World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Arutani–Sape languages

Brazil–Venezuela border
Linguistic classification: Arutani–Sape
Glottolog: None
Documented location of Arutani–Sapé languages, the two most southern spots are Arutani villages, the northern one is Sapé location.

The Arutani–Sape, AKA Awake–Kaliana or Kalianan, are a proposed language family[1] that includes two of the most poorly documented languages in South America, both of which are nearly extinct. They are at best only distantly related, but Kaufman (1990) finds the connection convincing. However, Migliazza & Campbell (1988) maintain that there is no evidence for linking them.[2] The two languages are,

  • Arutani[3] (also known as Aoaqui, Auake, Auaque, Awake, Oewaku, Orotani, Uruak, Urutani)
  • Sape[4] (also known as Caliana, Chirichano, Kaliana, Kariana)

Kaufman (1990) states that a further connection with Maku of Roraima is "promising".


  1. ^ Weinstein, Jay A. (2005-02-28). Social and Cultural Change: Social Science for a Dynamic World. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 94.  
  2. ^ Ernest Migliazza & Lyle Campbell, 1988. Panorama general de las lenguas indígenas en América
  3. ^ Moseley, Christopher (2007-04-23). Encyclopedia of the world's endangered languages. Routledge. p. 177.  
  4. ^ Moseley, Christopher (2007-04-23). Encyclopedia of the world's endangered languages. Routledge. p. 164.  

See also


  • Harald Hammarström, 2010, 'The status of the least documented language families in the world'. In Language Documentation & Conservation, v 4, p 183 [1]

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Hawaii eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.