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Alcohol by volume

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Alcohol by volume

The alcohol by volume shown on a bottle of absinthe.

Alcohol by volume (abbreviated as ABV, abv, or alc/vol) is a standard measure of how much alcohol (International Organization of Legal Metrology has tables of density of water–ethanol mixtures at different concentrations and temperatures.

In some countries, alcohol by volume is referred to as degrees Gay-Lussac (after the French chemist Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac),[4] although there is a slight difference since Gay-Lussac used 15 °C.

Mixing two solutions of alcohol of different strengths usually causes a change in volume. Mixing pure water with a solution less than 24% by mass causes a slight increase in total volume, whereas the mixing of two solutions above 24% causes a decrease in volume.[1] More information on the phenomenon of volume changes due to mixing dissimilar solutions is discussed in the article on partial molar volume.


  • Typical levels 1
  • Alcohol proof 2
  • Alcohol by volume and alcohol by weight 3
  • Prediction of alcohol content 4
    • Wine 4.1
    • Beer 4.2
  • See also 5
  • References 6
  • Bibliography 7
  • External links 8

Typical levels

Details about typical amounts of alcohol contained in various beverages can be found in the articles about them.

Drink Typical ABV
Fruit juice (naturally occurring) less than 0.1%
Low-alcohol beer 0.05%–1.2%
Kvass 0.05%–1.5%
Kefir 0.2%–2.0%
Kombucha 0.5%–1.5%
Boza 1%
Chicha 1%–11% (usually 1%–6%)
Cider 2%–8.5%
Beer 2%–12% (usually 4%–6%)
Alcopops 4%–17.5%
Malt liquor 5%+
Makgeolli 6.5%–7%
Barley wine (strong ale) 8%–15%
Mead 8%–16%
Wine 9%–16% (most often 12.5%–14.5%)[5]
Kilju 15%–17%
Dessert wine 14%–25%
Sake (rice wine) 15% (or 18%–20% if not diluted prior to bottling)
Liqueurs 15%–55%
Fortified wine 15.5%–20%[6] (in the European Union, 18%–22%)
Soju 17%–45% (usually 19%)
Shochu 25%–45% (usually 25%)
Ruou (Vietnamese liquor) 27%-38%
Bitters 28%–45%
Mezcal, Tequila 32%–60% (usually 40%)
Vodka 35%–50% (usually 40%, minimum of 37.5% in the European Union)
Brandy 35%–60% (usually 40%)
Grappa 37.5%–60%
Rum 37.5%–80%
Ouzo 37.5%+
Cachaça 38%–54%
Sotol 38%–60%
Stroh 38%–80%
Nalewka 40%–45%
Gin 40%–50%
Whisky 40%–68% (usually 40%, 43% or 46%)
Baijiu 40%–60%
Chacha 40%–70%
Centerbe (herb liqueur) 70%
Pálinka 42%–86% (legally in Hungary 48%–51%)
Rakia 42%–86%
Absinthe 45%–89.9%
Ţuica 45%–60% (usually 52%)
Arak 60%–65%
Poitín 60%–95%
Neutral grain spirit 85%–95%
Cocoroco 93%–96%
Rectified spirit 95%-96%

Alcohol proof

Another way of specifying the amount of alcohol is alcohol proof, which in the United States is twice the alcohol-by-volume number, while in the United Kingdom it is 1.75 times the number (expressed as a percentage).[7][8] For example, 40% abv is 80 proof in the US and 70 proof in the UK. However, since 1980, alcoholic proof in the UK has been replaced by abv as a measure of alcohol content.

Alcohol by volume and alcohol by weight

In the United States, a few states regulate and tax alcoholic beverages according to alcohol by weight (ABW), expressed as a percentage of total mass. Some brewers print the ABW (rather than the ABV) on beer containers, particularly on low-point versions of popular domestic beer brands.

One can use the following equation to convert between ABV and ABW:

ABV\times 0.78924 = ABW\times\text{density of beverage at 20°C in g/ml}

At relatively low ABV, the alcohol percentage by weight is about 4/5 of the ABV (e.g., 3.2% ABW is about 4% ABV).[9] However, because of the miscibility of alcohol and water, the conversion factor is not constant but rather depends upon the concentration of alcohol. 100% ABW, of course, is equivalent to 100% ABV.

Prediction of alcohol content

During the production of wine and beer, hydrometer is used to measure the change in specific gravity (SG) of the solution before and after fermentation. The volume of alcohol in the solution can then be estimated. There are a number of empirical formulae which brewers and winemakers use to estimate the alcohol content of the liquor made.


The simplest method for wine has been described by English author C.J.J. Berry:[8]

  • ABV = (\mathrm{Starting~SG} - \mathrm{Final~SG})/7.36


The calculation for beer is:[10]

1.05 is the number of grams of ethanol produced for every gram of CO2 produced, and .79 is the density of ethanol,

  • ABV = \frac{1.05}{0.79} \left( \frac{\mathrm{Starting~SG} - \mathrm{Final~SG}}{\mathrm{Final~SG}} \right) \times 100 [11]

However, many brewers use the following formula:[12]

  • ABV = 131 \left( \mathrm{Starting~SG} - \mathrm{Final~SG} \right)

See also


  1. ^ See data in the CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 49th edition, pp. D-151 and D-152. Mixing a solution above 24% with a solution below 24% may cause an increase or a decrease, depending on the details.
  1. ^ "Lafayette Brewing Co.". Retrieved 2012-02-04. 
  2. ^ "Glossary of whisky and distillation". Retrieved 2012-02-04. 
  3. ^ "English Ales Brewery Monterey British Brewing Glossary". Retrieved 2012-02-04. 
  4. ^ "Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac (1778–1850)". Retrieved 2008-07-05. 
  5. ^ Robinson 2006, p. 10.
  6. ^ Robinson 2006, p. 279.
  7. ^ Regan 2003.
  8. ^ a b Berry 1998.
  9. ^ "Alcohol Content In Beer". Archived from the original on 4 July 2008. Retrieved 2008-07-05. 
  10. ^ "Calculate Percent Alcohol in Beer". Retrieved 2014-07-03. 
  11. ^ Anon, 2012, Industrial Microbiology Beer Fermentation Practical, School Of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Melbourne
  12. ^ "Get to Know Your Alcohol (By Volume)". Retrieved 2014-07-03. 


  • Hehner, Otto (1880). Alcohol Tables: giving for all specific gravities, from 1.0000 to 0.7938, the percentages of absolute alcohol, by weight and volume. London: J & A Churchill, ASIN B0008B5HOU. 
  • Regan, Gary (2003). The Joy of Mixology. Clarkson Potter.  
  • Robinson, Jancis (2006). The Oxford Companion to Wine (3rd ed.). Oxford: OUP.  

External links

  • How do brewers measure the alcohol in beer? HowStuffWorks
  • Alcohol strength and density
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