World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Amrita

Article Id: WHEBN0000100329
Reproduction Date:

Title: Amrita  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Kshir Sagar, Samudra manthan, Garuda, Halahala, Immortality
Collection: Buddhist Ritual Implements, Hindu Mythology, Immortality, Indian Feminine Given Names, Mythological Substances, Sikh Practices
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Amrita

Amrita (IAST: amṛta) is a Sanskrit word that literally means "immortality" and is often referred to in texts as nectar. Amṛta is etymologically related to the Greek ambrosia[1] and carries the same meaning.[2] The word's earliest occurrence is in the Rigveda, where it is one of several synonyms for soma, the drink which confers immortality upon the gods.

Amrita has varying significance in different Indian religions.

Amrit is also a common first name for Hindus; the feminine form is "Amritā".

Contents

  • Hinduism 1
  • Sikhism 2
  • Theravada Buddhism 3
  • Mahayana Buddhism 4
  • See also 5
  • References 6
  • Sources 7
  • External links 8

Hinduism

A stone carving of a standing woman with a pot in her left hand and lotus in right.
Mohini, the female form of Vishnu, holding the pot of amrit which she distributes amongst all the devas, leaving the asuras without. Darasuram, Tamil Nadu, India

Amrit is repeatedly referred to as the drink of the devas which grants them immortality.

Amrit features in the samudra manthan legend, which describes how the devas, because of a curse from the sage Durvasa, begin to lose their immortality. Assisted by their mortal enemies, the asuras, they churn the ocean and create (among other wonderful things) amrit, the nectar of immortality.[3]

In Hindu philosophy, amrit is a fluid that can flow from the pituitary gland down the throat in deep states of meditation. Some yogic texts say that one drop is enough to conquer death and achieve immortality.

Amrit is sometimes said to miraculously form on, or flow from, statues of Hindu gods. The substance so formed is consumed by worshippers and is alleged to be sweet-tasting and not at all similar to honey or sugar water.

Amrit was the last of the fourteen treasure jewels that emerged from the churning of the ocean and contained in a pot borne by Dhanvantari, the physician of the Gods.

Sikhism

Amrit (Punjabi: ਅੰਮ੍ਰਿਤ) is the name of the holy water used in the baptism ceremony or Amrit Sanchar in Sikhism. This ceremony is observed to initiate the Sikhs into the Khalsa and requires drinking amrit. This is created by mixing a number of soluble ingredients, including sugar, and is then rolled with a khanda with the accompaniment of scriptural recitation of five sacred verses.

Metaphorically, God's name is also referred to as a nectar:

ਅੰਮ੍ਰਿਤ ਸਬਦੁ ਅੰਮ੍ਰਿਤ ਹਰਿ ਬਾਣੀ ॥
अम्रित सबदु अम्रित हरि बाणी ॥
Amrit sabad amrit har baṇi.
The Shabda is Amrit; the Lord's bani is Amrit.
 
ਸਤਿਗੁਰਿ ਸੇਵਿਐ ਰਿਦੈ ਸਮਾਣੀ ॥
सतिगुरि सेविऐ रिदै समाणी ॥
Satgur seviai ridai samāṇi.
Serving the True Guru, it permeates the heart.
 
ਨਾਨਕ ਅੰਮ੍ਰਿਤ ਨਾਮੁ ਸਦਾ ਸੁਖਦਾਤਾ ਪੀ ਅੰਮ੍ਰਿਤੁ ਸਭ ਭੁਖ ਲਹਿ ਜਾਵਣਿਆ
Nānak amrit nām sadā sukhdāta pi amrit sabh bhukh lėh jāvaṇia.
O Nanak, the Ambrosial Naam is forever the Giver of peace; drinking in this Amrit, all hunger is satisfied.[4]

Theravada Buddhism

According to Thanissaro Bhikkhu, "the deathless" refers to the deathless dimension of the mind which is dwelled in permanently after nibbana.[5]

In the Amata Sutta, the Buddha advises monks to stay with the four Satipatthana: "Monks, remain with your minds well-established in these four establishings of mindfulness. Don't let the deathless be lost to you."[6]

In the questions for Nagasena, King Milinda asks for evidence that the Buddha once lived, wherein Nagasena describes evidence of the Dhamma in a simile:

"Revered Nagasena, what is the nectar shop of the Buddha, the Blessed One?" "Nectar, sire, has been pointed out by the Blessed One. With this nectar the Blessed One sprinkles the world with the devas; when the devas and the humans have been sprinkled with this nectar, they are set free from birth, aging, disease, death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief and despair. What is this nectar? It is mindfulness occupied with the body. And this too, sire, was said by the Blessed One: 'Monks, they partake of nectar (the deathless) who partake of mindfulness that is occupied with the body.' This, sire, is called the Blessed One's nectar shop." — Miln 335[7]

Mahayana Buddhism

Amrit (Wylie: bdud rtsi, THL: dütsi) also plays a significant role in Vajrayana Buddhism as a sacramental drink which is consumed at the beginning of all important rituals such as the abhisheka, ganachakra, and homa. In the Tibetan tradition, dütsi is made during drubchens - lengthy ceremonies involving many high lamas. It usually takes the form of small, dark-brown grains that are taken with water, or dissolved in very weak solutions of alcohol and is said to improve physical and spiritual well-being.[8]

The foundational text of traditional Tibetan medicine, the Four Tantras, is also known by the name The Heart of Amrita (Wylie: snying po bsdus pa).

The Immaculate Crystal Garland (Wylie: dri med zhal phreng) describes the origin of amrita in a version of the samudra manthan legend retold in Buddhist terms. In this Vajrayana version, the monster Rahu steals the amrita and is blasted by Vajrapani's thunderbolt. As Rahu has already drunk the amrita he cannot die, but his blood, dripping onto the surface of this earth, causes all kinds of medicinal plants to grow. At the behest of all the Buddhas, Vajrapani reassembles Rahu who eventually becomes a protector of Buddhism according to the Nyingma school of Tibetan Buddhism.

Chinese Buddhism describes Amrita (Chinese: 甘露; pinyin: gānlù) as blessed water, food, or other consumable objects often produced through merits of chanting mantras.

See also

References

  1. ^ Walter W. Skeat, Etymological English Dictionary
  2. ^ "Ambrosia" in George Newnes, 1961, Vol. 1, p. 315.
  3. ^ Gopal, Madan (1990). K.S. Gautam, ed. India through the ages. Publication Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. p. 66. 
  4. ^ Guru Granth Sahib, page 119
  5. ^ "All About Change", by Thanissaro Bhikkhu. Access to Insight (Legacy Edition), 5 June 2010, http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/authors/thanissaro/change.html
  6. ^ "Amata Sutta: Deathless" (SN 47.41), translated from the Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu. Access to Insight (Legacy Edition), 17 February 2012, http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn47/sn47.041.than.html
  7. ^ "The Blessed One's City of Dhamma: From the Milindapañha", based on the translation by I.B. Horner. Access to Insight (Legacy Edition), 30 November 2013, http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/authors/horner/bl130.html
  8. ^ Dutsi, A Brief Description of the Benefits of the Sacred Ambrosial Medicine, The Unsurpassable, Supreme Samaya Substance that Liberates Through Taste.

Sources

  • Dallapiccola, Anna L. Dictionary of Hindu Lore and Legend. ISBN 0-500-51088-1

External links

  • Ayurvedic Rasayana - Amrit
  • Immortal Boons of Amrit and Five Kakars
  • Depictions in stone at Angkor Wat and Angkor Thom (Cambodia) of how the gods dredged amrit from the bottom of the ocean
  • http://earthrites.org/magazine_article_crowley.htm
  • http://www.20kweb.com/etymology_dictionary_A/origin_of_the_word_ambrosia.htm
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Hawaii eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.