World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Ba'ath Party (Syrian-dominated faction)

Article Id: WHEBN0033506202
Reproduction Date:

Title: Ba'ath Party (Syrian-dominated faction)  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: List of Prime Ministers of Syria, Vice President of Syria, Council of Ministers (Syria), Politics of Syria, Syrian opposition
Collection: 1966 Establishments in Syria, Arab Nationalism in Syria, Arab Nationalist Political Parties, Arab Socialism in Syria, Arab Socialist Political Parties, Ba'Ath Party, Ba'Athist Parties, History of the Middle East, Pan-Arabist Political Parties, Parties of Single-Party Systems, Political Internationals, Political Parties Established in 1966, Socialism in Syria, Socialist Parties in Algeria, Socialist Parties in Bahrain, Socialist Parties in Egypt, Socialist Parties in Iraq, Socialist Parties in Jordan, Socialist Parties in Lebanon, Socialist Parties in Mauritania, Socialist Parties in Sudan, Socialist Parties in Syria, Socialist Parties in the Palestinian Territories, Socialist Parties in Yemen, Transnational Political Parties
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Ba'ath Party (Syrian-dominated faction)

This article is about the pan-Arab Ba'ath Party, which is Syrian-led but has branches in multiple countries. For the branch that controls Syria, see Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Syria Region
Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party
Secretary General Hafez al-Assad (de jure)
Abdullah al-Ahmar (de facto)
Founded 25 February 1966 (25 February 1966)
Split from Ba'ath Party (unitary)
Headquarters Damascus, Syria
Newspaper Ba'ath Message[1]
Ideology Ba'athism (Assadist Ba'athism as of 1970)
Colors Black, Red, White and Green (Pan-Arab colors)
Parliament of Syria
134 / 250
Parliament of Lebanon
2 / 128
Parliament of Yemen
2 / 301
Party flag

The Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party (also spelled Ba'ath or Baath, "resurrection" or "renaissance";

  • Syrian wing of the Ba'th Party

External links

  1. ^ Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party. "Baath Message". Retrieved 2 August 2012. 
  2. ^ a b c Perthes, Volker (1997). The Political Economy of Syria Under Asad.  
  3. ^ Perthes, Volker (1974). The Current digest of the Soviet Press 26 (1–6). American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies. p. 4–5. 
  4. ^ a b c d e Tucker, Spencer; Roberts, Priscillia Mary (2008). The Encyclopedia of the Arab-Israeli Conflict: A Political, Social, and Military History.  
  5. ^ a b "Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party". Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party. Retrieved 24 October 2011. 
  6. ^ a b Brechner, Michael (1978). Studies in Crisis Behavior.  
  7. ^
  8. ^ a b c d  
  9. ^ Choueiri, Youssef M. (2000). Arab nationalism: a History: Nation and State in the Arab World.  
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i  
  11. ^ a b c Perthes, Volker (1997). The Political Economy of Syria Under Asad.  
  12. ^ a b
  13. ^ a b Lakiss, Hasan (6 October 2011). "Lebanon should ban Baath party: Mahfouz".  
  14. ^ a b c Al-Ray News. اخبار العراق كما اوردتها الصحافة العربية والعالمية
  15. ^ a b c Al-Ittihad. لا تفرطوا بـ"قيادة قطر العراق"..!
  16. ^ U.S. Labor Against War. Who's Who in the Iraqi Opposition
  17. ^ "البعث السوري العراقي: نحن الذين اوصلنا رجال الحكم الحاليين الى السلطة". 2012-01-25. Retrieved 2012-01-29. 
  18. ^ a b Asharq al-Awsat. عبد المهدي: اللقاء بحزب البعث ـ تنظيم العراق لم ينقطع.. ولا مشكلة لنا مع القوميين
  19. ^ Al-Ittihad. في الذكرى الثالثة والثلاثين لميلاد الأتحاد عبدالرزاق فيلي
  20. ^ McDowall, David (2000). A Modern History of the Kurds.  
  21. ^ Iraqi Patriotic Alliance. قداسة الحبر الأعظم يوحنا بولص الثاني المحترم
  22. ^ Nahrain. مقاطعو مؤتمر لندن للمعارضة العراقية لماذا يقاطعون؟
  23. ^ a b "حقيقة الجدل العراقي حول الانفتاح على (حزب البعث) السابق - مركز النور". Retrieved 2012-01-29. 
  24. ^ a b [1]
  25. ^ "OFAC Data List Entity Fawzi Mutlaq AL-RAWI". Retrieved 2013-10-13. 
  26. ^ Raymond Hill. """Cablegate's cables: Full-text search for "al-rawi fawzi. Retrieved 2013-10-13. 
  27. ^ Tabarani, Gabriel G. (2011). Jihad's New Heartlands: Why the West Has Failed to Contain Islamic Fundamentalism. AuthorHouse. p. 254.  
  28. ^
  29. ^ a b c d e "Sometimes The Weak Survive - Jordan's New Political Party Map".  
  30. ^  
  31. ^
  32. ^ "Jordan's Political Parties: Islamists, Leftists, Nationalists And Centrists".  
  33. ^  
  34. ^ O'Ballance, Edgar (1998). Civil War in Lebanon, 1975–92.  
  35. ^ a b O'Ballance, Edgar (1998). Civil War in Lebanon, 1975–92.  
  36. ^ O'Ballance, Edgar (1998). Civil War in Lebanon, 1975–92.  
  37. ^ "March14 – March 8 MPs".  
  38. ^ "Syrian PM praises Lebanon’s Baath Party | News , Lebanon News". The Daily Star. 2013-07-26. Retrieved 2013-10-13. 
  39. ^  
  40. ^
  41. ^ Lain, Donald Ray (1989). Dictionary of the African Left: Parties, Movements and Groups.  
  42. ^ [2]
  43. ^ a b [3]
  44. ^
  45. ^ a b
  46. ^ "An Overview of Ba'athist tendencies in Mauritania". The Moor Next Door. November 2010. Retrieved 12 July 2013. 
  47. ^ a b The World and Its Peoples.  
  48. ^ a b c  
  49. ^ Dishon (1973). Middle East Record 1968.  
  50. ^ a b  
  51. ^ Moubayed, Sami M. (2006). Steel & Silk: Men and Women Who Shaped Syria 1900–2000. Cune Press. p. 272.  
  52. ^
  53. ^ a b "Lawyer Linda Mohammed Resigns From Ba’ath Party In Yemen". 3 March 2013. Retrieved 10 July 2013. 
  54. ^ National Information Center. الأحزاب السياسية في الجمهورية اليمنية
  55. ^ Almotamar Net. "Delegation of Syrian Baath Party arrives in Sana'a". Retrieved 2013-10-13. 
  56. ^ [4]
  57. ^ "| صحافة نت". Retrieved 2013-10-13. 
  58. ^
  59. ^


  • Ali Ahmad Nasser al-Dhahab (1993 – 30 November 2010)[59]
  • Ahmad Haidar (?–?)[45]
Assistant Regional Secretaries
Regional Secretaries

In March 2013 Linda Mohammed, the head of the region's Women section, left the party in protest to the Yemenite leadership's continued supported for Bashar al-Assad and the Syrian Ba'ath.[53]

In November 2010 one of the key leaders of the party in Yemen, Ali Ahmad Nasser al-Dhahab, died. He had been assistant secretary of the Regional Command and a Member of Parliament since 1993.[56][57]

In December 2008, the party and the National Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party agreed to coordinate their political activities.[24]

Abdullah al-Ahmar led a central party delegation to the 4th Regional Congress of the Yemenite Ba'ath in 2006.[55]

Ba'athism in Yemen originated in the 1950s. The party worked underground until 1990. It obtained official registration as the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Yemen Region on December 31, 1995 (while the other group had to register as the National Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party). The regional secretary of the party in Yemen is Mohammed Al-Zubairy.[53] The party ran in the 1993 parliamentary election, winning seven seats. In the 1997 and 2003 parliamentary elections, the party won two seats. In 2003, the party got 0.66% of the national vote. The party supported Ali Abdullah Saleh in the 1999 presidential election.[54]


There is no formal structure linked to the Damascus-based Ba'ath Party. Most Ba'athists in Tunisia support the Iraqi faction as members of the Ba'ath Movement or the more leftist and radical the Party of the Arab and Democratic Vanguard. Only a small number of militants headed by Mohamed Salah Hermassi (a member of the Damascus-based National Command) are historically linked to Damascus.[52]


Abdul Halim Khaddam resigned as National Command and Central Committee member in mid-2005.[51]

The party has its own system of political education, including the Higher Political Institute (a graduate school of the University of Damascus).[50]

[50] The party has three bureaus for coordinating work in mass organizations: the Popular Organizations Bureau (coordinating the People's Army militia, the

The party has an Inspection and Control Committee, instituted in 1980.[48] The Party Security Law was passed in 1979, criminalizing “deviations” inside the party and attacks on the party.[48]

The party has a parallel structure within the Syrian armed forces. The military and civilian sectors only meet at the regional level, as the military sector is represented in the Regional Command and sends delegates to regional congresses. The military sector is divided into branches, operating at the battalion level. The head of a military party branch is called a tawjihi (guide).[10]

The Syrian regional party congress is held every four years. While it is a strictly orchestrated affair, the regional congress has been a venue for actual debates on current affairs. Criticism against corruption and economic stagnation were expressed at the 1985 regional congress, albeit candidly. This congress was attended by 771 branch delegates.[48]

The party has 19 branches in Syria: one in each of the thirteen provinces, one in Damascus, one in Aleppo and one at each of the four universities.[10] In most cases the governor of a province, police chief, mayor and other local dignitaries make up the Branch Command. However, the Branch Command Secretary and other executive positions are filled by party whole-timers.[10]

The seventh Syrian regional party congress was held in January 1980. The congress created a new institution, the Central Committee, to act as an intermediary body between the Regional Command and local branches. The Central Committee had 75 members. The eighth regional congress decided to expand the Central Committee to 95 members. The Central Committee was charged with electing the Regional Command, which previously had been done by the regional congress delegates. The Central Committee represents the regional congress when the congress is not in session.[10]

The Syrian Regional Command has 21 members.[10] As of 1987, the Syrian Regional Command comprised the three vice presidents of the Syrian Arab Republic, the Prime Minister, the Minister of Defense, the Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces, the parliamentary speaker, the Aleppo and Hama party secretaries as well as the heads of the party bureaus for trade unions, economy and higher education.[10]

As of the mid-2000s, the party membership in Syria was estimated at 800,000. Key party organs in Syria are Al-Ba'ath and Al-Thawra.[4]

The party has dominated the Syrian parliament since 1963.[4] The party leads the National Progressive Front, and in all elections conducted under this constitution has obtained the majority of the 167 parliamentary seats reserved for the Front.[47] In the 2003 parliamentary election, the party secured 135 of the seats.[4]

The party slogan "Unity, Freedom, Socialism" is enshrined in the constitution of the Syrian Arab Republic.[11] The eighth article of the constitution stipulated that "[t]he leading party in the society and the state is the ... Ba'ath Party. It leads the National Progressive Front seeking to unify the resources of the masses of the people and place them at the service of the goals of the Arab nation."[4] The constitution was adopted in 1973.[8] As per the constitution of the Syrian Arab Republic, it is the Regional Command of the party that nominates the candidate for president of the Republic.[2][47] The constitution does not explicitly say that the president has to be the leader of the party, but the National Progressive Front charter states that president of the Syrian Arab Republic and the secretary of the party is also the president of the NPF.[2]

The logo of the Syrian branch organization


A Syrian branch was established in Mauritania in 1981.[46]


  • Altijani Mustafa Yassin[45]
Regional Secretaries

It was reported in 2010 that Ahmad Alahmad, the Secretary General of the Arab Socialist Movement, was a member of the Sudanese regional leadership.[44]

The party held its third regional congress in Khartoum on February 5–6, 2009. The congress elected a 23-member Central Committee, an 11-member Regional Command and a regional secretary (Altijani Mustafa Yassin). The congress stated that the party sought cooperation with the National Congress Party for the sake of forming a national front.[42][43] The party staunchly opposed independence of South Sudan.[43]

During the 1980s, the party was called Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Organization of Sudan (differentiating it from the pro-Iraqi party, called Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Country of Sudan). The party contested the 1986 election as part of the Progressive National Front.[41]


  • [12]
Regional Secretaries
As-Sa'iqa leaders

Palestinian Samir al-Attari was a member of the National Command in the 1970s.[6] Until 1970, as-Saiqa remained under the control of Jadid.[39]


In the 2009 parliamentary election, the party won two seats as part of the March 8 Alliance. The parliamentarians of the party are Assem Qanso and Qassem Hashem.[37] The current leader of the party is Fayez Shukr. Wael Nader al-Halqi, the Prime Minister of Syria, praised the Lebanon Regional Branch leadership, stating that they supported the Syrian leadership in times of conspiracies and attacks.[38]

[36] In July 1987 it took part in forming the Unification and Liberation Front.[35] The Lebanese branch was established in 1966, the year of the Ba'ath Party split. During the


Regional Secretaries

The Ba'ath Arab Progressive Party was legally registered for the first time in 1993.[29] The branch is small, and has, according to a Wikileaks document, "minuscule number of adherents".[29] Despite it small size, the branch is able through its leader, Fuad Dabbour, able to get a decent footprint in Jordanian media.[29] Dabbour's fiery statements on foreign policy are frequently quoted by the press.[29] The party is less known than its pro-Iraqi counterpart, the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party.[30] is the party branch of the Syrian-dominated Ba'ath Party in Jordan.[31] Fuad Dabbour is the branch's Regional Secretary.[29] It is believed that the party has less than 200 members.[32]


Regional Secretaries

The current leader of the Iraqi chapter is Mouteb Shenan. The former leader, Fawzi Mutlaq al-Rawi, was based in Damascus,[25] and has been accused by the United States government of providing financial and material support to al-Qaeda in Iraq.[26][27]

[24] After the fall of Saddam Hussein's administration, confusion arose as to whether the

[22] In the 1980s, the party began cooperating with the

The party labelled the Saddam government as “fascist”.[14] When the Iran–Iraq War broke out in 1980, the party took part in the formation of the Iraqi Patriotic and Democratic Front, together with the Iraqi Communist Party, the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan and the Kurdish Socialist Party. The front vowed to overthrow Saddam Hussein.[20]

The party was sometimes known in Iraq as Left-wing Ba'ath or Qutr Al-Iraq.[14][15] Prominent members of the party in Iraq include Mahmud al-Shaykh Radhi, Fawzi Mutlaq al-Rawi and Dr. Mahmud Shamsa.[16] The party opposed the rule of Saddam Hussein[17] and was one of the first groups to be targeted by him. The party lost hundreds of its cadres amid repression by his government.[18] Radhi was based in Syria during the 1970s.[19]

Iraqi branch
Regional Secretary Mouteb Shenan
Founded 1966


There is also an active branch in Egypt.[13]


There is also an active branch in Bahrain.[13]


There is also an active branch in [12]


Branches by region

In theory, the National Command of the party is the embryonic government for the entire Arab nation. The body comprises 21 members, half of whom are Syrian.[8] In practice, the Syrian Regional Command is the more powerful institution inside the party.[8] The Syrian Regional Command is the real political leadership in Syria; the power of the National Command has become more symbolic than real. A seat in National Command has become a sinecure, an honorary post given to Syrian politicians as they retire from active political life.[10][11] Hafez al-Assad rarely had time to attend National Command meetings. Instead, he appointed Vice President for Party Affairs Zuhayr Mashariqa or Abd al-Halim Khaddam to represent him at National Command meetings.[11] In theory, the National Command could conduct proselytism and form new Regional Commands across the Arab world and support weaker Regional Commands, but Syrian policymakers have curtailed that capacity.[10]

The party is organized along [9] Each cell has between three and seven members.[10]


  • 9th National Congress (25–29 September 1966)
    • 9th Extraordinary National Congress (September 1967)
  • 10th National Party Congress (October 1968)
    • 10th Extraordinary National Congress (October–November 1970)
  • 11th National Congress (August 1971)
  • 12th National Congress (July 1975)
  • 13th National Congress (27 July – 2 August 1980)

Note: for the 1st–8th National Congresses, see the national congresses held by the unified, pre-1966 Ba'ath Party

National Congresses

Note: several members are missing
Note: several members are missing
Reserve members
Full members

National Command

Hafez al-Assad became the secretary of the Syrian Regional Command of the party in 1970, and Secretary General of the National Command in late 1970.[2][3] Despite being deceased, Hafez al-Assad is still the official Secretary General of the National Command. Bashar al-Assad became the Regional Secretary of the party in Syria after his father's death in 2000.[4][5] Abdullah al-Ahmar serves as the Assistant Secretary General of the National Command, a post he has held since the 1970s.[5][6]

Secretary Generals


  • Leadership 1
    • Secretary Generals 1.1
    • National Command 1.2
    • National Congresses 1.3
    • Organization 1.4
  • Branches by region 2
    • Algeria 2.1
    • Bahrain 2.2
    • Egypt 2.3
    • Iraq 2.4
    • Jordan 2.5
    • Lebanon 2.6
    • Palestine 2.7
    • Sudan 2.8
    • Mauritania 2.9
    • Syria 2.10
    • Tunisia 2.11
    • Yemen 2.12
  • References 3
  • External links 4


This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Hawaii eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.