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Bashkir language

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Bashkir language

Bashkir
башҡорт теле, başqort tele
Native to Bashkortostan, Russia, Kazakhstan
Ethnicity Bashkirs
Native speakers
1.2 million  (2010 census)[1]
Turkic
Cyrillic
Official status
Official language in
 Bashkortostan (Russia)
Language codes
ISO 639-1 ba
ISO 639-2 bak
ISO 639-3 bak
Glottolog bash1264[2]

The Bashkir language (Башҡорт теле başqort tele, pronounced  ( )) is co-official with Russian in the Republic of Bashkortostan. It is part of the Kipchak group of the Turkic languages, and has three dialects: Eastern, Southern, and Northwestern.

Speakers

Speakers of Bashkir mostly live in the Russian republic of Bashkortostan. Many speakers also live in Chelyabinsk, Orenburg, Sverdlovsk, Samara and Kurgan Oblasts, Khanty–Mansia, Tatarstan, and Udmurtia. Minor Bashkir minority groups also live in Kazakhstan.

Orthography

Bashkirs formerly used Chagatai as a written language. In the late 19th century it was replaced with a regional variety of Turki, a literary Turkic language, which was in use until 1923. Both Chagatai and Turki were written in a variant of the Arabic script.

In 1923, a writing system based on the Arabic script was specifically created for the Bashkir language. At the same time, a Bashkir literary language was created, moving away from the older written Turkic influences. At first, it used a modified Arabic alphabet. In 1930 it was replaced with a Latin-based alphabet, which was in turn replaced with an adapted Cyrillic alphabet in the winter of 1938.

The alphabet used by Bashkir is based on the Cyrillic script, with the addition of the following letters: Ә ә [æ], Ө ө [œ], Ү ү [y], Ғ ғ [ɣ], Ҡ ҡ [q], Ң ң [ŋ], Ҙ ҙ [ð], Ҫ ҫ [θ], Һ һ [h].

Phonology

Consonants

The following table lists the consonantal phonemes of Bashkir. When two symbols are paired, the first is a voiceless consonant, the second is voiced.

The consonants of Bashkir
Labial Dental Alveolar Post-
alveolar
Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasals m n ŋ
Plosives p  b t  d k  ɡ (q)
Fricatives f  v θ  ð s  z ʃ  ʒ ɕ χ  ɣ h
Trill r
Approximants w l j
  1. /j/ may be realised varying from a glide [j] to a more vowel-like [ɪ].

Grammar

A member of the Turkic language family, Bashkir is an agglutinative, SOV language.[3] A large part of the Bashkir vocabulary comprises Turkic roots; and there are many loanwords in Bashkir from Russian, Arabic and Persian sources.

Declension of nouns

Case father mother child dog cat
Singular Nominative ата әсәй бала эт бесәй
Genitive атаның әсәйҙең баланың эттең бесәйҙең
Dative атаға әсәйгә балаға эткә бесәйгә
Accusative атаны әсәйҙе баланы этте бесәйҙе
Locative атала әсәйҙә балала эттә бесәйҙә
Ablative атанан әсәйҙән баланан эттән бесәйҙән
Plural Nominative аталар әсәйҙәр балалар эттәр бесәйҙәр
Genitive аталарҙың әсәйҙәрҙең балаларҙың эттәрҙең бесәйҙәрҙең
Dative аталарға әсәйҙәргә балаларға эттәргә бесәйҙәргә
Accusative аталарҙы әсәйҙәрҙе балаларҙы эттәрҙе бесәйҙәрҙе
Locative аталарҙа әсәйҙәрҙә балаларҙа эттәрҙә бесәйҙәрҙә
Ablative аталарҙан әсәйҙәрҙән балаларҙан эттәрҙән бесәйҙәрҙән

Declension of pronouns

Interrogative pronouns Personal pronouns
Case Who What Singular Plural
1st you (thou) he, she, it we you they
Nominative кем нимә мин һин ул беҙ һеҙ улар
Genitive кемдең нимәнең минең һинең уның беҙҙең һеҙҙең уларҙың
Dative кемгә нимәгә миңә һиңә уға беҙгә һеҙгә уларға
Accusative кемде нимәне мине һине уны беҙҙе һеҙҙе уларҙы
Locative кемдә нимәлә миндә һиндә унда беҙҙә һеҙҙә уларҙа
Ablative кемдән нимәнән минән һинән унан беҙҙән һеҙҙән уларҙан
Demonstrative pronouns
Case Singular Plural
"this" "that" "these" "those"
Nominative был ошо шул теге былар ошолар шулар тегеләр
Genitive бының ошоноң шуның тегенең быларҙың ошоларҙың шуларҙың тегеләрҙең
Dative быға ошоға шуға тегегә быларға ошоларға шуларға тегеләргә
Accusative быны ошоно шуны тегене быларҙы ошоларҙы шуларҙы тегеләрҙе
Locative бында ошонда шунда тегендә быларҙа ошоларҙа шуларҙа тегеләрҙә
Ablative бынан ошонан шунан тегенән быларҙан ошоларҙан шуларҙан тегеләрҙән

References

  1. ^ Bashkir at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Bashkir". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  3. ^ "Overview of the Bashkir Language". Learn the Bashkir Language & Culture. Transparent Language. Retrieved 4 Nov 2011. 

Further reading

External links

  • Swadesh list (Bashkir)
  • Bashkir language's study (Russian)
  • "Bashkir Byki Deluxe 4" software
  • Computerized database of the Bashkir language
  • Russian-Bashkir dictionary online (Russian)
  • Bashkir-Russian & Russian-Bashkir dictionaries online (Russian)
  • Bashkir-Deutsch & Deutsch-Bashkir dictionaries online (German)
  • Bashkir vocabulary
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