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Antoni Bolesław Dobrowolski

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Title: Antoni Bolesław Dobrowolski  
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Subject: RV Belgica (1884), Jameson Adams, 2nd Soviet Antarctic Expedition, Maria Pronchishcheva, 1st Soviet Antarctic Expedition
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Antoni Bolesław Dobrowolski

Antoni Bolesław Dobrowolski
picture of Antoni Bolesław Dobrowolski
Born (1872-06-06)June 6, 1872
Dworszowice Kościelne, Poland
Died April 27, 1954(1954-04-27) (aged 81)
Warsaw, Poland
Resting place Powązki Cemetery, Warsaw
Nationality Poland
Fields geophysics, meteorology
Institutions Royal Observatory of Belgium, Polish Meteorological Institute (Warsaw)
Alma mater University of Liège, Belgium
Known for participation in the Belgian Antarctic Expedition, studies of the cryosphere

Antoni Bolesław Dobrowolski (6 June 1872, in Dworszowice Kościelne – 27 April 1954, in Warsaw), was a Polish geophysicist, meteorologist and explorer.

Early life

Dobrowolski was born into an indigent family and supported himself from the age of 12 by teaching younger students while a high school student in Warsaw. His involvement in seeking Polish independence led to a conviction to three years imprisonment in the Caucasus, but after two years he escaped and started studying in Switzerland and Belgium.[1]

Belgian Antarctic Expedition

While still a student in biology, physics and chemistry at the University of Liège he took part in the Belgian Antarctic Expedition (1897-1899) as assistant meteorologist. Henryk Arctowski, who was in charge of physical observations, was initially unsuccessfully in convincing expedition commander Adrien de Gerlache to take him on, but when the Belgica had to return to Ostend for repairs and the ship's doctor and a sailor quit, he was contracted as a sailor.

However, his substantial scientific contributions prompted de Gerlache to formally promote him in March 1898. Arctowski and Dobrowolski were the first to conduct year-round meteorological and hydrographical observations off Antarctica. In addition he studied ice crystallography and light phenomena in ice clouds. These data enabled him to write a monumental treatise on the crystallography of ice and snow.

After his return from the Antarctic he obtained a scholarship in Belgium to study his results and collaborated with Royal Observatory of Belgium.[1][2][3]

Later career

In 1907 [1][4]

He founded several observatories and the Society of Geophysicists in Warsaw, and actively promoted polar research in Poland. During the Spitsbergen, and was involved with the 1938 Polish Expedition to Oscar II Land. After the Second World War he pushed for further Polish scientific involvement in Polar research. He died in 1954, without seeing the implementation of his ideas in the Polish participation in the International Geophysical Year. His fellow Polish explorers and scientists regarded him as a "father figure", and he naturally became a center of Polar knowledge.[5][6]


An inactive [2][7]


  1. ^ a b c Barry, R.G.; Jania, J.; Birkenmajer, K. (April 2011). "A. B. Dobrowolski – the first cryospheric scientist – and the subsequent development of cryospheric science". History of Geo- and Space Sciences 2: 75–79.  
  2. ^ a b Machowski, Jacek (1998). "Contribution of H. Arctowski and A. B. Dobrowolski to the Antarctic Expedition of Belgica (1897-1899)". Polish Polar Research 19 (1–2): 15–30. 
  3. ^ Kløver, Geir O., ed. (2010). Antarctic Pioneers. The Voyage of the Belgica 1897-99. Oslo, Norway: The Fram Museum. p. 119.  
  4. ^ Machowski, Jacek (1998). "Antoni Bolesław Dobrowolski (6 June 1872-27 April 1954)". Polish Polar Research 19 (1–2): 11–13. 
  5. ^ Popiołek, Joanna (1998). "Polar Action of Antoni Bolesław Dobrowolski in the interwar period". Polish Polar Research 19 (1–2): 31–36. 
  6. ^ Birkenmajer, Krzysztof (1998). "Centennial of participation of H. Arktowski and A. B. Dobrowolski in the Belgica Expedition to West Antarctica (1897-1899)". Polish Polar Research 19 (1–2): 4–6. 
  7. ^ "Composite Gazeteer of Antarctica". Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research. Retrieved March 26, 2013. 
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