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Arab–Israeli conflict

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Title: Arab–Israeli conflict  
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Subject: Zionism, Palestinian political violence, Politics of Israel, Israeli–Palestinian conflict, History of Israel
Collection: Arab–israeli Conflict, Ongoing Conflicts
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Arab–Israeli conflict

Arab–Israeli conflict

The key players in the Arab-Israeli conflict
Date c. May 15, 1948–present
(68 years, 1 month, 2 weeks and 4 days)
Location Middle East


Israeli occupation of the Sinai Peninsula (1956–57; 1967–82), West Bank (1967–present), Gaza Strip (1967–2005), Golan Heights (1967–present) and South Lebanon (1982–2000)


 Jordan (1948–94)
 Egypt (1948–78)
 Iraq (1948–)
 Syria (1948–)
 Lebanon (1948–)

Suez Crisis: (1956)

War of Attrition: (1967–70)

Commanders and leaders
Casualties and losses

≈22,570 military deaths[7]

≈1,723 civilian deaths[8] ≈1,050 SLA militiamen deaths[9]
91,105 total Arab deaths[10]
Both sides:
74,000 military deaths
18,000 civilian deaths

The Arab–Israeli conflict (Arabic: الصراع العربي الإسرائيليAl-Sira'a Al'Arabi A'Israili; Hebrew: הסכסוך הישראלי-ערביHa'Sikhsukh Ha'Yisraeli-Aravi) refers to the political tension and military conflicts between a number of Arab countries and Israel. The roots of the modern Arab–Israeli conflict are bound in the rise of Zionism and Arab nationalism towards the end of the 19th century. Territory regarded by the Jewish people as their historical homeland is also regarded by the Pan-Arab movement as historically and currently belonging to the Palestinians,[12] and in the Pan-Islamic context, as Muslim lands. The sectarian conflict between Palestinian Jews and Arabs emerged in the early 20th century, peaking into a full-scale civil war in 1947 and transforming into the First Arab-Israeli War in May 1948 following the Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel.

The nature of the conflict has shifted over the years from the large scale regional Arab–Israeli conflict to a more local Israeli–Palestinian conflict, as large-scale hostilities mostly ended with the cease-fire agreements that followed the 1973 Yom Kippur War. Attempts have been made to resolve the conflict, but without success. Peace agreements were signed between Israel and Egypt in 1979, and Israel and Jordan in 1994. The interim Oslo Accords led to the creation of the Palestinian National Authority in 1994, though a final peace agreement has yet to be reached. An Israeli–Palestinian peace process is ongoing. A cease-fire currently stands between Israel and Syria, as well as more recently with Lebanon (since 2006). The conflict between Israel and Hamas-ruled Gaza, which resulted in the 2009 cease-fire (although fighting has continued since then) is usually also included as part of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict and hence the Arab–Israeli conflict. Despite the peace agreements with Egypt and Jordan and the generally existing cease-fire, the Arab world and Israel generally remain at odds with each other over many issues.


  • Background 1
    • Religious aspects of the conflict 1.1
    • National movements 1.2
    • Sectarian conflict in Mandatory Palestine 1.3
      • First mandate years and the Franco-Syrian war 1.3.1
      • 1929 events 1.3.2
      • 1930s and 1940s 1.3.3
    • Civil War in Mandatory Palestine 1.4
  • History 2
    • 1948 Arab–Israeli War 2.1
    • 1949–67 2.2
    • 1967–73 2.3
    • 1974–2000 2.4
      • Egypt 2.4.1
      • Jordan 2.4.2
      • Iraq 2.4.3
      • Lebanon 2.4.4
      • Palestinians 2.4.5
    • 2000–09 2.5
    • 2010–present 2.6
  • Notable wars and violent events 3
  • Cost of conflict 4
  • See also 5
  • References 6
  • Further reading 7
  • External links 8
    • Government and official sources 8.1
    • Regional media 8.2
    • Think tanks and strategic analysis 8.3
    • Peace proposals 8.4
    • Maps 8.5
    • General sources 8.6


Religious aspects of the conflict

Some groups opposed to the peace process invoke religious arguments for their uncompromising positions.[13] The contemporary history of the Arab–Israeli conflict is very much affected by the religious beliefs of the various sides and their views of the idea of the chosen people in their policies with regard to the "Promised Land" and the "Chosen City" of Jerusalem.[14]

The Land of Canaan or Eretz Yisrael (Land of Israel) was, according to the Hebrew Bible, promised by God to the Children of Israel. This is also mentioned in the Qur'an. In his 1896 manifesto, The Jewish State, Theodor Herzl repeatedly refers to the Biblical Promised Land concept.[15] Likud is currently the most prominent Israeli political party to include the Biblical claim to the Land of Israel in its platform.[16]

Muslims also claim rights to that land in accordance with the Quran.[17] Contrary to the Jewish claim that this land was promised only to the descendants of Abraham's younger son Isaac, they argue that the Land of Canaan was promised to what they consider the elder son, Ishmael, from whom Arabs claim descent.[17] Additionally, Muslims also revere many sites holy for Biblical Israelites, such as the Cave of the Patriarchs and the Temple Mount. In the past 1,400 years, Muslims have constructed Islamic landmarks on these ancient Israelite sites, such as the Dome of the Rock and the Al-Aqsa Mosque on the Temple Mount, the holiest site in Judaism. This has brought the two groups into conflict over the rightful possession of Jerusalem. Muslim teaching is that Muhammad passed through Jerusalem on his first journey to heaven. Hamas, which governs the Gaza Strip, claims that all of the land of Palestine (the current Israeli and Palestinian territories) is an Islamic waqf that must be governed by Muslims.[18]

Christian Zionists often support the State of Israel because of the ancestral right of the Jews to the Holy Land, as suggested, for instance, by Paul in Romans 11. Christian Zionism teaches that the return of Jews in Israel is a prerequisite for the Second Coming of Christ.[19][20]

National movements

The roots of the modern Arab–Israeli conflict lie in the rise of Zionism and the reactionary Arab nationalism that arose in response to Zionism towards the end of the 19th century. Territory regarded by the Jewish people as their historical homeland is also regarded by the Pan-Arab movement as historically and presently belonging to the Palestinian Arabs. Before World War I, the Middle East, including Palestine (later Mandatory Palestine), had been under the control of the Ottoman Empire for nearly 400 years. During the closing years of their empire, the Ottomans began to espouse their Turkish ethnic identity, asserting the primacy of Turks within the empire, leading to discrimination against the Arabs.[21] The promise of liberation from the Ottomans led many Jews and Arabs to support the allied powers during World War I, leading to the emergence of widespread Arab nationalism. Both Arab nationalism and Zionism had their formulative beginning in Europe. The Zionist Congress was established in Basel in 1897, while the "Arab Club" was established in Paris in 1906.

In the late 19th century European and Middle Eastern Jewish communities began to increasingly immigrate to Palestine and purchase land from the local Ottoman landlords. The population of the late 19th century in Palestine reached 600,000 – mostly Muslim Arabs, but also significant minorities of Jews, Christians, Druze and some Samaritans and Bahai's. At that time, Jerusalem did not extend beyond the walled area and had a population of only a few tens of thousands. Collective farms, known as kibbutzim, were established, as was the first entirely Jewish city in modern times, Tel Aviv.

During 1915–16, as World War I was underway, the British High Commissioner in Egypt, Sir Henry McMahon, secretly corresponded with Husayn ibn 'Ali, the patriarch of the Hashemite family and Ottoman governor of Mecca and Medina. McMahon convinced Husayn to lead an Arab revolt against the Ottoman Empire, which was aligned with Germany against Britain and France in the war. McMahon promised that if the Arabs supported Britain in the war, the British government would support the establishment of an independent Arab state under Hashemite rule in the Arab provinces of the Ottoman Empire, including Palestine. The Arab revolt, led by T. E. Lawrence ("Lawrence of Arabia") and Husayn's son Faysal, was successful in defeating the Ottomans, and Britain took control over much of this area.

Sectarian conflict in Mandatory Palestine

First mandate years and the Franco-Syrian war

In 1917, Palestine was conquered by the British forces (including the

  • Crisis Guide: The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict from the Council on Foreign Relations
  • The State of Israel The Jewish History Resource Center, Project of the Dinur Center for Research in Jewish History, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
  • Daily digest of commentary about the Arab-Israeli conflict from around the world
  • Israel and the Palestinians
  • Encarta Encyclopedia on the Arab-Israeli Conflict (Archived 2009-10-31)
  • Guide to the Arab-Israeli Conflict, includes links to historical sources, as well as sources representing the Arab and Israeli sides of the conflict.
  • The Guardian (UK) A Brief History of Arab-Israeli Conflict (flash)
  • Israel-Palestine Conflict at DMOZ
  • Diplomacy Monitor – Middle East
  • Information (articles, reports, maps, books, links, ...) on the israeli palestinian conflict (middle east conflict)
  • Holy Land, Unholy War Independent coverage of the Middle East conflicts by the news agency Inter Press Service
  • "A Brief History of the Arab-Israeli Conflict" by Jeremy Pressman

General sources

  • MideastWeb Middle East Map Collection
  • Maps, history, statistics, victims
  • University of Texas Map Collection


  • A historical summary of Middle East Peace Plans and Proposals

Peace proposals

  • Dean Peter Krogh Examines Prospects for Peace from the Dean Peter Krogh Foreign Affairs Digital Archives
  • NGO Monitor, NGO watchdog group, highlighting perceived instances of anti-Israeli NGO bias
  • Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs
  • Palestinian Academic Society for the Study of International Affairs (PASSIA), Palestinian research organization
  • Israel/Palestine Center for Research and Information Joint Israeli-Palestinian think tank
  • Middle East Research and Information Project (see also Middle East Research and Information Project)
  • Saban Center for Middle East Policy (see also Saban Center for Middle East Policy)
  • Washington Institute for Near East Policy (see also Washington Institute for Near East Policy)
  • Original analysis of current developments in the peace-process, from Middle East Media Research Institute
  • The Ariel Center for Policy Research
  • A Regional Perspective on the Arab-Israeli Conflict by Jay Shapiro
  • Jerusalem Institute for Israel Studies

Think tanks and strategic analysis

  • Lebanon Daily Star, largest English-circulation newspaper in the Arab world
  • Al Ahram, Egypt's largest newspaper (see also Al Ahram)
  • Palestine Chronicle, weekly electronic paper
  • Yedioth AharonothIsrael News – Israel's largest newspaper, centrist (Hebrew)
  • Jerusalem Post, Israel's oldest English newspaper, conservative
  • Ha'aretz Israeli newspaper, liberal
  • Jerusalem Newswire Christian-run Jerusalem-based news website, conservative

Regional media

  • Israel's Ministry of Foreign Affairs
    • Victims of Palestinian Violence and Terrorism since September 2000
  • League of Arab States
  • Palestinian Authority Ministry of Foreign Affairs
  • United Nations on the Question of Palestine
  • Arab-Israeli Conflict from UCB Libraries GovPubs

Government and official sources

External links

  • Associated Press, comp. (1996). Lightning Out of Israel: [The Six-Day War in the Middle East]: The Arab-Israeli Conflict. Commemorative Ed. Western Printing and Lithographing Company for the Associated Press. ASIN B000BGT89M.
  • Bard, Mitchell (1999). Middle East Conflict. Indianapolis: Alpha Books. ISBN 0-02-863261-3.
  • Barzilai, Gad (1996). Wars, Internal Conflicts and Political Order: A Jewish Democracy in the Middle East. Albany: State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-7914-2944-X
  • Brown, Wesley H. & Peter F. Penner (ed.): Christian Perspectives on the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict. Neufeld Verlag, Schwarzenfeld 2008. ISBN 978-3-937896-57-1.
  • Carter, Jimmy (2006). Palestine: Peace Not Apartheid. New York: Simon and Schuster. ISBN 0-7432-8502-6.
  • Casper, Lionel L. (2003). Rape of Palestine and the Struggle for Jerusalem. New York & Jerusalem: Gefen Publishing House. ISBN 965-229-297-4.
  • Citron, Sabina (2006). The Indictment: The Arab-Israeli Conflict in Historical Perspective. New York & Jerusalem: Gefen Publishing House. ISBN 965-229-373-3.
  • Cramer, Richard Ben (2004). How Israel Lost: The Four Questions. New York:  
  • Dershowitz, Alan (2004). The Case for Israel. New York: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-67952-6.
  • Falk, Avner (2004). Fratricide in the Holy Land: A Psychoanalytic View of the Arab-Israeli Conflict. Madison: U of Wisconsin P. ISBN 0-299-20250-X
  • Finkelstein, Norman G. (2003). Image and Reality of the Israel-Palestine Conflict. Verso Books. ISBN 1-85984-442-1.
  • Golani, Motti (2005). From Civil War to Interstate War and Back again. The War over Israel/Palestine, 1945–2000, in: Zeithistorische Forschungen/Studies in Contemporary History 2 (2005), pp. 54–70.
  • Goldenberg, Doron (2003). State of Siege. Gefen Publishing House. ISBN 965-229-310-5.
  • Gopin, Marc. (2002). Holy War, Holy Peace: How Religion Can Bring Peace to the Middle East. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-514650-6.
  • Howell, Mark (2007). What Did We Do to Deserve This? Palestinian Life under Occupation in the West Bank, Garnet Publishing. ISBN 1-85964-195-4
  • Israeli, Raphael (2002). Dangers of a Palestinian State. New York & Jerusalem: Gefen Publishing House. ISBN 965-229-303-2.
  • Katz, Shmuel (1973). Battleground: Fact and Fantasy in Palestine. Shapolsky Pub. ISBN 0-933503-03-2.
  • Khouri, Fred J. (1985). The Arab-Israeli Dilemma (3rd ed.). Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press.  
  • Lesch, David (2007). The Arab-Israeli Conflict A History. Oxford University Press, USA.  
  • –––. (September 1990). "The Roots of Muslim Rage." The Atlantic Monthly.
  • Maoz, Zeev (2006). Defending the Holy Land. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan. ISBN 0-472-11540-5
  • Morris, Benny (2009). 1948: A History of the First Arab-Israeli War, Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-15112-1
  • Reiter, Yitzhak (2009). National Minority, Regional Majority: Palestinian Arabs Versus Jews in Israel (Syracuse Studies on Peace and Conflict Resolution), Syracuse University Press (Sd). ISBN 978-0-8156-3230-6
  • Rogan, Eugene L., ed., and Avi Shlaim, ed. (2001). The War for Palestine: Rewriting the History of 1948. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. ISBN 978-0-521-79476-3.
  • Segev, Tom (1999). One Palestine Complete: Jews and Arabs Under British Mandate. New York: Henry Holt & Co. ISBN 0-8050-6587-3.

Further reading

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  2. ^ Pollack, Kenneth, M., Arabs at War: Military Effectiveness, University of Nebraska Press, (2002), pp. 93–94, 96.
  3. ^ Karsh, Efraim: The Cautious Bear: Soviet Military Engagement in Middle East Wars in the Post-1967 Era
  4. ^ Moshe Yegar, "Pakistan and Israel," Jewish Political Studies Review 19:3–4 (Fall 2007)
  5. ^ "Pakistani Pilots in Arab Israel War". Opinion Maker. Archived from the original on 2013-05-13. Retrieved 2013-05-13. 
  6. ^ "Remembering the past: Bangladeshi fighters for Palestine of the 1980s". Opinion Maker. Archived from the original on 2015-06-17. Retrieved 2015-06-17. 
  7. ^ Memorial Day / 24,293 fallen soldiers, terror victims since Israel was born. Haaretz. Retrieved on 2014-07-28.
  8. ^ Memorial Day / 24,293 fallen soldiers, terror victims since Israel was born. Haaretz Retrieved on 2014-07-28.
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  10. ^ Total Casualties, Arab-Israeli Conflict. Jewish Virtual Library.
  11. ^ a b Buzan, Barry (2003). Regions and powers. Cambridge University Press.  
  12. ^ "The Palestinian National Charter – Article 6". Retrieved 2013-01-19. 
  13. ^ Weinberger, Peter E. (May 2004). "Incorporating religion into israeli-palestinian peacemaking: recommendations for policymakers" (PDF). Center for World Religions, Diplomacy, and Conflict Resolution, Institute for Conflict Analysis and Resolution, George Mason University. 
  14. ^ Avi Beker, The Chosen: The History of an Idea and the Anatomy of an Obsession, New York: Palgrave Mcmillan, 2008
  15. ^ The State of the Jews, Theodor Hertzl, 1896, Translated from the German by Sylvie D'Avigdor, published in 1946 by the American Zionist Emergency Council. The original German title, "Der Judenstaat", literally means "The Jews' State". Archived 2009-10-25.
  16. ^ "Likud – Platform". Archived from the original on October 6, 2008. Retrieved September 4, 2008. 
  17. ^ a b 'Jerusalem in the Qur'an', Masjid Dar al-Qur'an, Long Island, New York. 2002
  18. ^ "The Avalon Project : Hamas Covenant 1988". August 18, 1988. Retrieved May 4, 2012. 
  19. ^ "Seven Major Prophetic Signs Of The Second Coming". December 31, 2011. 
  20. ^ On the Road to Armageddon: How Evangelicals Became Israel's Best FriendReview of
  21. ^ Fraser, T.G. The Middle East: 1914–1979. St. Martin's Press, New York. (1980) Pg. 2
  22. ^ Segev, Tom (2000): One Palestine, Complete, pp. 48–49, Abacus, ISBN 0-349-11286-X.
  23. ^ Lesch, Ann M. and Tschirgi, Dan. Origins and Development of the Arab-Israeli Conflict. Greenwood Press: West Port, Connecticut. (1998). Pg.47,51
  24. ^ San Francisco Chronicle, Aug. 9, 2005, "A Time of Change; Israelis, Palestinians and the Disengagement"
  25. ^ NA 59/8/353/84/867n, 404 Wailing Wall/279 and 280, Archdale Diary and Palestinian Police records.
  26. ^ Lesch, Ann M. and Tschirgi, Dan. Origins and Development of the Arab-Israeli Conflict. Greenwood Press: West Port, Connecticut. (1998). Pg. 47
  27. ^ Smith, Charles D. Palestine and the Arab Israeli Conflict: A History With Documents. Bedford/St. Martin's: Boston. (2004). Pg. 129
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  29. ^ Lesch, Ann M. and Tschirgi, Dan. Origins and Development of the Arab-Israeli Conflict. Greenwood Press: West Port, Connecticut. (1998). Pg.
  30. ^ "The Struggle against Jewish Immigration to Palestine". Middle Eastern Studies. July 1, 1998. Retrieved April 20, 2010. 
  31. ^ A/RES/106 (S-1) of May 15, 1947 General Assembly Resolution 106 Constituting the UNSCOP: Retrieved12 May 2012
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  35. ^ Fraser, T.G. The Middle East: 1914–1979. St. Martin's Press, New York. (1980). Pg. 41
  36. ^ Stefan Brooks (2008). "Palestine, British Mandate for". In Spencer C. Tucker. The Encyclopedia of the Arab-Israeli Conflict 3. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. p. 770.  
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  39. ^ Smith, Charles D. Palestine and the Arab Israeli Conflict: A History With Documents. Bedford/St. Martin's: Boston. (2004). Pg. 198
  40. ^ GENERAL PROGRESS REPORT AND SUPPLEMENTARY REPORT OF THE UNITED NATIONS CONCILIATION COMMISSION FOR PALESTINE, Covering the period from December 11, 1949 to October 23, 1950, GA A/1367/Rev.1 23 October 1950
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    - During the first four years of statehood, the country had to struggle for its existence, while simultaneously absorbing over 700,000 immigrants.
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  113. ^ Yaakov Katz (June 4, 2010). "We had no choice". The Jerusalem Post. Archived from the original on June 7, 2010. Retrieved July 6, 2010. 
  114. ^ Yaakov Katz (June 1, 2010). "'"Vicious conflict aboard 'Mavi Marmara. The Jerusalem Post. Archived from the original on June 3, 2010. Retrieved July 6, 2010. 
  115. ^ "Hamas targets Israeli-Palestinian talks by killing four Israelis". The Christian Science Monitor. 
  116. ^ Blomfield, Adrian (August 2, 2010). "Jordanian national killed in multiple militant rocket strike". The Daily Telegraph (London). 
  117. ^ "IDF Spokesperson". Retrieved 2013-01-19. 
  118. ^ Henderson, Barney (14 November 2012). "Hamas military chief killed in Gaza air strike". The Daily Telegraph (UK). 
  119. ^ "Full text: Terms of Israel-Palestinian cease-fire". The Washington Post. Retrieved 22 November 2012. 
  120. ^ [2][348] The UN has given a figure of 103 dead civilians.
  121. ^ "Israeli strikes kill 23 in bloodiest day for Gaza". The News International. 2012-11-19. Retrieved 2013-01-19. 
  122. ^ "After eight days of fighting, ceasefire is put to the test". The Times of Israel. 21 November 2012. Retrieved 22 November 2012. 
  123. ^ "Gaza-Israel war rages amid international protests – video". The Guardian (London). November 21, 2012. Retrieved 2013-01-19. 
  124. ^ a b "Global anti-Israel protests staged as fears of Gaza ground invasion escalate". RT. Retrieved 2012-12-12. 
  125. ^ Lazaroff, Tovah (16 November 2012). "Ashton, Merkel say Israel has right to defend itself". The Jerusalem Post. 
  126. ^ "Gaza Rocket Attacks" (Press release). US: Department of State. 14 November 2012. Retrieved 14 November 2012. 
  127. ^ "Foreign Secretary statement on Gaza and southern Israel". UK: Foreign & Commonwealth Office. Retrieved 15 November 2012. 
  128. ^ al-Mughrabi, Nidal (14 November 2012). "UPDATE 8-Rockets hits near Tel Aviv as Gaza death toll rises". Reuters. Retrieved 18 November 2012. 
  129. ^ Hall, Bianca (16 November 2012). "Gillard condemns attacks on Israel" (Press release). Australia. Retrieved 16 November 2012. 
  130. ^ "Les ministres européens mettent en garde Israël quant à l'escalade de la violence à Gaza" [European ministers warn Israel about escalade of violence in Gaza] (in French). EurActiv. 16 November 2012. 
  131. ^ "Foreign minister Nikolay Mladenov commenting on the situation in southern Israel and the Gaza Strip".  
  132. ^ "Canada Condemns Hamas and Stands with Israel" (Press release). Canada: Foreign Affairs and International Trade. 14 November 2012. Retrieved 15 November 2012. 
  133. ^ Statement of MFA on Israel and the Gaza Strip, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic 15 November 2012
  134. ^ Timmermans condemns rocket attacks on Israel from Gaza, Government of the Netherlands 13 November 2012
  135. ^ "Russia condemns 'disproportionate' strikes on Gaza". The Daily Star. Lebanon. 15 November 2012. Retrieved 15 November 2012. 
  136. ^ "Israel and Hamas Trade Attacks as Tension Rises". The New York Times. 8 July 2014. 
  137. ^ 'Cost of Conflict in the Middle East'', Strategic Foresight Group"'" (PDF). 


See also

In terms of the human cost, it is estimated that the conflict has taken 92,000 lives (74,000 military and 18,000 civilian from 1945 to 1995).[11]

A report by Strategic Foresight Group has estimated the opportunity cost of conflict for the Middle East from 1991–2010 at $12 trillion. The report's opportunity cost calculates the peace GDP of countries in the Middle East by comparing the current GDP to the potential GDP in times of peace. Israel's share is almost $1 trillion, with Iraq and Saudi Arabia having approximately $2.2 and $4.5 trillion, respectively. In other words, had there been peace and cooperation between Israel and Arab League nations since 1991, the average Israeli citizen would be earning over $44,000 instead of $23,000 in 2010.[137]

Cost of conflict

Time Name
1948–1949 First Arab–Israeli War
1951–1955 Reprisal operations
1956 Suez War
1967 The Six-Day War
1967–1970 War of Attrition
1971–1982 Palestinian insurgency in South Lebanon
1973 Yom Kippur War
1978 First South Lebanon conflict
1982 First Lebanon War
1985–2000 Second South Lebanon conflict
1987–1993 First Intifada
2000–2004 Second Intifada
2006 Operation Summer Rains
Second Lebanon War
2008–2009 Gaza War
2012 Operation Pillar of Defense
2014 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict

Notable wars and violent events

Following an escalation of rocket attacks by Hamas, Israel started an operation in the Gaza Strip on July 8, 2014.[136]

However, the governments of the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Germany, France, Australia, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic and Netherlands expressed support for Israel's right to defend itself, and/or condemned the Hamas rocket attacks on Israel.[125][126][127][128][129][130][131][132][133][134][135]

The Palestinian Centre for Human Rights said that 158 Palestinians were killed during the operation, of which: 102 were civilians, 55 were militants and one was a policeman; 30 were children and 13 were women.[120][121] B'Tselem stated that according to its initial findings, which covered only the period between 14 and 19 November, 102 Palestinians were killed in the Gaza Strip, 40 of them civilians. According to Israeli figures, 120 combatants and 57 civilians were killed.[122] International outcry ensued, with many criticizing Israel for what much of the international community perceived as a disproportionately violent response.[123] Protests took place on hundreds of college campuses across the U.S., and in front of the Israeli consulate in New York.[124] Additional protests took place throughout the Middle East, throughout Europe, and in parts of South America.[124]

Intermittent fighting continued since then, including 680 rocket attacks on Israel in 2011.[117] On November 14, 2012, Israel killed Ahmed Jabari, a leader of Hamas's military wing, launching Operation Pillar of Cloud.[118] Hamas and Israel agreed to an Egyptian-mediated ceasefire on November 21.[119]

Following the latest round of peace talks between Israel and the Palestinian Authority, 13 Palestinian militant movements led by Hamas initiated a terror campaign designed to derail and disrupt the negotiations.[115] Attacks on Israelis have increased since August 2010, after 4 Israeli civilians were killed by Hamas militants. Palestinian militants have increased the frequency of rocket attacks aimed at Israelis. On August 2, Hamas militants launched seven Katyusha rockets at Eilat and Aqaba, killing one Jordanian civilian and wounding 4 others.[116]


A raid was carried out by Israeli naval forces on six ships of the Gaza Freedom Flotilla in May 2010.[108] after the ships refused to dock at Port Ashdod. On the MV Mavi Marmara, activists clashed with the Israeli boarding party. During the fighting, nine activists were killed by Israeli special forces. Widespread international condemnation of and reaction to the raid followed, Israel–Turkey relations were strained, and Israel subsequently eased its blockade on the Gaza Strip.[109][110][111][112] Several dozen other passengers and seven Israeli soldiers were injured,[110] with some of the commandos suffering from gunshot wounds.[113][114]

In 2009 Israel placed a 10-month settlement freeze on the West Bank. Hillary Clinton praised the freeze as an "unprecedented" gesture that could "help revive Middle East talks."[106][107]

A war crimes.[105]

Speaking in Jerusalem on August 26, 2008, then United States Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice criticized Israel's increased settlement construction in the West Bank as detrimental to the peace process. Rice's comments came amid reports that Israeli construction in the disputed territory had increased by a factor of 1.8 over 2007 levels.[98]

In April 2008, Syrian President Bashar al-Assad told a Qatari newspaper that Syria and Israel had been discussing a peace treaty for a year, with Turkey as a go-between. This was confirmed in May 2008 by a spokesman for Prime Minister Ehud Olmert. As well as a peace treaty, the future of the Golan Heights is being discussed. President Assad said "there would be no direct negotiations with Israel until a new US president takes office."[97]

On September 6, 2007, in Operation Orchard, Israel bombed an eastern Syrian complex which was allegedly a nuclear reactor being built with assistance from North Korea.[96] Israel had also bombed Syria in 2003.

In the aftermath of the Battle of Gaza, where Hamas seized control of the Gaza Strip in a violent civil war with rival Fatah, Israel placed restrictions on its border with Gaza borders and ended economic cooperation with the Palestinian leadership based there. Israel and Egypt have imposed a blockade of the Gaza Strip since 2007. Israel maintains the blockade is necessary to limit Palestinian rocket attacks from Gaza and to prevent Hamas from smuggling advanced rockets and weapons capable of hitting its cities.[77]

In July 2006, Hezbollah fighters crossed the border from Lebanon into Israel, attacked and killed eight Israeli soldiers, and abducted two others as hostages, setting off the 2006 Lebanon War which caused much destruction in Lebanon.[82] A UN-sponsored ceasefire went into effect on August 14, 2006, officially ending the conflict.[83] The conflict killed over a thousand Lebanese and over 150 Israelis,[84][85][86][87][88][89][90] severely damaged Lebanese civil infrastructure, and displaced approximately one million Lebanese[91] and 300,000–500,000 Israelis, although most were able to return to their homes.[92][93][94] After the ceasefire, some parts of Southern Lebanon remained uninhabitable due to Israeli unexploded cluster bomblets.[95]

In June 2006, Hamas militants infiltrated an army post near the Israeli side of the Gaza Strip and abducted Israeli soldier Gilad Shalit. Two IDF soldiers were killed in the attack, while Shalit was wounded after his tank was hit with an RPG. Three days later Israel launched Operation Summer Rains to secure the release of Shalit.[79] He was held hostage by Hamas, who barred the International Red Cross from seeing him, until October 18, 2011, when he was exchanged for 1,027 Palestinian prisoners.[80][81]

On March 16, 2003, Rachel Corrie, an American peace activist was crushed to death by an Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) bulldozer in Rafah, Gaza, during a non-violent protest of the Israeli demolition of Palestinian homes.[77] Corrie stood in confrontation with the bulldozers for three hours wearing a bright orange jacket and carrying a megaphone.[77] Although the Israeli government has denied responsibility in the incident and ruled her death as an accident, several eye-witness reports say that the Israeli soldier operating the bulldozer deliberately ran her over.[77][78]

Aftermath of the Sbarro pizza restaurant suicide bombing. 15 Israeli civilians were killed and more than 130 wounded in the attack.

Israel's then prime minister Ariel Sharon began a policy of disengagement from Gaza from the Gaza Strip in 2003. This policy was fully implemented in August 2005.[74] Sharon's announcement to disengage from Gaza came as a tremendous shock to his critics both on the left and on the right. A year previously, he had commented that the fate of the most far-flung settlements in Gaza, Netzararem and Kfar Darom, was regarded in the same light as that of Tel Aviv.[75] The formal announcements to evacuate seventeen Gaza settlements and another four in the West Bank in February 2004 represented the first reversal for the settler movement since 1968. It divided his party. It was strongly supported by Trade and Industry Minister Ehud Olmert and Tzipi Livni, the Minister for Immigration and Absorption, but Foreign Minister Silvan Shalom and Finance Minister Benjamin Netanyahu strongly condemned it. It was also uncertain whether this was simply the beginning of further evacuation.[76]

As violence between the Israeli army and Palestinian militants intensified, Israel expanded its security apparatus around the West Bank by re-taking many parts of land in Area A. Israel established a complicated system of roadblocks and checkpoints around major Palestinian areas to deter violence and protect Israeli settlements. However, since 2008, the IDF has slowly transferred authority to Palestinian security forces.[71][72][73]

The Second Intifada forced Israel to rethink its relationship and policies towards the Palestinians. Following a series of suicide bombings and attacks, the Israeli army launched Operation Defensive Shield. It was the largest military operation conducted by Israel since the Six-Day War.[70]


The Oslo II agreement was signed in 1995 and detailed the division of the West Bank into Areas A, B, and C. Area A was land under full Palestinian civilian control. In Area A, Palestinians were also responsible for internal security. The Oslo agreements remain important documents in Israeli-Palestinian relations.

In mid-1993, Israeli and Palestinian representatives engaged in peace talks in Oslo, Norway. As a result, in September 1993, Israel and the PLO signed the side letters, Israel recognized the PLO as the legitimate representative of the Palestinian people while the PLO recognized the right of the state of Israel to exist and renounced terrorism, violence and its desire for the destruction of Israel.

Yitzhak Rabin, Bill Clinton, and Yasser Arafat at the Oslo Accords signing ceremony on September 13, 1993

In December 1987, the First Intifada began. The First Intifada was a mass Palestinian uprising against Israeli rule in the Palestinian territories.[69] The rebellion began in the Jabalia refugee camp and quickly spread throughout Gaza and the West Bank. Palestinian actions ranged from civil disobedience to violence. In addition to general strikes, boycotts on Israeli products, graffiti and barricades, Palestinian demonstrations that included stone-throwing by youths against the Israel Defense Forces brought the Intifada international attention. The Israeli army's heavy handed response to the demonstrations, with live ammunition, beatings and mass arrests, brought international condemnation. The PLO, which until then had never been recognised as the leaders of the Palestinian people by Israel, was invited to peace negotiations the following year, after it recognized Israel and renounced terrorism.

The 1970s were marked by a large number of major, international terrorist attacks, including the Lod Airport massacre and the Munich Olympics Massacre in 1972, and the Entebbe Hostage Taking in 1976, with over 100 Jewish hostages of different nationalities kidnapped and held in Uganda.


In 2006, as a response to a Hezbollah cross-border raid, Israel launched air strikes on Hezbollah strongholds in Southern Lebanon, starting the 2006 Lebanon War. The inconclusive war lasted for 34 days, and resulted in the creation of a buffer zone in Southern Lebanon and the deployment of Lebanese troops south of the Litani river for the first time since the 1960s. The Israeli government under Ehud Olmert was harshly criticized for its handling of the war in the Winograd Commission.

In March 1983, Israel and Lebanon signed a ceasefire agreement. However, Syria pressured President Amine Gemayel into nullifying the truce in March 1984. By 1985, Israeli forces withdrew to a 15 km wide southern strip of Lebanon, following which the conflict continued on a lower scale, with relatively low casualties on both sides. In 1993 and 1996, Israel launched major operations against the Shiite militia of Hezbollah, which had become an emergent threat. In May 2000, the newly elected government of Ehud Barak authorized a withdrawal from Southern Lebanon, fulfilling an election promise to do so well ahead of a declared deadline. The hasty withdrawal lead to the immediate collapse of the South Lebanon Army, and many members either got arrested or fled to Israel.

. Within two months the PLO agreed to withdraw thence. Israel invaded Lebanon forced the PLO to retreat north of the Litani river. In 1981 another conflict between Israel and the PLO broke out, which ended with a ceasefire agreement that did not solve the core of the conflict. In June 1982, South Lebanon Army, in which it together with the Operation Litani Armed conflict lasted until July 1971 with the expulsion of the PLO and thousands of Palestinian fighters to Lebanon. The PLO resettled in Lebanon, from which it staged raids into Israel. In 1978, Israel launched [68] The violence resulted in the deaths of tens of thousands of people, the vast majority Palestinians.[67] In 1970, following an extended


During the Gulf War in 1991, Iraq fired 39 Scud missiles into Israel, in the hopes of uniting the Arab world against the coalition which sought to liberate Kuwait. At the behest of the United States, Israel did not respond to this attack in order to prevent a greater outbreak of war.

In June 1981, Israel attacked and destroyed newly built Iraqi nuclear facilities in Operation Opera.

Israel and Iraq have been implacable foes since 1948. Iraq sent its troops to participate in the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, and later backed Egypt and Syria in the 1967 Six-Day War and in the 1973 Yom Kippur War.


In October 1994, Israel and Jordan signed a Palestinian National Authority (PNA). It was signed at the southern border crossing of Arabah on October 26, 1994 and made Jordan only the second Arab country (after Egypt) to sign a peace accord with Israel.


Following the Camp David Accords of the late 1970s, Israel and Egypt signed a peace treaty in March 1979. Under its terms, the Sinai Peninsula returned to Egyptian hands, and the Gaza Strip remained under Israeli control, to be included in a future Palestinian state. The agreement also provided for the free passage of Israeli ships through the Suez Canal and recognition of the Straits of Tiran and the Gulf of Aqaba as international waterways.

Begin, Carter and Sadat at Camp David



On October 6, 1973, Syria and Egypt staged a surprise attack on Israel on Yom Kippur, the holiest day of the Jewish calendar. The Israeli military were caught off guard and unprepared, and took about three days to fully mobilize.[64][65] This led other Arab states to send troops to reinforce the Egyptians and Syrians. In addition, these Arab countries agreed to enforce an oil embargo on industrial nations including the U.S, Japan and Western European Countries. These OPEC countries increased the price of oil fourfold, and used it as a political weapon to gain support against Israel.[66] The Yom Kippur War accommodated indirect confrontation between the US and the Soviet Union. When Israel had turned the tide of war, the USSR threatened military intervention. The United States, wary of nuclear war, secured a ceasefire on October 25.[64][65]

[63] In 1969, Egypt initiated the

At the end of August 1967, Arab leaders met in Khartoum in response to the war, to discuss the Arab position toward Israel. They reached consensus that there should be no recognition, no peace, and no negotiations with the State of Israel, the so-called "three no's".[61]

Egyptian forces crossing the Suez Canal on October 7, 1973


On May 30, 1967, Jordan signed a mutual defense pact with Egypt. Egypt mobilized Sinai units, crossing UN lines (after having expelled the UN border monitors) and mobilized and massed on Israel's southern border. On June 5, Israel launched an attack on Egypt. The Israeli Air Force (IAF) destroyed most of the Egyptian Air Force in a surprise attack, then turned east to destroy the Jordanian, Syrian and Iraqi air forces.[60] This strike was the crucial element in Israel's victory in the Six-Day War.[57][59] At the war's end, Israel had gained control of the Sinai Peninsula, the Gaza Strip, the West Bank (including East Jerusalem), Shebaa farms, and the Golan Heights. The results of the war affect the geopolitics of the region to this day.

On May 19, 1967, Egypt expelled UNEF observers,[56] and deployed 100,000 soldiers in the Sinai Peninsula.[57] It again closed the Straits of Tiran to Israeli shipping,[58][59] returning the region to the way it was in 1956 when Israel was blockaded.

The PLO (Palestinian Liberation Organization) was first established in 1964, under a charter including a commitment to "[t]he liberation of Palestine [which] will destroy the Zionist and imperialist presence..." (PLO Charter, Article 22, 1968).

Israel completed work on a national water carrier, a huge engineering project designed to transfer Israel's allocation of the Jordan river's waters towards the south of the country in realization of Ben-Gurion's dream of mass Jewish settlement of the Negev desert. The Arabs responded by trying to divert the headwaters of the Jordan, leading to growing conflict between Israel and Syria.[55]

In 1956, Egypt closed the Straits of Tiran to Israeli shipping, and blockaded the Gulf of Aqaba, in contravention of the Constantinople Convention of 1888. Many argued that this was also a violation of the 1949 Armistice Agreements.[49][50] On July 26, 1956, Egypt nationalized the Suez Canal Company, and closed the canal to Israeli shipping.[51] Israel responded on October 29, 1956, by invading the Sinai Peninsula with British and French support. During the Suez Crisis, Israel captured the Gaza Strip and Sinai Peninsula. The United States and the United Nations soon pressured it into a ceasefire.[51][52] Israel agreed to withdraw from Egyptian territory. Egypt agreed to freedom of navigation in the region and the demilitarization of the Sinai. The United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF) was created and deployed to oversee the demilitarization.[53] The UNEF was only deployed on the Egyptian side of the border, as Israel refused to allow them on its territory.[54]

As a result of Israel's victory in the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, any Arabs caught on the wrong side of the ceasefire line were unable to return to their homes in what became Israel. Likewise, any Jews on the West Bank or in Gaza were exiled from their property and homes to Israel. Today's Palestinian refugees are the descendants of those who left, the responsibility for their exodus being a matter of dispute between the Israeli and the Palestinian side.[45][46]:114 Morris concluded that the "decisive cause" for the abandonment by Palestinian Arabs of their settlements was predominantly related to, or caused by, actions of the Jewish forces (citing actual physical expulsions, military assaults on settlements, fear of being caught up in fighting, the fall of nearby settlements, and propaganda inciting flight), while abandonment due to orders by the Arab leadership was decisive in only six out of the 392 depopulated Arab settlements analysed by him.[46]:xiv-xviii Over 700,000 Jews emigrated to Israel between 1948 and 1952, with approximately 285,000 of them from Arab countries.[47][48]


The status of Jewish citizens in Arab states worsened during the 1948 Israeli-Arab war. Anti-Jewish riots erupted throughout the Arab World in December 1947, and Jewish communities were hit particularly hard in Aleppo and British-controlled Aden, with hundreds of dead and injured. In Libya, Jews were deprived of citizenship, and in Iraq, their property was seized.[42] Egypt expelled most of its foreign community, including Jews, after the Suez War 1956,[43] while Algeria denied its French citizens, including Jews, of citizenship upon its independence in 1962. Over the course of twenty years, some 850,000 Jews from Arab countries immigrated to Israel and other countries.[44]

That day, the armies of Irgun and the Stern Gang (See Deir Yassin massacre). The War came to an end with the signing of the 1949 Armistice Agreements between Israel and each of its Arab neighbours.

There were no mention of the borders of the new state other than that it was in Eretz Israel. In an official cablegram from the Secretary-General of the League of Arab States to the UN Secretary-General on May 15, 1948, the Arab stated publicly that Arab Governments found "themselves compelled to intervene for the sole purpose of restoring peace and security and establishing law and order in Palestine." (Clause 10(e)). Further in Clause 10(e) – "The Governments of the Arab States hereby confirm at this stage the view that had been repeatedly declared by them on previous occasions, such as the London Conference and before the United Nations mainly, the only fair and just solution to the problem of Palestine is the creation of United State of Palestine based upon the democratic principles ..."

[38] On May 14, 1948, the day on which the British Mandate over Palestine expired, the

1948 Arab–Israeli War


Early in 1948, the United Kingdom announced its firm intention to terminate its mandate in Palestine on May 14.[36] In response, U.S. President Harry S. Truman made a statement on March 25 proposing UN trusteeship rather than partition, stating that "unfortunately, it has become clear that the partition plan cannot be carried out at this time by peaceful means. ... unless emergency action is taken, there will be no public authority in Palestine on that date capable of preserving law and order. Violence and bloodshed will descend upon the Holy Land. Large-scale fighting among the people of that country will be the inevitable result."[37]

In the weeks prior to the end of the Mandate the Haganah launched a number of offensives in which they gained control over all the territory allocated by the UN to the Jewish State, creating a large number of refugees and capturing the towns of Tiberias, Haifa, Safad, Beisan and, in effect, Jaffa.

The rise of Palestinian Nationalism was during the Mandate period, Arab Christian owned Falastin newspaper was the first to warn about the perceived dangers of Zionism. 18 June 1936 issue featuring a caricature, 'The Zionist Crocodile to Palestine Arabs "Don't be afraid!!! I will swallow you peacefully..."'
Map comparing the borders of the 1947 partition plan and the armistice of 1949.

Boundaries defined in the 1947 UN Partition Plan for Palestine:

  Area assigned for a Jewish state;
    Area assigned for an Arab state;
    Planned Corpus separatum with the intention that Jerusalem would be neither Jewish nor Arab

Armistice Demarcation Lines of 1949:

      Israeli controlled territory from 1949;
    Arab controlled territory until 1967

Civil War in Mandatory Palestine

In response to Arab pressure,[30] the British Mandate authorities greatly reduced the number of Jewish immigrants to Palestine (see White Paper of 1939 and the SS Exodus). These restrictions remained in place until the end of the mandate, a period which coincided with the Nazi Holocaust and the flight of Jewish refugees from Europe. As a consequence, most Jewish entrants to Mandatory Palestine were considered illegal (see Aliyah Bet), causing further tensions in the region. Following several failed attempts to solve the problem diplomatically, the British asked the newly formed United Nations for help. On May 15, 1947, the General Assembly appointed a committee, the UNSCOP, composed of representatives from eleven states.[31] To make the committee more neutral, none of the Great Powers were represented.[32] After five weeks of in-country study, the Committee reported to the General Assembly on September 3, 1947.[33] The Report contained a majority and a minority plan. The majority proposed a Plan of Partition with Economic Union. The minority proposed The Independent State of Palestine. With only slight modifications, the Plan of Partition with Economic Union was the one the adoption and implementation of which was recommended in resolution 181(II) of November 29, 1947.[34] The Resolution was adopted by 33 votes to 13 with 10 abstentions. All six Arab states who were UN-members voted against it. On the ground, Arab and Jewish Palestinians were fighting openly to control strategic positions in the region. Several major atrocities were committed by both sides.[35]

[29].1936–39 Arab revolt in Palestine By 1936, escalating tensions led to the [28] In the mid-1930s

By 1931, 17 percent of the population of Mandatory Palestine were Jews, an increase of six percent since 1922.[26] Jewish immigration peaked soon after the Nazis came to power in Germany, causing the Jewish population in British Palestine to double.[27]

1930s and 1940s

During the week of the 1929 riots, at least 116 Arabs and 133 Jews[24] were killed and 339 wounded.[25]

A Jewish bus equipped with wire screens to protect against rock, glass, and grenade throwing, late 1930s

In 1929, after a demonstration by Vladimir Jabotinsky's political group Betar at the Western Wall, riots started in Jerusalem and expanded throughout Mandatory Palestine; Arabs murdered 67 Jews in the city of Hebron, in what became known as the Hebron massacre.

1929 events

At this point in time Jewish immigration to Mandatory Palestine continued, while to some opinions a similar, but less documented, immigration also took place in the Arab sector, bringing workers from Syria and other neighbouring areas. Palestinian Arabs saw this rapid influx of Jewish immigrants as a threat to their homeland and their identity as a people. Moreover, Jewish policies of purchasing land and prohibiting the employment of Arabs in Jewish-owned industries and farms greatly angered the Palestinian Arab communities.[23] Demonstrations were held as early as 1920, protesting what the Arabs felt were unfair preferences for the Jewish immigrants set forth by the British mandate that governed Palestine at the time. This resentment led to outbreaks of violence later that year, as the al-Husseini incited riots broke out in Jerusalem. Winston Churchill's 1922 White Paper tried to reassure the Arab population, denying that the creation of a Jewish state was the intention of the Balfour Declaration.

A major crisis among the Arab nationalists took place with the failed establishment of the Arab Kingdom of Syria in 1920. With the disastrous outcome of the Franco-Syrian War, the self-proclaimed Hashemite kingdom with its capital in Damascus was defeated and the Hashemite ruler took refuge in Mandatory Iraq. The crisis saw the first confrontation of nationalist Arab and Jewish forces, taking place in the Battle of Tel Hai in March 1920, but more importantly the collapse of the pan-Arabist kingdom led to the establishment of the local Palestinian version of Arab nationalism, with the return of Haj Amin al-Husseini from Damascus to Jerusalem in late 1920.

. Transjordan eventually was carved into a separate British protectorate – the Emirate of Transjordan, which gained an autonomous status in 1928 and achieved complete independence in 1946 with the approval by the United Nations of the end of the British Mandate. Gaza Strip and West Bank. The area mandated to the British in 1923 included what is today Israel, the British Mandate of Palestine After the war, the area came under British rule as the [22]

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