup of the city was 48.3% male and 51.7% female.

There were 83,712 households, of which 28.8% had children under age 18 living with them, 31.3% were married couples living together, 19.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.5% had a male householder with no wife present, and 43.8% were non-families. 34.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.31 and the average family size was 2.98.

As of the census[2] of 2010, there were 199,110 people, 83,712 households, and 47,084 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,209.9 inhabitants per square mile (1,239.3/km2). There were 96,288 housing units at an average density of 1,552.3 per square mile (599.3/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 62.2% White, 31.5% African American, 0.2% Native American, 2.1% Asian, 0.8% from other races, and 3.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.1% of the population. Non-Hispanic Whites were 61.2% of the population,[143] down from 81.0% in 1970.[144]

2010 census

Akron has a metropolitan population of 694,960 (U.S. Census Bureau, 2000). Akron is also part of the larger Cleveland-Akron-Elyria Combined Statistical Area, which was the 14th largest in the country with a population of over 2.9 million according to the 2000 Census.

The median income for a household in the city was $31,835, and the median income for a family was $39,381. Males had a median income of $31,898 versus $24,121 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,596. About 14.0% of families and 17.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.7% of those under age 18 and 9.7% of those age 65 or over.

Simon Perkins, founder of Akron, in front of the University of Akron College of Business Administration moved from its original location in Grace Park.


Aside from city founder, Simon Perkins, negotiating a treaty with Native Americans to establish a mail route from the Connecticut Western Reserve to Detroit in 1807, others partook in historic humanitarian affairs in Akron. Aside from being part of the Underground Railroad, when active, John Brown was a resident, today having two landmarks (John Brown House) (John Brown Monument) dedicated to him. During the 1851 Women's Rights Convention, Sojourner Truth delivered her speech entitled "Ain't I A Woman?". In 1905, a statue of an Indian named Unk was erected on Portage Path, which was part of the effective western boundary of the White and Native American lands from 1785 to 1805.[136] The Summit County chapter of the Ku Klux Klan reported having 50,000 members, making it the largest local chapter in the country during the 20th century. In 1905, the sheriff, county officials, mayor of Akron, judges, county commissioners, and most members of Akron's school board were members. The Klan's influence in the city's politics eventually ended after Wendell Willkie, arrived and challenged them.[137] Race took part in two of Akron's major riots, the Riot of 1900 and the Wooster Ave. Riots of 1968. Others giving speeches on race, in the city include Dr. W.E.B. Du Bois (1920)[138] and President Bill Clinton (1997).[139] In 1971, Alpha Phi Alpha Homes Inc. was founded in Akron by the Eta Tau Lambda chapter, with James R. Williams as chairman. The centerpiece, Henry Arthur Callis Tower, is located in the Channelwood Village area of the city. In 2008, 91-year-old Akron native, Addie Polk, became the poster child of the financial crisis of 2007–2010, after shooting herself.[140]

Humanitarian affairs

Ward 1 – Rich Swirsky (D)
Ward 2 – James P. Hurley III (D)
Ward 3 – Margo Sommerville (D), Vice-President of Council (interim)
Ward 4 – Russel C. Neal Jr. (D)
Ward 5 – Tara Mosley Samples (D)
Ward 6 – Bob Hoch (D)
Ward 7 – Donnie Kammer (D)
Ward 8 – Marilyn Keith (D)
Ward 9 – Mike Freeman (D), President of Council (interim)
Ward 10 – Jack Hefner (D) (appointed) [133]
At Large – DeAndre Forney (D) (appointed) [134]
At Large – Linda F.R. Omobien (D)
At Large – Mike Williams (D)
Clerk of Council – Bob Keith (D) [135]

The current members of City Council are:

As of Wednesday, July 1, three Democrats and one Republican are running for Mayor of Akron. The Democratic candidates are Summit County Clerk of Courts and former ward 4 Councilman Dan Horrigan; at-large Councilman Mike Williams; and Summit County Councilman Frank Communale. The winner of the September 8 Democratic primary will face attorney Eddie Sipplin in the general election. Sipplin, an African-American criminal defense attorney, was the only Republican candidate to run.[132]

The current mayor is Jeff Fusco, who is currently serving as interim mayor after Don Plusquellic announced on May 8, 2015 that he was resigning as Mayor of the City of Akron after 28 years as mayor, and his retirement from politics after 41 years of service to the City of Akron, effective on May 31, 2015.[127][128] On May 31, 2015, Garry Moneypenny, former Chief Deputy and Assistant Sheriff of the Summit County Sheriff's Department, former Springfield Township Police Department Chief of Police,[129] former Akron Police Department Chief of Police and former Akron City Council President, was sworn in as the new mayor at East High School.[128]
On Friday, June 5, less than a week after he took office, Mayor Moneypenny announced he was not running for a full term due to inappropriate contact with a city employee.[130] On Monday, June 8, 2015, Mayor Moneypenny announced he would be resigning effective midnight on Wednesday, June 10. Council president Jeff Fusco assumed the duties of Mayor on June 11, 2015. Mayor Fusco is running for an at-large council seat, rather than seeking a full term as mayor. Mayor Fusco also announced he would be temporarily stepping down as Chair of the Summit County Democratic Party, because the city charter calls for the Mayor to devote his full attention to the city.[131]

The mayor of Akron is elected in a citywide vote, the city has reached its 61st mayor. The city is divided into 10 wards, each elect a member to the Akron City Council, while an additional 3 are elected at large. The mayor's cabinet currently consist of directors and deputy directors of administration, communications, community relations, economic development, intergovernmental relations, labor relations, law, planning & urban development, planning director – deputy, public safety, and public service.[126] The city adopted a new charter of the commissioner manager type in 1920, but reverted to its old form in 1924.

The Ocasek Building includes state, county, and city offices.[125]

Government and politics

# Employer # of Employees
1 Summa Health System 10,000
2 Akron General Health System 4,150
3 County of Summit 3,094
4 Akron Public Schools 3,094
5 Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company 3,000
6 The University of Akron 2,845
7 FirstMerit Corporation 2,695
8 Akron Children's Hospital 2,681
9 FirstEnergy 2,537
10 Time Warner Cable 2,440

According to the City's 2012 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report,[124] the principal employers in the city are:

Top employers

Akron's adult hospitals are owned by two health systems, Summa Health System and Akron General Health System. Summa Health System operates Akron City Hospital and St. Thomas Hospital, which in 2008 were recognized for the 11th consecutive year as one of "America’s Best Hospitals" by U.S. News & World Report.[117][118] Summa is recognized as having one of the best orthopaedics programs in the nation with a ranking of 28th.[119] Akron General Health in affiliation with the Cleveland Clinic operates Akron General Medical Center, which in 2009, was recognized as one of "America’s Best Hospitals" by U.S. News & World Report.[120][121] Akron Children's Hospital is an independent entity that specializes in pediatric care and burn care.[122] In 1974, Dr. Howard Igel and Dr. Aaron Freeman successfully grew human skin in a lab to treat burn victims, making Akron Children's Hospital the first hospital in the world to achieve such a feat.[123] Akron City and Akron General hospitals are designated Level I Trauma Centers.

Akron has designated an area called the Biomedical Corridor, aimed at luring health-related ventures to the region. It encompasses 1,240 acres (5.0 km2) of private and publicly owned land, bounded by Akron General on the west and Akron City on the east, and also includes Akron Children's near the district's center with Saint Thomas Hospital to the north of its northern boundaries.[115] Since its start in 2006, the corridor added the headquarters of companies such as Akron Polymer Systems.[116]

Local hospitals


Northeast Ohio's Polymer Valley is centered in Akron. The area holds forty-five percent of the state's polymer industries, with the oldest starting the 19th century. It is considered the polymer manufacturing center of the country, due to the educational, mineral, and transportation resources of the area. During the 1980s and 1990s, an influx of new polymer companies came to the region.[113] In 2001, more than 400 companies manufactured polymer-based materials in the region.[114] Many University of Akron scientists became world-renowned for their research done at the Goodyear Polymer Center. The first College of Polymer Science and Polymer Engineering was begun by the university. In 2010, the National Polymer Innovation Center opened on campus.

Polymer Valley

Many industries in the United States either began or were influenced by the city. After beginning the tire and rubber industry during the 20th century with the founding of Goodrich, Firestone, General Tire, also the Goodyear merger with The Kelly-Springfield Tire Company gained the status of, "Rubber Capital of the World". Akron has won economic awards such as for City Livability and All-American City, and deemed a high tech haven greatly contributing to the Information Age.[105] Current Fortune 500 companies headquartered in the city include the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company and FirstEnergy. In addition, the city is the headquarters to a number of other notable companies such as GOJO, Advanced Elastomer Systems, FirstMerit Bank, Myers Industries, Acme Fresh Market and Sterling Jewelers. Goodyear, America's biggest tire manufacturer and the fifth-largest private employer in Summit County,[106] recently built a new world headquarters in the city. The project, Akron Riverwalk, will feature a large retail and commercial development area.[107] The project began in 2007, but was put on hold due to the financial crisis of 2007–2010, and is now continuing.[108] Bridgestone built a new technical center with state-of-the-art R&D labs, and relocated its product development operations to the new facility in early 2012.[109][110] The Eastern Ohio Division of KeyBank, which has six branches in the city, built a regional headquarters downtown.[111] The city has a free WiFi corridor centered in downtown. Neighborhoods in range include Goodyear Heights, East Akron, North Hill, Firestone Park, Kenmore, and West Akron.[112]

GOJO Industries headquarters


On the radio side, Akron is served by WZIP 88.1 (Top 40 / College – University of Akron), WAPS 91.3 (Varied formats: local artists, modern rock, blues, jazz and public radio), WAKR 1590 (Oldies), WKDD 98.1 (Adult contemporary), WHLO 640 (News/talk), WJMP 1520 (News/Talk), WKSU 89.7 (National Public Radio, operated from the campus of Kent State University), WONE 97.5 (Classic rock), WNIR-FM 100.1 (News/talk), WSTB 88.9 (Alternative), WARF 1350 (Fox Sports Ohio), WQMX 94.9 (Country), WRQK 106.9 (Rock), and WHOF 101.7 (AC).

Akron is less than 40 miles (64 km) from Cleveland and forms part of the Cleveland-Akron (Canton) media market, the 18th largest market in the U.S.[102] However, WAOH-CD, WEAO (PBS), WVPX (ION), and WBNX-TV (CW) are licensed to Akron. WAOH and WEAO serve the city of Akron specifically, while WBNX and WVPX identify themselves as Akron/Cleveland, serving the entire Northeast Ohio market. Akron has no native news broadcast, having lost its only news station when the former WAKC became WVPX in 1996. WVPX and Cleveland's WKYC later provided a joint news program, which was cancelled in 2005.[103][104]

Akron is served in print by the daily Akron Beacon Journal, formerly the flagship newspaper of the Knight Newspapers chain; the weekly "The Akron Reporter"; and the weekly West Side Leader newspapers and the monthly magazine Akron Life. The Buchtelite newspaper is published by the University of Akron.[101]

Akron Beacon Journal Headquarters


The Ohio and Erie Canal towpath is a regional bike and hike trail that follows the canal. A bridge was completed in 2008, crossing Route 59/The Innerbelt, which connects the towpath proper with bike routes painted onto streets downtown, thus completing another step toward the connection of Cleveland and East Liverpool with a hike and bike trail. The State of Ohio plans to reconstruct the trail which once ran completely through Ohio, to New Philadelphia from Cleveland. The trail features a floating observation deck section over Summit Lake. It is a popular tourist attraction, as it attracts over 2 million visits annually.[97][98][99] The Portage Hike and Bike Trail, when fully complete, will connect with the hike and bike trails in the county.[100]

Major parks in Akron include Lock 3, Firestone, Goodyear Heights, the F.A. Seiberling Nature Realm (or Naturealm), and part of the Cuyahoga Valley National Park. Several of the parks along on the locks of the canal. Lock 3 Park in downtown Akron is the city's hub for entertainment. It is commonly used as an outdoor amphitheater hosting live musical entertainment, festivals, and special events year-round. The park was created in the early 21st century to provide green space within the city of Akron. The Ohio and Erie Canal can still be seen flowing behind the stage where there was once a boat yard and dry dock. Later, a pottery factory stood there until the parking deck of the M. O'Neil Co. department store was built in the current location. More than 65,000 guests use the park for recreation annually. During Lock 3 Live, it holds concerts for almost every musical genre, including alternative, R&B, reggae, gospel, country, pop, jazz, and classic rock. Some festivals the park hosts throughout the year include Soap Box Derby opening ceremonies, firefighter competitions, charity events, tournaments, and animal events. From November through February, Lock 3 Park is transformed into an outdoor ice-skating rink.[96] Adjacent to the Derby Downs race hill is a 19,000-square-foot (1,800 m2) outdoor skatepark. The park features concrete ramps, including two bowls going as deep as 7 feet (2.1 m), a snake run, two hips, a stair set with handrail, many smaller quarter pipes and a variety of grind boxes. Positioned just a few feet from the Akron Skatepark is a Pro BMX course where organized races are often held in the warmer months.

Firestone Country Club

Parks and recreation

As home to the University of Akron, the city is also home to the Akron Zips, who compete in the NCAA and the Mid-American Conference (MAC) in a variety of sports at the Division I level. Before completion of the InfoCision Stadium – Summa Field, the football team played at the historic Rubber Bowl, former home of the 1920 National Football League Championship winners, the Akron Professionals. The men's basketball team appeared in the NCAA Tournament in 1986, 2009, and 2011. In 2009, the Zips men's soccer team completed the regular-season undefeated, then won the NCAA Men's Division I Soccer Championship in 2010. Zippy, one of the eight female NCAA mascots, won the Capital One National Mascot of the Year contest in 2007.

InfoCision Stadium – Summa Field

College sports

Former teams of Akron include the Akron Professionals (National Football League), Goodyear Silents (deaf semi-professional football), Akron Black Tyrites (Negro League), Akron Americans (International Hockey League), Akron Lightning (International Basketball League), the Akron Summit Assault USL Premier Development League (PDL), the fourth tier of the American Soccer Pyramid, and the Akron Wingfoots (National Basketball League), who won the first NBL Championship and the International Cup three times. The Akron Firestone Non-Skids (National Basketball League), later won the title consecutively, in 1939 and 1940.

Past sports teams

Firestone Stadium hosts the National Pro Fastpitch Championship Series.

The RubberDucks have won the Eastern League Championship four times, the last being in 2012. Nearly growing 87% that year, the Akron Road Runner Marathon has consecutively gained participants since beginning.[93] It was announced that Akron will host some of the events of the 2014 Gay Games including the marathon, the men's and women's golf tournaments at Firestone Country Club, and softball at Firestone Stadium.[94] The All-American Soap Box Derby taken place each year at the Derby Downs since 1936. The Firestone Country Club, annually host the WGC-Bridgestone Invitational and in the past hosted tournaments including the PGA Championship, American Golf Classic, and Rubber City Open Invitational. The Akron & National Marble Tournament was created in 1923, by Roy W. Howard, being owned by the Akron District Marbles Tournament and the Akron Beacon Journal sometime before it ended permanently in the 1960s. On January 7, 1938, Akron became the birthplace of women's professional Mud Wrestling, in a match including Professional Wrestling and Wrestling Observer Hall of Famer, Mildred Burke.[12] The Professional Bowlers Association started in the city during 1958. LeBron James' King for Kids bike-a-thon feature James riding with kids through the city each June.[95] In November, the city hosts the annual Home Run for the Homeless 4-mile run.

Akron's professional sports teams include the Akron RubberDucks (Minor League Baseball), Akron Racers (National Pro Fastpitch), and Rubber City Rollergirls (Roller Derby) (Women's Flat Track Derby Association). Local sporting facilities include Canal Park, Firestone Stadium, InfoCision Stadium – Summa Field, James A. Rhodes Arena, and the Lee Jackson Field.

Canal Park


Although Akron is in northern Ohio, where the Inland North dialect is expected, its settlement history, puts it in the North Midland dialect area.[91] Some localisms that have developed include devilstrip, which refers to the grass strip between a sidewalk and street.[92]

Spoken dialects

Several residents of Akron have played a role in defining American cuisine. Ferdinand Schumacher created the first American oatmeal and is a pioneer of breakfast cereal.[82] He also founded the Empire Barley Mill and German Mills American Oatmeal Company,[83] which would later merge several times with other companies, with the result being the Quaker Oats Company.[84] The Menches Brothers, are the disputed inventors of the waffle ice cream cone,[85] caramel corn,[86] and hamburger.[87] The beer, BORIS The Crusher Oatmeal-Imperial Stout, brewed by the Hoppin' Frog Brewing Company located in the city, won 1st place in the Imperial Stout category of the 2008 Great American Beer Festival, and the company was named the 24th best brewer in the world for 2010 by[88] Notable eateries in Akron are Luigi's Pizzeria (established in 1949) and The Diamond Grille. Other places include Crave, Bricco, Cilantro, Diamond Deli, Urban Eats, Mary Coyle Ice Cream, Swenson's, Ken Stewart's, Tangier, Louie's, Duffy's, New Era, Strickland's Frozen Custard, and Hamburger Station.[89] The rivalry between Swenson's and Skyway, aired on Iron Chef Michael Symon's Food Feuds, which Swenson's won.[90]


National events that are hosted annually in Akron cover a wide variety of hobbies and interests. The PGA World Golf Championships travel to Akron each year for the Bridgestone Invitational at Firestone Country Club. The All-American Soap Box Derby is a youth racing program which has its World Championship finals at Derby Downs. In mid July, the National Hamburger Festival consists of different vendors serving original recipe hamburgers and has a Miss Hamburger contest.[78] Lock 3 Park annually hosts the First Night Akron celebration on New Year's Eve.[79] The park also annually hosts the Italian Festival and the "Rib, White & Blue" food festival in July.[77] Founders Day is celebrated annually due to the founding of Alcoholics Anonymous within the city.[80][81]

There are numerous attractions and points of interest in the Akron area. The Akron Art Museum has been operating since 1922 and is currently located downtown, showcasing over 20,000 square feet of art produced since 1850. Stan Hywet Hall and Gardens is the estate of F.A. Seiberling, founder of Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company. The manor hosts various attractions and public events throughout the year. In the heart of downtown, the Akron Civic Theatre has provided the community with a venue for quality entertainment and live performances for over eighty years. Lock 3, a historic Ohio and Erie Canalway landmark, has been transformed into an entertainment amphitheater that hosts festivals, concerts, and community events all year long. The Akron Zoo is located just outside downtown and was an initial gift of property from the city's founding family. In Highland Square, Akron hosts a convergence of art, music, and community annually called Art in the Square, a festival featuring local artists and musicians.[77]

Akron Art Museum


Thomas and Beulah, a book of poetry written by native and former Poet Laureate Consultant in Poetry to the Library of Congress, Rita Dove, tells the story of her grandmother and grandfather, who separately moved from the South to the city, where they lived through the Great Depression and the rest of their lives.[71] The city is also the setting for the novel The Coast of Akron, by former editor of Esquire, Adrienne Miller.[72] To reflect Akron's decline during the 1980s, Akron native Chrissie Hynde wrote the Pretenders song "My City Was Gone".[73] The Black Keys album title Rubber Factory refers to the former Goodrich Corporation rubber factory in which it was recorded.[74] Akron serves as a setting in the first-person-shooter PC platform video game, No One Lives Forever 2: A Spy In H.A.R.M.'s Way.[75][76]

In Needful Things, based on the novella by Stephen King, the character of Leland Gaunt is from Akron. Also, in the musical comedy Glee, Vocal Adrenaline, the New Directions rivals, are from the fictional Carmel High School in Akron.

In popular culture

Akron has served as the setting for several Seinfeld (1989), flies to the city.[69] M.Y.O.B. (2008) is centered on an Akron runaway girl named Riley Veatch.[70] Jake Foley of Jake 2.0 (2003), Pickles family of the Rugrats (1991), and J.Reid of In Too Deep (1999) are also from the city. Akron was also in the spotlight on the television show Criminal Minds "Compromising Positions" (2010) Season 6, Episode 4.

Film and television

Built between 1912 and 1915 for Frank Seiberling, Stan Hywet Hall and Gardens ranks seventh on the list of Largest Historic Homes in the United States. Located within the Sand Run Metro Park, the 104 acres (0.42 km2) F.A. Seiberling Nature Realm features a visitor center, hiking trails, three ponds, gardens, and an array of special programs throughout the year. The Akron Police Museum displays mementos including items from Pretty Boy Floyd, whose gang frequented the city.[57][58] The city is home to several other galleries and museums include American Marble and Toy Museum and the Don Drumm Studios & Gallery.[59]

Akron is home to E. J. Thomas Hall, the largest of three Akron performance halls. Regular acts include the Akron Symphony Orchestra, Tuesday Musical Club, and Children's Concert Society. World-class performances events include Broadway musicals, ballets, comedies, lectures, entertainers, attracting 400,000 visitors annually. The hall seats 2955, divided among three tiers. To maintain top-notch acoustic sound, the counter-weighted ceiling is adjustable, altering the physical dimensions of the hall. Located downtown is the Akron Civic Theatre, which opened in 1929 as the Loew's Theater. This atmospheric-style theater was designed by John Eberson and contains many Moorish features including arches and decorative tiles. It originally featured elaborate wood carvings, alabaster statuary, and European antiques. Behind it on the canal is the Lock 3 Park amphitheater, which annually host the First Night in Akron. The Akron Art Museum also downtown, features art produced since 1850 along with national and international exhibitions.[53] It opened in 1922 as the Akron Art Institute located in the basement of the Akron-Summit County Public Library. It moved to its current location at the renovated 1899 old post office building in 1981. In 2007, the museum more than tripled in size with the addition of the John S. and James L. Knight Building, which received the 2005 American Architecture Award from the Chicago Athenaeum[54] while still under construction.[55][56]

Stan Hywet Hall and Gardens entrance


Akron's suburbs include Fairlawn, Barberton, Cuyahoga Falls, Norton, Stow, Tallmadge, Silver Lake, Green, and Mogadore. Akron formed Joint Economic Development Districts with Springfield, Coventry, Copley, and Bath (in conjunction with Fairlawn) townships.[52]


Maple Valley covers the west end of Copley Road, before reaching I-77. Along this strip are several businesses using the name, as well as the Maple Valley Branch of the Akron-Summit County Public Library. Spicertown falls under the blanket of University Park, this term is used frequently to describe the student-centered retail and residential area around East Exchange and Spicer streets, near the University of Akron. West Hill is roughly bounded by West Market Street on the north, West Exchange Street on the south, Downtown on the East, and Rhodes Avenue on the west. It features many stately older homes, particularly in the recently recognized Oakdale Historic District.

Akron consists of 21 neighborhoods, with an additional three that are unincorporated but recognized within the city. The neighborhoods of the city differ in design largely due to expansions such as town merging, annexation, housing construction in various time periods, and rubber era.


Lock 3 Park amphitheater

The contrasting neighborhoods of Goodyear Heights and Firestone Park were built during the rubber industry to house workers and their families.

The Akron Art Museum commissioned Coop Himmelblau to design an expansion in 2007. The new building connects to the old building and is divided into three parts known as the "Crystal",[49] "Gallery Box",[50] and the "Roof Cloud".[51]

Completed in 1931, Akron's tallest building, the FirstMerit Tower, features the art deco style and is covered in glazed architectural terra-cotta.[47] Standing 330 feet (100 m), it is built on top of the Hamilton Building, completed in 1900 in the neo-gothic style. Near the turn of the millennium the tower was given a $2.5 million facelift, including a $1.8 million restoration of the tower's terra-cotta, brick and limestone.[47] The top of the building has a television broadcast tower, formerly used by WAKR-TV (now WVPX-TV) and WAKR-AM.[48] The antenna reaches 134.7 metres (442 ft).Located on the University of Akron campus, the Goodyear Polymer Center, is glass twin towers connected by walkways. The university also utilizes the former Quaker Oats factory as a hotel and shopping center called Quaker Square.

The city is home to a historic 1920s atmospheric movie palace, the Akron Civic Theatre. One of the building's features is a starry sky with clouds that drift over it when the lights are dimmed.

The First Methodist Episcopal Church first used the Akron Plan in 1872, the plan later gained popularity, being used in many Congregationalists, Baptists, and Presbyterians.[20][46]

Many of the city's government and civic buildings, including City Hall, the Summit County Courthouse, the Akron-Summit County Public Library, and John S. Knight Center are fairly old.

Akron was awarded with the City Livability Award in 2008 for its efforts to co-purpose new school buildings as community learning centers. In 2009, the National Arbor Day Foundation designated Akron as a Tree City USA for the 14th time.[14]

Originally a canal town, the city is divided into two parts by the Ohio and Erie Canal, with downtown being centered on it. Along the locks, the city has a path paved with rubber.

As a result of multiple towns merging, and industry boom, Akron's architecture is diverse.

Jablonski Sculpture, a gift of the Zimmite Corporation in tribute to Nola M. Guzztta's humanitarian interest in providing for the blind a vision of artistic and architectural design through touch.[45]


View of the Akron skyline from the west looking east


Climate data for Akron, Ohio (Akron-Canton Airport), 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1887–present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 73
Average high °F (°C) 33.1
Average low °F (°C) 19.1
Record low °F (°C) −25
Average precipitation inches (mm) 2.61
Average snowfall inches (cm) 12.4
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 17.1 14.1 14.0 14.3 14.0 12.1 11.3 9.6 10.2 10.9 13.8 16.2 157.6
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 13.0 9.4 6.8 2.5 0 0 0 0 0 0.5 3.4 10.3 45.9
Source: NOAA[43][44]

The all-time record high temperature in Akron of 104 °F (40 °C) was established on August 6, 1918, and the all-time record low temperature of −25 °F (−32 °C) was set on January 19, 1994.[43] The first and last freezes of the season on average fall on October 18 and April 26, respectively, allowing a growing season of 174 days.[43] The normal annual mean temperature is 49.8 °F (9.9 °C).[43] Normal yearly precipitation based on the 30-year average from 1981–2010 is 39.62 inches (1,006 mm), falling on an average 158 days.[43] Monthly precipitation has ranged from 12.55 in (319 mm) in July 2003 to 0.20 in (5.1 mm) in September 1960, while for annual precipitation the historical range is 65.70 in (1,669 mm) in 1990 to 23.79 in (604 mm) in 1963.[43]

Akron has a humid continental climate (Köppen Dfa), typical of the Midwest, with four distinct seasons, and lies in USDA hardiness zone 6b, degrading to zone 6a in the outlying suburbs.[42] Winters are cold and dry but typically bring a mix of rain, sleet, and snow with occasional heavy snowfall and icing. January is the coldest month with an average mean temperature of 26.1 °F (−3.3 °C),[43] with temperatures on average dropping to or below 0 °F (−18 °C) on 3.8 days and staying at or below freezing on 41 days per year.[43] Snowfall averages 47.5 inches (121 cm) per season, significantly less than the snowbelt areas closer to Lake Erie.[43] The snowiest month on record was 37.5 inches (95 cm) in January 1978, while winter snowfall amounts have ranged from 82.0 in (208 cm) in 1977–78 to 18.2 in (46 cm) in 1949–50.[43] Springs generally see a transition to fewer weather systems that produce heavier rainfall. Summers are typically very warm and humid with temperatures at or above 90 °F (32 °C) on 8.0 days per year on average; the annual count has been as high as 36 days in 1931, while the most recent year to not reach that mark is 2004.[43] July is the warmest month with an average mean temperature of 72.0 °F (22 °C).[43] Autumn is relatively dry with many clear warm days and cool nights.


Akron is located in the Great Lakes region approximately 39 miles (63 km) south of Lake Erie, on the Glaciated Allegheny Plateau. It is bordered by Cuyahoga Falls on the north, and Barberton in the southwest. It is the center of the Akron Metropolitan Statistical Area which covers Summit and Portage counties, and the larger Cleveland-Akron-Elyria Combined Statistical Area. Located on the western end of the plateau, the topography of Akron includes rolling hills and varied terrain. The Ohio and Erie Canal passes through the city, separating the east from west. Akron has the only biogas facility[39] in the United States that produces methane through the decomposition process of sludge to create electricity.[40] According to the 2010 census, the city has a total area of 62.37 square miles (161.5 km2), of which 62.03 square miles (160.7 km2) (or 99.45%) is land and 0.34 square miles (0.88 km2) (or 0.55%) is water.[41]

Downtown Akron from the All-America Bridge


Despite the number of rubber workers decreasing by approximately half from 2000–07, Akron's research in polymers gained an international reputation.[38] It now centers the Polymer Valley which consist of 400 polymer-related companies, of which 94 were located in the city itself.[13] Research is focused at the University of Akron which is home to the Goodyear Polymer Center and National Polymer Innovation Center, and first College of Polymer Science and Polymer Engineering. Due to its contributions to the Information Age, Newsweek's listed Akron fifth of ten high tech havens in 2001.[13] In 2008 "City of Invention" was added to the seal when the All-America City Award was received for the third time. Some events of the 2014 Gay Games used the city as a venue.

2000s: City of Invention

, both the tire and rubber industries experienced major decline. By the early 1990s, Goodyear was the last major tire manufacturer based in Akron. Rust Belt. Like many other industries of the Wooster Avenue Riots of 1968 as a base during the racial National Guard of the United States was used by the Rubber Bowl During the 1950s–60s Akron surged as use of the automobile did. The historic [37]

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Hawaii eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.