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Antimony trioxide

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Antimony trioxide

Antimony trioxide
Antimony trioxide
Identifiers
CAS number  YesY
ChemSpider  YesY
UNII  YesY
KEGG  YesY
RTECS number CC5650000
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Properties
Molecular formula Sb2O3
Molar mass 291.518 g/mol
Appearance white solid
Odor odorless
Density 5.2 g/cm3, α-form
5.67 g/cm3 β-form
Melting point 656 °C (1,213 °F; 929 K)
Boiling point 1,425 °C (2,597 °F; 1,698 K) (sublimes)
Solubility in water Dissolved concentration of 370 ± 37 µg/L was obtained with a loading of 10 mg/L after 7 days of exposure. Temperature varied between 20.8°C (t=0; start of the test) and 22.9°C
Solubility soluble in acid
Refractive index (nD) 2.087, α-form
2.35, β-form
Structure
Crystal structure cubic (α)<570 °C
orthorhombic (β) >570 °C
Coordination
geometry
pyramidal
Dipole moment zero
Hazards
MSDS External MSDS
EU classification Harmful (Xn)
Carc. Cat. 2 (H351)
R-phrases R40
S-phrases (S2), S22, S36/37
NFPA 704
0
2
0
LD50 7000 mg/kg, oral (rat)
Related compounds
Other anions Antimony trisulfide
Other cations Bismuth trioxide
Related compounds Diantimony tetraoxide
Antimony pentoxide
Supplementary data page
Structure and
properties
n, εr, etc.
Thermodynamic
data
Phase behaviour
Solid, liquid, gas
Spectral data UV, IR, NMR, MS
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
 YesY   YesY/N?)

Antimony trioxide is the formula Sb2O3. It is the most important commercial compound of antimony. It is found in nature as the minerals valentinite and senarmontite.[1] Like most polymeric oxides, Sb2O3 dissolves in aqueous solutions with hydrolysis.

Production and properties

Global production of antimony trioxide in 2012 was 130,000 tonnes, an increase from 112,600 tonnes in 2002. China produces the largest share followed by US/Mexico, Europe, Japan and South Africa and other countries (2%).[2]

As of 2010, antimony trioxide was produced at four sites in EU27. It is produced via two routes, re-volatilizing of crude antimony trioxide and by oxidation of antimony metal. Oxidation of antimony metal dominates in Europe. Several processes for the production of crude antimony trioxide or metallic antimony from virgin material. The choice of process depends on the composition of the ore and other factors. Typical steps include mining, crushing and grinding of ore, sometimes followed by froth flotation and separation of the metal using pyrometallurgical processes (smelting or roasting) or in a few cases (e.g. when the ore is rich in precious metals) by hydrometallurgical processes. These steps do not take place in the EU but closer to the mining location.

Re-volatilizing of crude antimony trioxide

Step 1) Crude stibnite is oxidised to crude antimony trioxide using furnaces operating at approximately 850 to 1,000 °C. The reaction is the following:

2 Sb2S3 + 9 O2 → 2 Sb2O3 + 6 SO2

Step 2) The crude antimony trioxide is vaporised and condensed

Oxidation of antimony metal

Antimony metal is oxidized to antimony trioxide in furnaces. The reaction is exothermic. Antimony trioxide is formed through sublimation and recovered in bag filters (bag house). The size of the formed particles is controlled by process conditions in furnace and gas flow. The reaction can be schematically described by:

4 Sb + 3 O2 → 2 Sb2O3

Properties

Antimony trioxide is an [3] With nitric acid, the trioxide is oxidized to antimony(V) oxide.[4]

When heated with carbon, the oxide is reduced to antimony metal. With other reducing agents such as sodium borohydride or lithium aluminium hydride, the unstable and very toxic gas stibine is produced.[5] When heated with potassium bitartrate, a complex salt potassium antimony tartrate, KSb(OH)2•C4H2O6 is formed.[4]

Structure

The structure of Sb2O3 depends on the temperature of the sample. Dimeric Sb4O6 is the high temperature (1560 °C) gas.[6] Sb4O6 molecules are bicyclic cages, similar to the related oxide of phosphorus(III), phosphorus trioxide.[7] The cage structure is retained in a solid that crystallizes in a cubic habit. The Sb-O distance is 197.7 pm and the O-Sb-O angle of 95.6°.[8] This form exists in nature as the mineral senarmontite.[7] Above 606 °C, the more stable form is orthorhombic, consisting of pairs -Sb-O-Sb-O- chains that are linked by oxide bridges between the Sb centers. This form exists in nature as the mineral valentinite.[7]

Sb4O6
senarmontite
valentinite

Uses

The annual consumption of antimony trioxide in the United States and Europe is approximately 10,000 and 25,000 tonnes, respectively. The main application is as flame retardant synergist in combination with halogenated materials. The combination of the halides and the antimony being key to the flame-retardant action for polymers, helping to form less flammable chars. Such flame retardants are found in electrical apparatus, textiles, leather, and coatings.[9]

Other applications:

Safety

Antimony trioxide has suspected carcinogenic potential for humans.[9] Its TLV is 0.5 mg/m3, as for most antimony compounds.[10]
No other human health hazards were identified for antimony trioxide, and no risks to human health and the environment were identified from the production and use of antimony trioxide in daily life.

References

  1. ^ Greenwood, N. N.; & Earnshaw, A. (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd Edn.), Oxford:Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0-7506-3365-4.
  2. ^ http://esis.jrc.ec.europa.eu/doc/risk_assessment/REPORT/datreport415.pdf
  3. ^ Housecroft, C. E.; Sharpe, A. G. (2008). "Chapter 15: The group 15 elements". Inorganic Chemistry (3rd ed.). Pearson. p. 481.  
  4. ^ a b Patnaik, P. (2002). Handbook of Inorganic Chemicals. McGraw-Hill. p. 56.  
  5. ^ Bellama, J. M.; MacDiarmid, A. G. (1968). "Synthesis of the Hydrides of Germanium, Phosphorus, Arsenic, and Antimony by the Solid-Phase Reaction of the Corresponding Oxide with Lithium Aluminum Hydride".  
  6. ^ Wiberg, E.; Holleman, A. F. (2001). Inorganic Chemistry. Elsevier.  
  7. ^ a b c Wells, A. F. (1984). Structural Inorganic Chemistry. Oxford: Clarendon Press.  
  8. ^ Svensson, C. (1975). "Refinement of the crystal structure of cubic antimony trioxide, Sb2O3". Acta Crystallographica B 31 (8): 2016–2018.  
  9. ^ a b Grund, S. C.; Hanusch, K.; Breunig, H. J.; Wolf, H. U. (2005), "Antimony and Antimony Compounds",  
  10. ^ Newton, P. E.; Schroeder, R. E.; Zwick, L.; Serex, T. (2004). "Inhalation Developmental Toxicity Studies In Rats With Antimony Trioxide (Sb2O3)". Toxicologist 78 ((1-S)): 38. 

Further reading

  • Institut national de recherche et de sécurité (INRS), Fiche toxicologique nº 198 : Trioxyde de diantimoine, 1992.
  • The Oxide Handbook, G.V. Samsonov, 1981, 2nd ed. IFI/Plenum, ISBN 0-306-65177-7
  • Antimony trioxide Risk Assessment Report

External links

  • International Antimony Association
  • International Chemical Safety Card 0012
  • ESIS: European chemical Substances Information System
  • Antimony Market And Price
  • Société industrielle et chimique de l'Aisne
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