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Barack Obama judicial appointment controversies

 

Barack Obama judicial appointment controversies

As of November 2014, President Barack Obama has nominated over two hundred individuals for federal judgeships. Of these nominations, Congress confirmed two hundred and eighty-five judgeships, 173 during 111th & 112th Congresses [1] and currently 107 during the 113th Congress.[2] Of the outstanding 61 Court Vacancies, 32 Nominees were pending Congressional review and 29 were awaiting Presidential nomination.[3]

As of November 18, 2014, numerous of the filibusters have been brought to a cloture vote. Three cloture votes were successful in breaking the filibusters, while the cloture votes on the nominations of Goodwin Liu, Caitlin Halligan and Robert E. Bacharach failed. Many nominations expired with the adjournment of the 111th Congress, but all were renominated in the 112th Congress with the exception of Robert Chatigny. Senator Grassley commented more nominees could have been confirmed had President Obama respected recess appointment precedent by not making recess appointments while the Senate is in session.[4] Although President Obama has never used a recess appointment to appoint a nominee to the federal bench, he had appointed some executive agency officials in January 2012.

As a response to the continuing blocking of several of President Obama's nominees, Sen. Harry Reid on November 21, 2013 invoked the so-called Nuclear option and changed the Senate rules, meaning a simple majority vote will suffice for all nominees except for the Supreme Court.[5]

Contents

  • List of failed, stalled or filibustered appellate nominees 1
    • Failed nominees 1.1
    • Successfully appointed nominees 1.2
  • List of failed, stalled or filibustered district court nominees 2
    • Failed nominees 2.1
    • Stalled nominees 2.2
    • Successfully appointed nominees 2.3
  • See also 3
  • References 4

List of failed, stalled or filibustered appellate nominees

Failed nominees

  • United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit
    • Goodwin Liu (of California), to newly created seat: Liu was nominated on February 24, 2010.[7] His nomination was returned by the Senate on August 5, 2010.[11] Liu has faced opposition due to his support of same-sex marriage and affirmative action,[11] and for his criticism of the Supreme Court nominations of John Roberts and Samuel Alito.[12] Republican opposition to Liu is also due in part to his being considered a possible Supreme Court candidate.[12] Liu was renominated at the start of the 112th Congress. On May 17, 2011, Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid filed for cloture on Liu's nomination, with 60 votes needed to proceed to an up-or-down vote on Liu's nomination. The cloture motion attracted only 52 of the 60 aye votes required. On May 25, 2011, Liu wrote to President Obama requesting that his nomination be withdrawn due to the improbability that he would receive an up-or-down vote.[13] On July 26, 2011, Governor Jerry Brown nominated Liu to a seat on the Supreme Court of California,[14] and he was sworn in on September 1, 2011.[15] Obama later nominated U.S. District Judge Jacqueline Nguyen to the Ninth Circuit seat to which Liu had been nominated,[16] and the Senate confirmed her on May 7, 2012.[17]
  • United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit
    • Edward C. DuMont: DuMont was nominated to the Federal Circuit on April 14, 2010.[18] The nomination languished for 18 months before United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary, which never scheduled a hearing on it, despite having had hearings and votes for two later nominees to the same court. A spokesperson for Senator Chuck Grassley, the ranking Republican on the Senate Judiciary Committee, said in August 2011 only that "There are questions in Mr. DuMont's background investigation that have to be resolved."[19] If confirmed, DuMont would have been the first openly gay United States appeals court judge.[20] In November 2011, the National Law Journal reported that DuMont has submitted a letter to President Obama, asking that the president withdraw his nomination because one or more senators of the minority party on United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary refused to allow the committee to give him a hearing . Obama withdrew DuMont's nomination later that day .[21] In November 2011, Obama nominated Richard G. Taranto to the seat to which DuMont had been nominated, and the Senate confirmed him on March 11, 2013.


Successfully appointed nominees

  • United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit
    • Patricia Millett to a seat vacated by the elevation of John G. Roberts, Jr., and Nina Pillard, to a seat vacated by Douglas H. Ginsburg: in November 2013 Republicans blocked the nomination of three nominees by filibustering.[31] Republican Senators have called Obama's nominations "court packing", which evokes but is not analogous to Franklin D. Roosevelt's Judicial Procedures Reform Bill of 1937, despite Obama exercising his constitutional right to fill existing judicial vacancies.[32] As a response to these actions Sen. Harry Reid on November 21, 2013 invoked the so-called Nuclear option and changed the Senate rules, meaning a simple majority vote will suffice for all nominees except for the Supreme Court.[5] Millet and Pillard were confirmed respectively on December 10, 2013 (Millet 56–38, with Republican Senators Collins and Murkowski voting to confirm as well) and December 11, 2013 (Pillard, 51-44).
    • Robert L. Wilkins to a seat vacated by David B. Sentelle: in November 2013 Republicans blocked the nomination of Wilkins by filibustering.[31] On November 14, 2013, Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid motioned to invoke cloture on Wilkins' nomination, seeking to end a filibuster of his nomination by Senate Republicans. The Senate failed to invoke cloture on November 18, 2013 by a vote of 53-38, with 1 senator voting "present".[33] Republican Senators have called Obama's nominations to the DC Court "court packing", which evokes but is not analogous to Franklin D. Roosevelt's Judicial Procedures Reform Bill of 1937.[32] As a response to these actions Sen. Harry Reid on November 21, 2013 invoked the so-called Nuclear option and changed the Senate rules, meaning a simple majority vote will suffice for all nominees except for the Supreme Court.[5] Reid planned to hold a vote on Wilkins' nomination before the Senate adjourned for the year on December 20, but the vote did not take place. Cloture was subsequently invoked on January 9, 2014 by a vote of 55-38, with 1 senator voting "present". He was confirmed by the United States Senate 55-43 on January 13, 2014.[34] His confirmation marked the first time the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit had a full complement of judges in over 22 years since Clarence Thomas left the court on October 23, 1991 upon his joining the United States Supreme Court.
  • United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit
    • Patty Shwartz (of New Jersey), to seat vacated by Maryanne Trump Barry: New Jersey Sen. Bob Menendez, a Democrat, has not returned his blue slip—effectively blocking the nomination, since nominations do not go forward without the support of home-state senators, which comes in the form of a blue slip that is returned to the United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary.[35] In January 2012, The New York Times reported that Menendez had not given a reason for not returning his blue slip, and noted that Shwartz long has been in a relationship with the head of the public corruption unit for New Jersey's federal prosecutor. That was the unit that investigated Menendez during his 2006 election fight—an investigation that Menendez contended was politically motivated.[35] On January 13, 2012, Menendez announced that he had dropped his opposition to Shwartz's nomination and would be returning his blue slip.[36] On February 15, 2012, Shwartz received a hearing before the Senate Judiciary Committee. On March 8, 2012, the Judiciary Committee reported her nomination to the floor of the Senate by a vote of 10 ayes to 6 nays. On January 2, 2013, her nomination was returned to the President, due to the sine die adjournment of the Senate.[37] On January 3, 2013, she was renominated to the same office. Her nomination was reported to the floor by the Senate Judiciary Committee on February 14, 2013, by a vote of 11 ayes to 7 nays.[38] The Senate has ultimately approved the nomination on April 9, 2013 by a 64-34 vote.
  • United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit
    • Andrew D. Hurwitz (of Arizona), to seat vacated by Mary M. Schroeder: Some Republican senators had objected to Hurwitz and required a cloture vote on his nomination because of his role some 40 years earlier as a young law clerk. Hurwitz had been a law clerk for then-U.S. District Judge Jon O. Newman, and in a 2002 law review article, Hurwitz wrote that he had helped to write—and still admires the legal framework for—Newman's opinion striking down Connecticut's abortion law, just a year before the U.S. Supreme Court decided Roe v. Wade.[49] Both of Hurwitz's home-state senators have supported his nomination, but other Republican senators have objected to it.[50] After a Republican filibuster on Hurwitz's nomination, senators voted 60-31 on June 11, 2012 to invoke cloture and break the filibuster.[51] Senators then confirmed Hurwitz on June 12, 2012 in a voice vote.[52]

List of failed, stalled or filibustered district court nominees

Failed nominees

  • United States District Court for the Western District of New York
    • Michael Charles Green: Green, a district attorney in western New York, was nominated on January 26, 2011. He was reported out of the Senate Judiciary Committee and onto the Senate floor, but his nomination languished for more than six months before being returned to the White House at the behest of Senate Republicans at the end of the session of Congress that concluded in December 2011. Utah Sen. Mike Lee was the lone senator to oppose Green in the committee vote, and no Republican senators publicly explained their opposition to his nomination. In follow-up questions to his hearing testimony, however, several Republican senators focused on Green's decision to seek drug treatment rather than jail for some offenders, while others queried Green about his views on the death penalty. On December 18, 2011, a White House spokesman told a local newspaper that Obama would not be renominating Green to the seat.[59] "Mike Green would have made an outstanding judge and it is very unfortunate not only for him, but for a strong judiciary, that partisan politics stood in the way," Sen. Chuck Schumer said in a statement on December 18, 2011. On December 19, 2011, Green said at a press conference that he blamed local opposition on his failed judicial nomination, as a result of his prosecution of public corruption.[60] In May 2012, Obama nominated Frank Paul Geraci, Jr. to the seat to which Green had been nominated, and the Senate confirmed Geraci to the seat on December 13, 2012.
  • United States District Court for the District of Maryland
    • George Levi Russell, III to fill the vacant seat to which Day had been nominated, and the Senate confirmed Russell on May 14, 2012.
  • United States District Court for the Northern District of Oklahoma
    • Arvo Mikkanen: Mikkanen was nominated after being recommended by Democratic Governor Brad Henry.[62] His nomination was immediately met with opposition from members of Oklahoma's congressional delegation, with Republican Senators James Inhofe and Tom Coburn and Democratic Representative Dan Boren expressing disappointment that they were not consulted on the nomination.[63][64] However, the Obama White House disputes that they did not consult with the Oklahoma congressional delegation.[64] Public opposition to Mikkanen's nomination has centered around procedural grounds rather than substantive issues about Mikkanen himself.[63][64] In February 2012, Obama nominated then-federal magistrate judge John E. Dowdell to the seat to which Mikkanen had been nominated. The Senate confirmed Dowdell on December 11, 2012.
  • United States District Court for the Western District of Wisconsin
    • Louis B. Butler: Butler ran for the Wisconsin Supreme Court in 2000, but was defeated. He was appointed to the Wisconsin Supreme Court in 2004, but he narrowly lost the 2008 election to retain the seat.[65] Critics argued that Butler should not be appointed to the federal bench after having been twice rejected by the voters of his state.[65] Republican Sen. Ron Johnson, who was elected in 2010, immediately put a hold on Butler's nomination once he took office, and senators returned Butler's nomination to the White House in December 2011. On November 7, 2013, President Obama nominated James D. Peterson to fill this vacancy and he was confirmed on May 8, 2014.
  • United States District Court for the Northern District of Georgia
    • Johnny Isakson and Saxby Chambliss, opposed Silas for reasons they declined to discuss. As a result, Silas never received a hearing before the United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary.[66] Her nomination was returned to President Barack Obama on December 17, 2011. On December 19, 2013 President Obama nominated Mark Howard Cohen to fill this vacancy. He was confirmed on November 18, 2014.
    • Linda T. Walker: Originally nominated on January 26, 2011. Her nomination expired when it was returned to the President on December 17, 2011. On December 19, 2013 President Obama nominated Leigh Martin May to fill this vacancy. She was confirmed on November 13, 2014.
  • United States District Court for the District of Nevada
    • Elissa F. Cadish: On February 16, 2012, President Obama nominated Cadish to be a District Judge for the United States District Court for the District of Nevada.[67] She would replace Judge Philip M. Pro who took senior status in 2011. Due to the fact that Senator Heller has refused to sign and return his blue slip for her nomination, the Senate Judiciary Committee could not hold a hearing on her nomination and the Senate could not proceed on the nomination. Heller's opposition to her nomination and his invocation of "senatorial courtesy" is due to a statement by Cadish indicating that she believed there was no individual right to keep and bear arms, a statement which was made in 2008, prior to Supreme Court decisions explicitly recognizing an individual right to keep and bear arms.[68] On March 8, 2013, Cadish requested President Obama to withdraw her nomination and on March 13, 2013, President Obama formally withdrew the nomination.[69] On January 16, 2014 President Obama nominated Richard Franklin Boulware II to fill this vacancy. He was confirmed on June 10, 2014.
  • United States District Court for the Southern District of Florida
    • William L. Thomas: On November 14, 2012, President Barack Obama nominated Thomas to a seat on the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Florida[70] to replace Judge Adalberto Jordan.[71] Thomas is openly gay.[72] If confirmed, Thomas would have been the first out gay African American man to serve as a federal judge.[73] On January 2, 2013, his nomination was returned to the President, due to the sine die adjournment of the Senate. On January 3, 2013, he was renominated to the same office. On September 19, 2013, Senator Marco Rubio announced that - although originally he recommended Thomas to the President - he would not return his blue slip for Thomas, effectively preventing the possibility of a hearing or confirmation vote.[74] Thomas' nomination was returned to the President due to the sine die adjournment of Congress on January 3, 2014. President Obama has decided not to resubmitt Thomas' nomination a third time.[75] Florida Circuit Court Judge Robin L. Rosenberg was nominated to the seat on February 26, 2014. She was confirmed on July 22, 2014.
  • United States District Court for the District of South Carolina
    • Alison Renee Lee: Originally nominated on June 26, 2013 to the seat being vacated by Judge Cameron McGowan Currie, who took senior status on October 3, 2013.[76] South Carolina Senators Lindsey Graham and Tim Scott opposed her nomination because of a controversial decision she made involving burglary suspect Lorenzo Young. Lee consolidated his bonds and reduced the total from $225,000 to $175,000 for Young, who subsequently was released and then later charged in the July 1 slaying of a 33-year-old woman.[77][78] Due to opposition from her home state senators and no opportunity of receiving a committee hearing on September 18, 2014 President Barack Obama withdrew her nomination.[79]

Stalled nominees

Successfully appointed nominees

  • United States District Court for the District of Rhode Island
    • John J. McConnell, Jr.: McConnell was first nominated on March 10, 2010.[80] On May 4, 2011, the United States Senate invoked cloture on McConnell's nomination in a 63–33 vote, and he was confirmed by the Senate later that same day in a 50–44 vote.[81] The cloture petition filed to break the filibuster against McConnell marked one of the rare instances that such a motion has been required to force a vote on a district court nominee, with only three prior instances recorded.[82] McConnell has donated hundreds of thousands of dollars to Democratic campaigns, including over eight thousand each to the campaigns of Rhode Island Senators Jack Reed and Sheldon Whitehouse.[80] McConnell's critics contend that his prolific political contributions suggest that McConnell would be a partisan judge.[83]
  • United States District Court for the Northern District of California
    • Edward M. Chen: Chen faced opposition due to his work as an attorney for the American Civil Liberties Union.[11][84] On May 5, 2011, Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid received unanimous consent from the Senate to proceed to an executive session of the Senate at a future time, eliminating the need to file for cloture on Chen's nomination.[85] On May 10, 2011, Chen was confirmed by the Senate by a 56-42 vote.
  • United States District Court for the District of Arizona
    • Rosemary Marquez: On June 23, 2011, President Obama nominated Marquez, a defense attorney, to the federal trial court in Arizona. However, Arizona's two Republican senators, John McCain and Jon Kyl, have refused to return their blue slips on Marquez's nomination, meaning that a hearing before the United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary cannot go forward.[86] McCain has said that he does not believe that Marquez is qualified, telling a newspaper, "I've been working with Sen. Kyl, but we do not feel at this time that she's qualified."[87] On January 28, 2014 the Senate Judiciary Committee held a hearing on her nomination as well as five other individuals nominated to the same court. She was confirmed on May 15, 2014 by a vote of 81-15.

See also

References

  1. ^ http://www.uscourts.gov/JudgesAndJudgeships/Viewer.aspx?doc=/uscourts/JudgesJudgeships/docs/appointments-by-president.pdf
  2. ^ "Confirmation Listing". United States Courts. Retrieved 9 February 2014. 
  3. ^ "Judicial Vacancies". United States Courts. 
  4. ^ Larry Margasak, Senate confirms Cuban-born judge to 11th Circuit (February 15, 2012).
  5. ^ a b c Senate Democrats invoke 'nuclear option', changes filibuster rules
  6. ^ a b Ingram, David (January 5, 2011). "Obama Suffers First Defeat on Judge Picks".  
  7. ^ a b The White House: Office of the Press Secretary (February 24, 2010). "President Obama Nominates Goodwin Liu for the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, Judge Robert N. Chatigny for the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit".  
  8. ^ Mahony, Edmund H. (January 5, 2011). "Judge Robert Chatigny Drops Off Obama's List Of Nominees For 2nd Circuit Court Of Appeals".  
  9. ^ Mahony, Edmund H. (August 6, 2010). "U.S. Senate Republicans Derail Judge Chatigny's Appeals Court Nomination". Capitol Watch Blog -  
  10. ^ http://www.senate.gov/legislative/LIS/roll_call_lists/roll_call_vote_cfm.cfm?congress=112&session=1&vote=00209
  11. ^ a b c Bob Egelko, Republicans block Bay Area judicial nominees, San Francisco Chronicle (August 7, 2010).
  12. ^ a b An Exceptional Nominee, The New York Times (March 27, 2010).
  13. ^ Letter to President Obama, University of California (May 25, 2011).
  14. ^ Egelko, Bob (July 27, 2011). "Brown nominates Goodwin Liu for state high court".  
  15. ^ Thompson, Don (September 1, 2011). "Brown swears in new Calif. Supreme Court justice". The Sacramento Bee. Associated Press. Retrieved September 1, 2011. 
  16. ^ http://blogs.findlaw.com/ninth_circuit/2011/09/obama-nominates-jacqueline-nguyen-to-ninth-circuit.html
  17. ^ http://www.senate.gov/legislative/LIS/roll_call_lists/roll_call_vote_cfm.cfm?congress=112&session=2&vote=00088
  18. ^ Presidential Nominations and Withdrawal sent to the Senate, White House press release (April 14, 2010).
  19. ^ Geidner, Chris (August 1, 2011). "Judicial Symbolism".  
  20. ^ Geidner, Chris (April 16, 2010). "Breaking Barriers: Edward DuMont, praised by colleagues as "brilliant," would be the first openly gay federal appellate judge in the country".  
  21. ^ http://www.law.com/jsp/law/sign_me_in.jsp?article=http://www.law.com/jsp/nlj/PubArticleNLJ.jsp?id=1202531041506&rss=newswire&slreturn=1
  22. ^ Gilbert, Craig (July 18, 2011). "Ron Johnson "filibuster" of Nourse nomination to federal bench draws fire".  
  23. ^ Holman, Rhonda (July 29, 2011). "Steve Six deserved better".  
  24. ^ http://www.senate.gov/legislative/LIS/roll_call_lists/roll_call_vote_cfm.cfm?congress=113&session=2&vote=00130
  25. ^ Sonmez, Felicia (December 6, 2011). "Senate Republican filibuster blocks Obama D.C. Circuit nominee Caitlin Halligan".  
  26. ^ http://www.senate.gov/legislative/LIS/roll_call_lists/roll_call_vote_cfm.cfm?congress=112&session=1&vote=00222
  27. ^ http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2012/06/11/president-obama-nominates-two-serve-us-court-appeals-district-columbia-c
  28. ^ Senate Record for August 2, 2012
  29. ^ http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2012/09/19/presidential-nominations-sent-senate-0
  30. ^ http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2013/03/22/presidential-withdrawal-sent-senate
  31. ^ a b Republicans block another nominee to the D.C. Circuit
  32. ^ a b Republicans Charge Obama With Court-Packing For Trying To Fill Empty Seats
  33. ^ "U.S. Senate Roll Call Votes 113th Congress - 1st Session". Secretary of the Senate. 
  34. ^ "U.S. Senate Roll Call Votes 113th Congress - 2nd Session". Secretary of the Senate. 
  35. ^ a b Zernike, Kate (January 5, 2012). "Senator Menendez Stalls Obama Move to Promote Judge Patty Shwartz". The New York Times. 
  36. ^ Zernike, Kate (January 13, 2012). "Senator Menendez Says He Will Back Obama Judge Pick". The New York Times. 
  37. ^ Senate Judiciary Committee
  38. ^ Renomination announcement
  39. ^ President Obama Nominates Justice Barbara Milano Keenan for United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit, whitehouse.gov (September 14, 2009).
  40. ^ U.S. Senate Roll Call Votes 111th Congress - 2nd Session, Vote Number 29: Motion to Invoke Cloture on the Nomination of Barbara Milano Keenan, senate.gov (March 2, 2010).
  41. ^ U.S. Senate Roll Call Votes 111th Congress - 2nd Session, Vote Number 30: Confirmation Barbara Milano Keenan, senate.gov (March 2, 2010).
  42. ^ a b Frank Green and Jeff E. Schapiro, Keenan confirmed for 4th Circuit judgeship, Richmond Times-Dispatch (March 3, 2010).
  43. ^ President Obama Announces David Hamilton for the United States 7th Circuit Court of Appeals whitehouse.gov (March 17, 2009).
  44. ^ U.S. Senate Roll Call Votes 111th Congress - 1st Session, Vote Number 349: Motion to Invoke Cloture on the Nomination of David F. Hamilton, senate.gov (November 17, 2009).
  45. ^ a b U.S. Senate Roll Call Votes 111th Congress - 1st Session, Vote Number 350: Confirmation David F. Hamilton, senate.gov (November 19, 2009).
  46. ^ Kate Phillips, Senate Confirms Judge to Appeals Court, The Caucus Blog - New York Times (November 19, 2009).
  47. ^ Foon Rhee, President picks moderate as first judicial nominee, The Boston Globe (March 17, 2009).
  48. ^ Warren Richey, Senate OK's David Hamilton to be US appeals court judge, The Christian Science Monitor (November 19, 2009).
  49. ^ http://www.metnews.com/articles/2012/hurw060812.htm
  50. ^ http://legaltimes.typepad.com/blt/2012/06/senate-gears-up-for-fight-over-ninth-circuit-judicial-nominee.html
  51. ^ http://www.senate.gov/legislative/LIS/roll_call_lists/roll_call_vote_cfm.cfm?congress=112&session=2&vote=00118
  52. ^ http://www.senate.gov/galleries/pdcl/
  53. ^ http://www.senate.gov/legislative/LIS/roll_call_lists/roll_call_vote_cfm.cfm?congress=112&session=2&vote=00186
  54. ^ http://legaltimes.typepad.com/blt/2012/07/senate-blocks-tenth-circuit-nominee-could-be-last-such-vote-until-after-election.html
  55. ^ http://www.senate.gov/legislative/LIS/roll_call_lists/roll_call_vote_cfm.cfm?congress=112&session=2&vote=00018
  56. ^ http://www.senate.gov/legislative/LIS/roll_call_lists/roll_call_vote_cfm.cfm?congress=112&session=2&vote=00019
  57. ^ Palmer, Alyson. "Jill Pryor blocked from 11th Circuit". 
  58. ^ Malloy, Daniel. "Ga. Dems demand input on judicial nominees, "shocked" at White House deal with senators". The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. 
  59. ^ http://www.13wham.com/news/local/story/monroe-county-rocheser-mike-green-judgeship-denied/OkCbxgqgQ0qpZnKcqip9kw.cspx
  60. ^ http://www.democratandchronicle.com/article/20111219/NEWS01/111219012/DA-Mike-Green-blames-politics-scuttling-nomination?odyssey=tab|topnews|text|Home
  61. ^ "Obama Withdraws nomination of Charles Day for Maryland District Court".  
  62. ^ Myers, Jim (February 18, 2011). "Former governor first approached judicial nominee".  
  63. ^ a b Myers, Jim (February 3, 2011). "Obama nominee for Tulsa federal judge post draws criticism".  
  64. ^ a b c Ingram, David (February 3, 2011). "Obama Bucks Home-State Senators on Judicial Nominee".  
  65. ^ a b Marrero, Diana; Marley, Patrick (October 2, 2009). "Butler nomination for U.S. district judge draws heat".  
  66. ^ http://www.mainjustice.com/2011/10/13/three-u-s-judgeships-in-georgia-seem-likely-to-remain-vacant/
  67. ^ Nomination announcement from whitehouse.gov
  68. ^ Nevada Appeal
  69. ^ Withdrawal announcement from whitehouse.gov
  70. ^ "President Obama Nominates Seven to the United States District Courts". WhiteHouse.gov. Retrieved November 15, 2012. 
  71. ^ Turner, Jim (November 14, 2012). "Obama Taps William L. Thomas for Federal Bench in South Florida". Sunshine State News. Retrieved November 15, 2012. 
  72. ^ "Openly Gay Miami-Dade Judge Nominated As Federal Judge". CBS Miami. November 14, 2012. Retrieved November 15, 2012. 
  73. ^ Weaver, Jay; Rothaus, Steve (November 14, 2012). "Openly gay Miami-Dade Circuit Judge William L. Thomas nominated as federal judge". Miami Herald. Retrieved November 15, 2012. 
  74. ^ Alex Leary, Times Washington Bureau Chief View all Articles (2013-09-19). "Rubio releases hold on African-American judicial candidate but continues to block another | Tampa Bay Times". Tampabay.com. Retrieved 2013-12-05. 
  75. ^ White House Gives Up On William Thomas, Gay Black Judicial Nominee Blocked By Marco Rubio
  76. ^ President Obama Nominates Three to Serve on the United States District Court, White House, June 26, 2013
  77. ^ Doyle, Michael (September 25, 2013). "New questions raised about South Carolina federal court nominee".  
  78. ^ Watkins, Ali (July 17, 2014). "US Sen. Tim Scott joins opposition to nomination of SC judge for federal post".  
  79. ^ Presidential Nominations and Withdrawal Sent to the Senate, White House, September 18, 2014
  80. ^ a b Mulligan, John E. (March 10, 2010). "Obama nominates McConnell to federal district court".  
  81. ^ Stout, David (May 5, 2011). "R.I. Lawyer Finally Wins U.S. Judgeship Over GOP Opposition". Main Justice. Retrieved May 7, 2011. 
  82. ^ Ingram, David (May 4, 2011). "Trial Lawyer Judicial Nominee Overcomes Threatened Filibuster".  
  83. ^ Mulligan, John E. (September 13, 2010). "R.I. attorney John McConnell renominated to federal judgeship".  
  84. ^ Bob Egelko, Obama will renominate Edward Chen to be judge, San Francisco Chronicle (January 9, 2010).
  85. ^ http://www.senate.gov/galleries/pdcl/index.htm
  86. ^ http://azstarnet.com/news/local/josh-brodesky-kyl-stonewalls-judge-in-waiting/article_e968a5fb-a40b-56d3-b925-f347b351a1b9.html
  87. ^ http://cronkitenewsonline.com/2012/03/judicial-nomination-languishes-nine-months-without-senate-hearing/
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