World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Bas van Fraassen

Article Id: WHEBN0001403783
Reproduction Date:

Title: Bas van Fraassen  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Analytic philosophy, Philosophy of science, Scientific realism, Wilfrid Sellars, Philosophy of physics
Collection: 1941 Births, 20Th-Century Philosophers, 21St-Century Philosophers, American Logicians, American Philosophers, American Roman Catholics, Analytic Philosophers, Christian Philosophers, Converts to Roman Catholicism, Dutch Logicians, Dutch Philosophers, Dutch Roman Catholics, Living People, Members of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, People from Goes, Philosophers of Science, Philosophy of Physics, Princeton University Faculty, Roman Catholic Philosophers, San Francisco State University Faculty, University of Alberta Alumni, University of Pittsburgh Alumni, University of Southern California Faculty, University of Toronto Faculty, Yale University Faculty
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Bas van Fraassen

Bas van Fraassen
Born (1941-04-05) 5 April 1941
Goes, Netherlands
Era 21st-century philosophy
Region Western philosophy
School Analytic philosophy
Main interests
Notable ideas

Bastiaan Cornelis van Fraassen (born 5 April 1941) is Distinguished Professor of Philosophy at San Francisco State University and the McCosh Professor of Philosophy Emeritus at Princeton University, noted for his seminal contributions to philosophy of science.

Contents

  • Biography and career 1
  • Philosophical work 2
  • Published books 3
  • See also 4
  • Notes 5
  • External links 6

Biography and career

Van Fraassen earned his B.A. (1963) from the University of Alberta and his M.A. (1964) and Ph.D. (1966, under the direction of Adolf Grünbaum) from the University of Pittsburgh. He previously taught at Yale University, the University of Southern California, the University of Toronto and, from 1982 to 2008, at Princeton University, where he is now emeritus.[1] At San Francisco State University, he teaches courses in the philosophy of science, philosophical logic and the role of models in scientific practice.[2][3]

Van Fraassen is an adult convert to the Roman Catholic Church[4] and is one of the founders of the Kira Institute. He is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences; an overseas member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences since 1995;[5] and a member of the Académie Internationale de Philosophie des Sciences ("International Academy of the Philosophy of Science").[6] In 1986, van Fraassen received the Lakatos Award for his contributions to the philosophy of science and, in 2012, the Philosophy of Science Association's inaugural Hempel Award for lifetime achievement in philosophy of science.[7]

Among his many students are the philosophers Elisabeth Lloyd at Indiana University and Anja Jauernig at New York University.

Philosophical work

Van Fraassen coined the term "constructive empiricism" in his 1980 book The Scientific Image, in which he argued for agnosticism about the reality of unobservable entities. That book was "widely credited with rehabilitating scientific anti-realism."[8] As the Stanford Encyclopedia explains: "The constructive empiricist follows the logical positivists in rejecting metaphysical commitments in science, but she parts with them regarding their endorsement of the verificationist criterion of meaning, as well as their endorsement of the suggestion that theory-laden discourse can and should be removed from science. Before van Fraassen's The Scientific Image, some philosophers had viewed scientific anti-realism as dead, because logical positivism was dead. Van Fraassen showed that there were other ways to be an empiricist with respect to science, without following in the footsteps of the logical positivists."[9]

In his 1989 book Laws and Symmetry, van Fraassen, a philosopher of science, attempted to lay the ground-work for explaining physical phenomena without assuming that such phenomena are caused by rules or laws which can be said to cause or govern their behavior. Focusing on the problem of underdetermination, he argued for the possibility that theories could have empirical equivalence but differ in their ontological commitments. He rejects the notion that the aim of science is to produce an account of the physical world that is literally true, but rather that its aim is to produce theories that are empirically adequate.[10] Van Fraassen has also studied the philosophy of quantum mechanics, philosophical logic, and epistemology.

Van Fraassen has been the editor of the Journal of Philosophical Logic and co-editor of the Journal of Symbolic Logic.[11]

In his paper Singular Terms, Truth-value Gaps, and Free Logic, van Fraassen opens with a very brief introduction of the problem of non-referring names.

Instead of any unique formalization, though, he simply adjusts the axioms of a standard predicate logic such as that found in Quine's Methods of Logic. Instead of an axiom like \forall x\,Px \Rightarrow \exists x\,Px he uses ( \forall x\,Px \and \exists x\,(x = a)) \Rightarrow \exists x\,Px; this will naturally be true if the existential claim of the antecedent is false. If a name fails to refer, then an atomic sentence containing it, that is not an identity statement, can be assigned a truth value arbitrarily. Free logic is proved to be complete under this interpretation.

He indicates that, however, he sees no good reason to call statements which employ them either true or false. Some have attempted to solve this problem by means of many-valued logics; van Fraassen offers in their stead the use of supervaluations. Questions of completeness change when supervaluations are admitted, since they allow for valid arguments that do not correspond to logically true conditionals [12]

In his essay "The Anti-Realist Epistemology of van Fraassen's The Scientific Image ", Paul M. Churchland, one of van Fraassen's critics, contrasted van Fraassen's idea of unobservable phenomena with the idea of merely unobserved phenomena.[13]

Published books

  • Scientific Representation: Paradoxes of Perspective, OUP, 2008.
  • The Empirical Stance, Yale University Press, 2002.
  • Quantum Mechanics: An Empiricist View, Oxford University Press, 1991.
  • Laws and Symmetry, Oxford University Press 1989.
    French translation and introduction by C. Chevalley. Paris: Vrin, 1994.
  • The Scientific Image, Oxford University Press 1980.
    Co-winner, Franklin J. Matchette Prize for Philosophical Books, 1982.
    Co-winner, Imre Lakatos Award for 1986.
    Italian Edition, with new preface, Bologna 1985.
    Japanese Edition, with new preface, Tokyo 1987.
    Spanish Edition, Mexico, 1995.
    Chinese Edition, Shanghai, 2002
    Portuguese Edition, São Paulo, 2007
    Greek Edition, Athens, 2007
  • Derivation and Counterexample: An Introduction to Philosophical Logic (with Karel Lambert), Dickenson Publishing Company, Inc. 1972.
  • Formal Semantics and Logic, Macmillan, New York 1971
    Spanish Translation, Mexico (Universitat Nacional Autonoma de Mexico), tr. J.A. Robles, 1987.
  • An Introduction to the Philosophy of Time and Space, Random House, New York 1970.
    Spanish Translation, Barcelona (Editorial Labor, S.A.), tr. J-P.A. Goicoechea, 1978.
    Second edition, with new preface and postscript. Columbia University Press, 1985.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ http://www.princeton.edu/~fraassen/cv/index.htm
  2. ^ SF State News at SFSU
  3. ^ SF State Campus Memo: New tenure-track faculty 2008-09
  4. ^ New Blackfriars Vol. 80, No. 938, 1999.
  5. ^ "B.C. van Fraassen". Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 17 July 2015. 
  6. ^ LES MEMBRES ACTUELS DE L'A.I.P.S.
  7. ^ Hempel Award recipients
  8. ^ http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/constructive-empiricism/
  9. ^ http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/constructive-empiricism/
  10. ^ Jarrett Leplin (1984), Scientific Realism, University of California Press, p. 1,  
  11. ^ Bas C. van Fraassen, Curriculum Vitae
  12. ^ The Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 63, No. 17, (Sept. 15, 1966), pp. 481–495
  13. ^ Churchland, Paul M., "The anti-realist epistemology of van Fraassen's The Scientific Image.", The Los Angeles Pacific Philosophical Quarterly, 63.3 (1982): 226-235.

External links

  • van Fraassen's homepage at Princeton.
  • van Fraassen's faculty page (2009) at the Department of Philosophy, San Francisco State University.
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Hawaii eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.