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Austin Blair

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Title: Austin Blair  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: George Willard, Governors of Michigan, John W. Longyear, War Governors' Conference, Byron M. Cutcheon
Collection: 1818 Births, 1894 Deaths, American People of Scottish Descent, Cazenovia College Alumni, Governors of Michigan, Hamilton College (New York) Alumni, Members of the Michigan House of Representatives, Members of the United States House of Representatives from Michigan, Michigan Free Soilers, Michigan Liberal Republicans, Michigan Republicans, Michigan State Senators, Michigan Whigs, People from Jackson, Michigan, People from Tompkins County, New York, Regents of the University of Michigan, Republican Party Members of the United States House of Representatives, Republican Party State Governors of the United States, Union College (New York) Alumni, Union State Governors
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Austin Blair

Austin Blair
13th Governor of Michigan
In office
January 2, 1861 – January 5, 1865
Lieutenant James M. Birney 1861
Joseph R. Williams 1861 (Acting)
Henry T. Backus 1861-63
Charles S. May 1863-65
Preceded by Moses Wisner
Succeeded by Henry H. Crapo
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Michigan's 3rd district
In office
March 4, 1867 – March 3, 1873
Preceded by John W. Longyear
Succeeded by George Willard
Member of the Michigan Senate
from the district
In office
Personal details
Born February 8, 1818
Caroline, New York
Died August 6, 1894 (aged 76)
Jackson, Michigan
Political party Republican
Spouse(s) Sarah L. Ford

Austin Blair (February 8, 1818 – August 6, 1894), also known as the Civil War Governor, was a politician from the U.S. state of Michigan. He was known as a strong opponent of slavery and secession and he also championed human rights by leading the effort to ban capital punishment and supporting efforts to give women and black citizens the right to vote.

Early life in New York

Blair was born in Scottish ancestry. It was reportedly the first cabin in Tompkins County, New York and Blair lived there until age 17, helping his father farm the land. He attended the common schools, Cazenovia Seminary and Hamilton College, before transferring to Union College in the middle of his junior year, graduating in 1839. Blair studied law in Oswego, New York and was admitted to the bar in Tioga County, New York in 1841. He moved to Michigan in that year, residing first in Jackson before moving to Eaton Rapids.

Politics in Michigan

He began his political career in Eaton Rapids, where he was elected the clerk of Eaton County in 1842. He moved back to Jackson in 1844 and was a Whig member of the Michigan State House of Representatives from Jackson County from 1846 to 1849. He served on the House Judiciary Committee and was the leading proponent of the successful 1846 effort to abolish capital punishment in Michigan. He also introduced legislation to allow black citizens the right to vote. He left the Whig Party because they did not take a strong anti-slavery stance, and was a delegate to the Free Soil Party National Convention in Buffalo, New York in 1848 which nominated Martin Van Buren.

In February 1849, Blair married Sarah L. Ford, of Seneca County New York. Together they had four sons; George who became a postal clerk in the railway mail service; Charles who became a partner with his father; the other two were Fred and Austin.

He was elected Jackson County Republican Party in 1854. He was chairman of the committee that drafted the Republican platform "under the oaks" in Jackson on July 6. He served in the Michigan Senate from 1855 to 1856.

Blair was a delegate from Michigan to the 1860 Republican National Convention, which nominated Abraham Lincoln. He was also elected Governor of Michigan in that year and reelected in 1862, serving from 1861 to 1865.

A statue of Austin Blair is located in front of the Michigan State Capitol building.

Civil War Governor

In his first inaugural address in January 1861, Blair recommended that the state offer its entire military resources to Lincoln for maintaining the supremacy of the U.S. Constitution. Within days of the outbreak of the American Civil War in April, Blair responded by calling for ten companies of volunteers. The legislature later retroactively authorized the Governor's quick actions, authorized a war loan of $1,000,000, and passed the Soldiers' Relief Law, requiring counties to provide relief to the families of soldiers. By mid-May, the first regiment of Michigan soldiers, under the command of Colonel O. B. Willcox had left to engage in the field of combat, and was the first western force to arrive at the seat of combat. The second regiment, under the command of Colonel Israel B. Richardson, soon followed.

While the third and fourth regiments were being raised, Blair received directions from the U.S. Secretary of War, limiting the number of regiments that would be accepted from Michigan to four and asked Blair not to raise more than that number. Blair decided to disregard these instructions and continued to establish the fifth, sixth, and seventh regiments, all of which had been deployed by mid-September. Under Blair's guidance, Michigan continued to supply troops for the Union forces throughout the war. One notable unit was a colored unit, known as the 102nd United States Colored Troops, which included two sons of Sojourner Truth and Josiah Henson (the man Harriet Beecher Stowe used as the model for Uncle Tom). In 1862, he attended the Loyal War Governors' Conference in Altoona, Pennsylvania, which ultimately backed Abraham Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation and the Union war effort.

At the outset of the war, Michigan had a total population of approximately 800,000 and an estimated 110,000 able-bodied men capable of bearing arms. By the end of the war, more than 90,000 Michigan men had volunteered to fight. Blair personally helped to raise about $100,000 to organize and equip the initial muster of troops. When Blair left office in 1864, he was almost destitute, having expended much of his personal wealth in support of the war effort. During this time of conflict, Governor Blair ran the state government from his hometown of Jackson, making that community a hub of Michigan's

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